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6. That the ancient mode of trial by jury shall be held sacred, and the right thereof remain inviolate.

7. That printing presses shall be free to every person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the Legislature, or any branch of government; and no law shall ever be made to restrain the right thereof. The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable rights of man, and every

citizen

may freely speak, write, and print, on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

8. In prosecutions for the publication of papers investigating the official conduct of officers, or men in a public capacity, or where the matter published is proper for public information, the truth thereof may be given in evidence; and in all indictments for libels, the jury shall have a right to determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the court, as in other cases.

9. That the people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions, from unreasonable seizures and searches; and that no warrant to search any place or to seize any person or thing, shall issue without describing them as nearly as may be, nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation.

10. That in all criminal prosecutions, the accused hath a right to be heard by himself and counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him: to meet the witnesses face to face ; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and, in prosecutions by indictment or information, a speedy public trial, by an impartial jury of the vicinage; that he cannot be compelled to give evidence against himself; nor can he be deprived of his life, liberty, or property, unless by the judgment of his peers, or the law of the land.

11. That no person shall, for any indictable offence, be proceeded against criminally by information, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or the militia, when in actual service, in time of war or public danger, by leave of the court, for oppression or misdemeanor in office.

12. No person shall, for the same offence, be twice put in jeopardy of his life or limb, nor shall any man's property be taken or applied to public use without the consent of his representatives, and without just compensation being previously made to him.

13. That all courts shall be open, and every person for an injury done him in his lands, goods, person, or reputation, shall have remedy by the due course of law; and right and justice administered without sale, denial, or delay.

14. That no power of suspending laws shall be exercised, unless by the Legislature or its authority.

15. That excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel punishments inflicted.

16. That all prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient securities, unless for capital offences, when the proof is evident, or presumption great: and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

17. That the person of a debtor, where there is not strong presimption of fraud, shall not be continued in prison after delivering up his estate for the benefit of his creditors, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

18. That no ex post facto law, nor any law impairing contracts, shall be made.

19. That no person shall be attainted of treason or felony by the Legislature.

20. That no attainder shall work corruption of blood, nor, exoept during the life of the offender, forfeiture of estate to the commonwealth.

21. That the estates of such persons as shall destroy their own lives, shall descend or vest as in case of natural death; and if any person shall be killed by casualty, there shall be no forfeiture by reason thereof.

22. That the citizens have a right in a peaceable manner to assemble together for their common good, and to apply to those invested with the

powers

of government for redress of grievances or other proper purposes, by petition, address, or remonstrance.

23. That the rights of the citizens to bear arms in defense of themselves and the State shall not be questioned.

24. That no standing army shall, in time of peace, be kept up without the consent of the Legislature; and the military shall, in all cases and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.

25. That no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

26. That the Legislature shall not grant any title of nobility or hereditary distinction, nor create any office, the appointment to which shall be for a longer term than during good behavior.

27. That emigration from this State shall not be prohibited.

28. To guard against transgressions of the high powers which we have delegated, we declare, that every thing in this article is excepted out of the general powers af government, and shall forever remain inviolate; and that all laws contrary thereto, or contrary to this Constitution, shall be void.

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Ohio is the most populous, wealthy and improved State west of the Alleghany mountains. The first white settlement was made in 1788, yet now it is the third State in the union in population. In 1799 Ohio formed a territorial government, and in 1802 adopted its Constitution, and was admitted into the union.

Area, 40,000 sq. m. Pop. in 1840, 726,762.

CONSTITUTION.

ARTICLE I. Sec. 1. The legislative authority of this State shall be yested in a General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives, both to be elected by the people.

2. Within one year after the first meeting of the General Assembly, and within every subsequent term of four years, an enumeration of all the white male inhabitants above twenty-one years

shall be made, in such manner as shall be directed by law. The number of representatives shall, at the several periods of making such enumeration, be fixed by the Legislature, and apportioned among the several counties, according to the number of white male inhabitants of above

of age

twenty-one years of age in each ; and shall never be less than twentyfour nor greater than thirty-six, until the number of white male in habitants of above twenty-one years of age shall be twenty-two thou sand; and after that event, at such ratio that the whole number of representatives shall never be less than thirty-six, nor exceed seventytwo.

3. The representatives shall be chosen annually, by the citizens of each county respectively, on the second Tuesday of October.

4. No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and be a citizen of the United States, and an inhabitant of this State; shall also have resided within the limits of the county in which he shall be chosen, one year next preceding his election, unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this State, and shall have paid a State or county tax!

5. The senators shall be chosen biennially, by qualified voters for representatives; and, on their being convened in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided by lot from their respective counties or districts, as near as can be, into twoʻclasses; the seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the first year,

and of the second class at the expiration of the second year; so that one-half thereof, as near as possible, may be chosen annually forever thereafter.

6. The number of senators shall, at the several periods of making the enumeration before mentioned, be fixed by the Legislature and apportioned among the several counties or districts to be established by law, according to the number of white male inhabitants of the age of twenty-one years in each, and shall never be less than onethird nor more than one-half of the number of representatives.

7. No person shall be a senator who has not arrived at the age of thirty years, and is a citizen of the United States; shall have resided two years in the district or county immediately preceding the election, unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this State, and shall moreover have paid a State or county tax.

8. The Senate and House of Representatives, when assembled, shall each choose a Speaker and its other officers, be judges of the qualifications and elections of its members, and sit upon its own adjournments; two-thirds of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members.

9. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish them. The yeas and nays of the members, on any question, shall, at the desire of any two of them, be entered on the journals.

10. Any two members of either house shall have liberty to dissent from and protest against any act or resolution which they may think injurious to the public or any individual, and have the reasons of their dissent entered on the journals.

11. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same cause; and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the Legislature of a free and independent State.

12. When vacancies happen in either house, the Governor or the person exercising the powers of the Governor, shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

13. Senators and representatives shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during the session of the General Assembly, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate, in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

her house, 14. Each house may punish, by imprisonment, during their ses sion, any person, not a member, who shall be guilty of disrespect to the house, by any disorderly or contemptuous behavior in their presence; provided such imprisonment shall not, at any one time, exceed twenty-four hours.

15. The doors of each house, and of committees of the whole, shall be kept open, except in such cases as, in the opinion of the house, may require secrecy. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than two days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 16. Bills may originate in either house, but may be altered, other.

e 17. Every bill shall be read on three different days, in each house, unless, in case of urgency, three-fourths of the house where such bill is so depending shall deem it expedient to dispense with this rule; and every bill having passed both houses, shall be signed by the speakers of their respective houses.

18. The style of the laws of this State shall be, “ Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio."

19. The Legislature of this State shall not allow the following officers of government greater annual salaries than as follows, until the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, to wit; the Governor not more than one thousand dollars; the judges of the Supreme Court not more than one thousand dollars each; the presidents of the courts of common pleas not more than eight hundred dollars each; the Secretary of State not more than five hundred dollars ; the auditor of public accounts not more than seven hundred and fifty dollars; the treasurer not more than four hundred and fifty dollars; no member of the Legislature shall receive more than two dollars per day during his attendance on the Legislature, nor more for every twenty-five miles he shall travel in going to and returning from the General Assembly.

20. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office under

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