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office, or for crimes and misdemeanors; but a majority of all the members elected shall be necessary to direct an impeachment.
2. All impeachments shall be tried by the Senate. When the Governor or Lieutenant-Governor shall be tried, the chief-justice of the Supreme Court shall preside. Before the trial of an impeachment, the members of the Court shall take an oath or affirmation truly and impartially to try and determine the charge in question according to the evidence; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to removal from office; but the party convicted shall be liable to indictment and punishment according to law.
3. For any reasonable cause, which shall not be sufficient ground for the impeachment of the judges of any of the courts, the Governor shall remove any of them on the address of two-thirds of each branch of the Legislature; but the cause or causes for which such removal
may be required shall be stated at length in the address. 4. The Legislature shall provide by law for the removal of justices of the peace and other county and township officers, in such manner and for such cause as to them shall seem just and proper.
ARTICLE IX.-Militia. SEC. 1. The Legislature shall provide by law for organizing and disciplining the militia, in such manner as they shall deem expedient, not incompatible with the Constitution and laws of the United States.
2. The Legislature shall provide for the efficient discipline of the officers, commissioned and non-commissioned, and musicians, and may provide by law for the organization and discipline of volunteer companies.
3. Officers of the militia shall be elected or appointed in such manner as the Legislature shall from time to time direct, and shall be commissioned by the Governor.
4. The Governor shall have power to call forth the militia, to execute the laws of the State, to suppress insurrections, and repel invasions.
ARTICLE X.- Education. Sec. 1. The Governor shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Legislature in joint vote, shall appoint a superintendent of public instruction, who shall hold his office for two years, and whose duties shall be prescribed by law.
2. The Legislature shall encourage, by all suitable means, the promotion of intellectual, scientifical, and agricultural improvement. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may be granted by the United States to this State, for the support of schools, which shall hereafter be sold or disposed of, shall be and remain a perpetual fund; the interest of which, together with the rents of all
such unsold lands, shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of schools throughout the State.
3. The Legislature shall provide for a system of common schools, by which a school shall be kept up and supported in each school district, at least three months in every year; and any school district neglecting to keep up and support such a school, may be deprived of its equal proportion of the interest of the public fund.
4. As soon as the circumstances of the State will permit, the Legislature shall provide for the establishment of libraries; one at least in each township; and the money which shall be paid by persons as an equivalent for exemption from military duty, and the clear proceeds of all fines assessed in the several counties for any breach of the penal laws, shall be exclusively applied to the support of said libraries.
5. The Legislature shall take measures for the protection, improvement, or other disposition of such lands as have been or may hereafter be reserved or granted by the United States to this State for the support of a university; and the funds accruing from the rents or sale of such lands, or from any other source for the purpose aforesaid, shall be and remain a permanent fund for the support of said university, with such branches as the public convenience may hereafter demand for the promotion of literature, the arts and sciences, and as may be authorized by the terms of such grant. And it shall be the duty of the Legislature, as soon as may be, to provide effectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the funds of said university.
ARTICLE XI.-Prohibition of Slavery. Sec. 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever be introduced into this State, except for the punishment of crimes of which the party shall have been duly convicted.
ARTICLE XII.-Miscellaneous Provisions. Sec. 1. Members of the Legislature, and all officers, executive and judicial, except such inferior officers as may by law be exempted, shall
, before they enter on the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation: “I do solemnly swear, or affirm, (as the case may be,) that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of this State, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of the office of according to the best of my ability." And no other oath, declaration, or test, shall be required as a qualification for any office or public trust
2. The Legislature shall pass no act of incorporation, unless with the assent of at lcast two-thirds of each house.
3. Internal improvement shall be encourged by the government of this State; and it shall be the duty of the Legislature, as soon as may be, to make provision by law for ascertaining the proper objects
of improvement in relation to roads, canals, and navigable waters; and it shall also be their duty to provide by law for an equal, systematic, and economical application of the funds which may be appropriated to these objects.
4. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and an accurate statement of the receipts and expenditures of the public money shall be attached to and published with the laws annually.
5. Divorces shall not be granted by the Legislature; but the Legislature may by law authorize the higher courts to grant them, under such restrictions as they may deem expedient.
6. No lottery shall be authorized by this State, nor shall the sale of lottery tickets be allowed.
7. No county now organized by law shall ever be reduced, by the organization of new counties, to less than four hundred
miles. 8. The Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, and Auditor-General shall keep their offices at the seat of government.
9. The seat of government for this State shall be at Detroit, or at such other place or places as may be prescribed by law, until the year eighteen hundred and forty-seven, when it shall be permanently located by the Legislature.
10. The first Governor and Lieutenant-Governor shall hold their offices until the first Monday of January, eighteen hundred and thirty-eight, and until others shall be elected and qualified; and thereafter, they shall hold their offices for two years, and until their successors shall be elected and qualified.
11. When a vacancy shall happen, occasioned by the death, resignation, or removal from office of any person holding office under this State, the successor thereto shall hold his office for the period which his predecessor had to serve, and no longer, unless again chosen or re-appointed.
ARTICLE XIII.--Mode of Amending and Revising the Constitution. Sec. 1. Any amendment or amendments to this Constitution may be proposed in the Senate or House of Representatives; and if the same shall be agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each of the two houses, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be entered on their journals, with the yeas and nays taken thereon, and referred to the Legislature then next to be chosen; and shall be published for three months previous to the time of making such choice. And if, in the Legislature next chosen as aforesaid, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to by two-thirds of all the members elected to each house, then it shall be the duty of the Legislature to submit such proposed amendment or amendments to the people, in such manner and at such time as the Legislature shall prescribe ; and if the people shall approve and ratify such amendment or amendments, by a majority of the electors qualified to vote for members of the Legislature, voting thereon, such amendment or amendments shall become part of the Constitution.
2. And if at any time two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives shall think it necessary to revise or change this entire Constitution, they shall recommend to the electors, at the next election for members of the Legislature, to vote for or against a convention; and if it shall appear that a majority of the electors voting at such election have voted in favor of calling a convention, the Legislature shall at its next session provide by law for calling a convention to be holden within six months after the passage of such law; and such convention shall consist of a number of members not less than that of both branches of the Legislature.
We, the people of the State of Missouri, by our delegates in Convention assembled, do ordain and establish the following Constitution :
ARTICLE I.-Of Boundaries. Sec. 1. We do declare, establish, ratify and confirm the following as the permanent boundaries of the State of Missouri : “ Beginning in the middle of the Mississippi river, on the parallel of thirty-six degrees of north latitude; thence west along the said parallel of latitude to the St. Francois river, thence up and following the course of that river, in the middle of the main channel thereof, to the parallel of latitude of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes; thence west along the same, to a point where the said parallel is intersected by a meridian line passing through the middle of the mouth of the Kansas river, where the same empties into the Missouri river; thence from the point aforesaid, north along the said meridian line to the middle of the main channel of the Missouri river ; thence up and following the course of said stream, in the middle of the main channel thereof, to the intersection of the parallel of latitude which passes through the rapids of the river Des Moines; thence east from the point of intersection last aforesaid, along the said parallel of latitude, to the middle of the main channel of the main fork of the said river Des Moines ; thence down along the middle of the main channel of the said river Des Moines, to the mouth of the same where it empties into the Mississippi river; thence due east to the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river; thence down and following the course of the Mississippi river, in the middle of the main channel thereof, to the place of beginning."
2. The General Assembly shall have power to appoint commissioners, to act in conjunction with commissioners from any other State, to adjust the eastern boundary of the State, and to determine what islands in the Mississippi river are within the limits of the State of Missouri.
3. The General Assembly shall have power, with the consent of the United States, to acquire additional territory, and to extend the boundary of this State so as to include such additional territory as may hereafter be acquired by the State.
4. All that territory of the State of Missouri which is bounded on the east by the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river, on the north by the line that separates townships forty-four and forty-five, on the west by a meridian line running through the middle of range six east, and on the south by the line that separates townships forty-three and forty-four north, is hereby ceded to the government of the United States, for the purpose of locating and keeping thereon the seat of government of the United States, in conformity to the sixteenth clause of the eighth section of the first article of the Constitution of the United States. This section shall not take effect until the Congress of the United States shall have assented to the same, and provided for the removal of the seat of government of the United States to the district hereby ceded to the United States.
Of the Distribution of Powers. The powers
of government shall be divided into three distinct departments, each of which shall be confined to a separate magistracy: and no person charged with the exercise of powers properly belonging to one of these departments, shall exercise any powers properly
belonging to either of the others, except in the instances hereinafter expressly directed or permitted.