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ARTICLE IX.—General Provisions.Education.

Sec. 1. Knowledge and learning, generally diffused through a community, being essential to the preservation of a free government, and diffusing the opportunities and advantages of education through the various parts of the State being highly conducive to this end, it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to provide by law for the improvement of such lands as are or herealter may be granted by the United States to this State for the use of schools, and to apply any funds which may be raised from such land, or from any other source, to the accomplishment of the object for which they are or may be intended. The General Assemoly shall from time to time pass such laws as shall be calculated to encourage intellectual, scientific, and agricultural improvements, by allowing rewards and immunities for the promotion and improvement of arts, science, commerce, manufactures, and natural history; and countenance and encourage the principles of humanity, industry, and morality.

Emancipation of Slaves. Sec. 1. The General Assembly shall have no power to pass laws for the emancipation of slaves, without the consent of the owners. They shall have no power to prevent emigrants to this State from bringing with them suchpersons as are deemed slaves by the laws of any one of the United States. They shall have power to. pass laws to permit the owners of slaves to emancipate them, saving the rights of creditors, and preventing them from becoming a public charge. They shall have power to prevent slaves from being brought to this State as merchandize, and also to oblige the owners of slaves to treat them with humanity.

2. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or his own confession in open court.

3. No person who denies the being of a God shall hold any office in the civil department of this State, nor be allowed his oath many court.

4. No money shall be drawn from the treasury buf in consequence of an appropriation by law, nor shall any appropriation of money for the support of an army be made for a longer term than two years; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public moneys shall be published with the promulgation of the laws.

5. Absence on business of this State, or of the United States, or on a visit of necessary private business, shall not cause a forfeiture of a residence once obtained.

6. No lottery shall be authorized by this State, nor shall the sale of lottery tickets be allowed.

7. Internal improvements shall be encouraged by the government of this State, and it shall be the duty of the General Assembly, as soon as may be, to make provision by law for ascertaining the proper objects of improvements in relation to roads, canals, and navigable waters; and it shall also be their duty to provide by law for an equal, systematic, and economical application of the fund which may be appropriated to these objects.

8. Returns for all elections for officers who are to be commissioned by the Governor, and for members of the General Assembly, shall be made to the Secretary of State. .

9 Within five years after the adoption of this Constitution, the laws, civil, and criminal, shall be revised, digested, and arranged, and promulgate^ in such manner as the General Assembly shall direct, and alike revision, digest, and promulgation shall be made within every subsequent period of ten years.

10. In the event of the annexation of any territory to this State, by a cession from the United States, laws may be passed extending to the inhabitants of such territory all the rights and privileges which may be required by the teMIs of such cession, anything in this Constitution to the contrarfnotynthstanding.

11. The person of a debtor, except where there is strong presumption of fraud, shall neither be imprisoned nor continued in prison alter delivering up his estate for the benefit of his creditors, in such manner as may be prescribed by law.

Revenue.

Sec. 1. All revenue shall be raised by taxation, to be fixed by law.

2. All property subject to taxation shall be taxed according to its value, that value to be ascertained in such manner as the General Assembly shall direct, making the same equal and uniform throughout the State. No one species of property from which a tax may be collected, shall be taxed higher than another species of property of equal value: Provided, the General Assembly shall have power to tax merchants, hawkers, pedlers, and privileges, in such manner as may from time to time be prescribed by law: and provided further, that no other or greater amounts of revenue shall at any time be levied, than required for the necessary expenses of government, unless by a concurrence of two-thirds of both houses of the General Assembly.

3. No poll tax shall be assessed for other than county purposes.

4. No other or greater tax shall be levied on the productions or labor of the country than may be required for expenses of inspection.

Establishment of Banks.

Sec. 1. The General Assembly may incorporate one State Bank, with such amount of capital as may be deemed necessary, and with such number of branches as may be required for public convenience, which shall become the repository of the funds belonging to, or under the control of, the State; and shall be required to loan them out throughout the State, and in each county, in proportion to representation; and they shall further have power to incorporate one other banking institution, calculated to aid and promote the great agricultural interests of the country; and the faith and credit of the State may be pledged to raise the funds necessary to carry into operation the two banks herein specified: Provided, such security can be given by the individual stockholders as will guarantjuhe State against loss or injury.

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The first settlement made in Texas was in 1792. It was a part of Mexico until 1835, when it declared itself independent. The Mexicans attempted to recover the territory in 1836. The force consisted of 1600 men, under Santa Anna. A severe battle ensued, in which more than 600 of the Mexicans were killed and 300 wounded, and Santa Anna and his men were taken prisoners. The Texan force consisted of only about 800 men, under Gen. S. Houston; their loss was only 6 killed and about 30 wounded. Texas remained a separate government until 1845, when, by mutual agreement, it was annexed to the United States, and thus became the twenty-eighth State in the union.

Area, 324,018 sq. m. Pop. about 300,000. Slaves, in 1843, 22,400.

CONSTITUTION.

We, the people of the republic of Texas, acknowledging with gratitude the grace and benifieence of God in permitting us to make a choice oi our form of government, do, in accordance with the provisions of the joint resolution for annexing Texas to the United States, approved March first, one thousand eight hundred and forty-five, ordain and establish this Constitution.

ARTICLE I.—Bill of Rights.

That the general, great, and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established, we declare that

Sec. 1. All political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their benefit; and they have at all times the inalienable right to alter, reform, or abolish their, form of government, in such manner as they may think expedient.

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