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because the case of the Siberian animals preserved | can be little doubt that the beds were accumulated with their flesh in the ice offers the same apparent either in a shallow sea, or in an estuary. From the difficulty with the glaciers; namely, the union in description given in Beechey's voyage of Eschscholtz the same hemisphere of a climate in some senses Bay, the same remark is applicable to the north-west severe, with one allowing of the life of those forms coast of America: the formation there appears idenwhich at present, although abounding without the tical with the common littoral deposits recently eletropics, do not approach the frozen zones.

vated, which I have seen on the shores of the south• The perfect preservation of the Siberian animals ern part of the same continent. It seems also well perhaps presented, till within a few years, one of established, that the Siberian remains are only exthe most difficult problems which geology ever at. posed where the rivers intersect the plain. With tempted to solve. On the one hand it was granted this faet, and the proofs of recent elevation, the whole that the carcasses had not been drifted from any case appears to be precisely similar to that of the great distance by any tumultuous deluge, and on Pampas: namely, that the carcasses were formerly the other it was assumed as certain that, when the floated into the sea, and the remains covered up animals lived, the climate must have been so totally in the deposits which were then accumulating. different, that the presence of ice in the vicinity, These beds have since been elevated; and as the was as incredible as would be the freezing of the rivers excavate their channels the entombed skeletons Ganges. Mr. Lyell, in his “ Principles of Geolo- are exposed. gy,” has thrown the greatest light on this subject,

“Here, then, is the difficulty: how were the car

casses preserved at the bottom of the sea ? I do not by indicating the northerly course of the existing rivers, with the probability that they formerly car. I think it has been sufficiently noticed, that the preservaried carcasses in the same direction ; by showing tion of the animal with its flesh was an occasional (from Humboldt) how far the inhabitants of the event, and not directly consequent on its position hottest countries sometimes wander; by insisting

far northward. Cuvier refers to the voyage of Bilon the caution necessary in judging of habits be. ling as showing that the bones of the elephant, buffalo,

and rhinoceros are nowhere so abundant as on the tween animals of the same genus, when the spe. islands between the mouths of the Lena and Indi. cies are not identical; and especially, by bringing girska. It is even said that, excepting some hills of forward in the clearest manner the probable change rock, the whole is composed of sand, ice, and bones. from an insular to an extreme climate, as the con. The islands lie to the northward of the place where sequence of the elevation of the land, of which Adams found the mammoth with its flesh preserved, proofs have lately been brought to light. • In the former part of this volume I have endeav- rhinoceros was discovered in a like condition. In

and even ten degrees north of the Wiljui, where the our ed to prove, that, as far as regards the quantity of the case of the bones we may suppose that the carfood, there is no difficulty in supposing that these casses were drifted into a deeper sea, and, there relarge quadrupeds inhabited sterile regions, producing maising at the bottom, the flesh decomposed. But but a scanty vegetation. : . I suppose no reason in the second and more extraordinary case, where can be assigned why, during a former epoch, when putrefaction seems to have been arrested, the body the pachydermata abounded over the greater part of probably was soon covered up by deposits which the world, some species should not have been fitted were then accumulating. It may be asked, whether for the northern regions, precisely as now happens the mud a few feet deep, at the bottom of a shallow with deer and several other animals. If then, we

sea which is annually frozen, has a temperature higher believe that the climate of Siberia, anteriorly to the than 320 ? It must be remembered how intense a physical changes above alluded to, had some resem-degree of cold is required to freeze salt water; and blance with that of the southern hemisphere at the that the mud at some depth below the surface would present day-a circumstance which harmonizes well have a low mean temperature, precisely in the same with other facts, as I think has been shown by the manner as the subsoil on the land is frozen in counimaginary case, when we transported existing phe- tries which enjoy a short but hot summer. If this be nomena from one to the other hemisphere, the fol- possible, the entombment of these extinct quadrupeds lowing conclusions may be deduced as probable :

is rendered very simple; and with regard to the conFirst, that the degree of cold formerly was not ex- ditions of their former existence, the principal difficessive; secondly, that snow did not for a long time culties have, I think, already been removed.'- vol. together cover the ground (such not being the case iii. pp. 293-298. at the extreme parts 550-56° of South America); thirdly, that the vegetation partook of a more tropical character than it now does in the same latitudes; and

The whole of the chapter (xvi.) on vollastly, that at but a short distance to the northward canic phenomena, and the great earthas where Pallas found the entire rhinoceros), the soil quake at Concepcion, is admirably writmight be perpetually congealed; so that if the carcass ten. It brings absolutely before us the of any animal should once be buried a few feet be- frightfully gigantic powers of subterraneneath the surface, it would be preserved for centu- an agency. We have reason to believe ries.

that Mr. Darwin means to justify what he * Both Humboldt and Lyell have remarked, that, at the present day, the bodies of any animals, wan

has said upon this perilous subject in dering beyond the line of perpetual congelation, the forthcoming part of the Geological which extends as far south as 627, if once embedded Transactions. One word as to the extent by any accident a few feet beneath the surface, would of the operations, and the comfortable be preserved for an indefinite length of time: the same would happen with carcasses drifted by the position of the inhabitants :rivers; and by such means the extinct mammalia may have been entombed. There is only one small “The extent of country throughout which the substep wanting, as it appears to me, and the whole terranean forces were thus unequivocally displayed, problem would be solved with a degree of simplicity measures 700 by 400 geographical miles. From very striking, compared with the several theories first several considerations, which I have not space here invented. From the account given by Mr. Lyell to enter on, and especially from the intermediate of the Siberian plains, with their innumerable fossil points whence liquefied matter was ejected, we can bones, the relics of many successive generations, there scarcely avoid the conclusion, however fearful it may

be, that a vast lake of melted matter, of an area near-, three were taken alive. They turned out to be mes. ly doubling in extent that of the Black Sea, is spread sengers or ambassadors from a large body of Indians, out beneath a mere crust of solid land.'-vol. iii. p. united in the common cause of defence, near the 380.

Cordillera. The tribe to which they had been sent

was on the point of holding a grand council; the A pleasant locality this for a building feast of mare's flesh was ready, and the dance pre speculation !

pared: in the morning the ambassadors were to have But it is not to the scientific alone that returned to the Cordillera. They were remarkably Mr. Darwin's volume will prove highly in- thirty years of age. The three survivors of course

fine men, very fair, above six feet high, and all under teresting. The general reader will find in possessed very valuable information ; and to extort it a fund of amusement and instruction. this they were placed in a line. The two first being Mr. Darwin is a first-rate landscape-paint- questioned, answered, “No se" (I do not know.) er with the pen. Even the dreariest sol- said, “ No se;" adding, “ Fire, I am a man, and can itudes are made to teem with interest. die!" Not one syllable would they breathe to injure Nor less striking are his accounts of the the united cause of their country!--pp. 120, 121. state of society in South America, espe We must not be tempted farther :-here cially those which relate to the murder- we close an imperfect notice of one of the ous hatred mutually felt and exercised most interesting narratives of voyaging towards each other by the aborigines and that it has fallen to our lot to take up, and those whom they justly consider usurp: which must always occupy a distinguishers, but who look upon them more as wild ed space in the history of scientific navibeasts than fellow-men. An intelligent gation. Spaniard gave him the following account of the last engagement at which he was present. It is a sickening example of .man's inhumanity to man:'

• Some Indians, who had been taken prisoners, gave information of a tribe living north of the Colo- Art. VIII.-1. Austria and the Austrians. rado. Two hundred soldiers were sent; and they In 2 vols. London. 1837. first discovered the Indians by a cloud of dust from 2. Hungary and Transylvania, with Re. their horses' feet, as they chanced to be travelling. The country was mountainous and wild, and it must marks on their Condition, Social, Polithave been far in the interior, for the Cordillera was ical, and Economical. By John Paget, in sight. The Indians, men, women, and children,

Esq. In 2 vols. London. 1839. were about one hundred and ten in number, and they were nearly all taken or killed, for the soldiers 3. Austria. By Peter Evan Turnbull, sabre every man. The Indians are now so terrified, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. In 2 vols. London. that they offer no resistance in a body, but each flies, 1839. neglecting even his wife and children; but when 4. Germany, Bohemia, and Hungary, visovertaken, like wild animals, they fight against any number to the last moment. One dying Indian

ited in 1837. By the Rev. G. R. Gleig, seized with his teeth the thumb of his adversary, and A.M., Chaplain to the Royal Hospital, allowed his own eyes to be forced out, sooner than Chelsea. In 3 vols. London. 1839. relinquish his hold. Another, who was woninded, 5. Vienna and the Austrians, with some feigned death, keeping a knife ready to strike one more fatal blow. My informer said, when he was Account of a Journey through Swabia, pursuing an Indian, the man cried out for mercy, at Bavaria, the Tyrol, and the Salzbourg. the same time that he was covertly loosing the bolas

By Frances Trollope. In 2 vols. Lonfrom his waist, meaning to whirl it round his head,

don. 1838. and so strike his pursuer. “I however struck him with my sabre to the ground, and then got off my We start on our present expedition into horse, and cut his throat with my knife.” dark picture ; but how much more shocking is the Austria with a company as varied, nough unquestionable fact, that all the women who appear not quite so numerous, as that which set above twenty years old are massacred in cold blood. forth with Chaucer on his memorable pilWhen I exclaimed that this appeared rather inhuman, he answered, “Why, what can be done? They grimage to Canterbury. We have, first, breed so!"-pp. 119, 120.

a regular London book-maker, who fills a Who,' exclaims our author, “would chapter on Austrian aristocracy with an

account of Mad. B. Constant's Parisian believe in this age, in a civilized country, soirée, and illustrates the Vienna stage by that such atrocities were committed ?'

about Schiller's Mary StuBut they are committed, and upon a race art ;-secondly, a gentleman in the tranwho are not without the highest manly sition state between an English squire and qualities. The stern virtue of an ancient an Hungarian Freyherr-exhibiting spirit, Roman could not have surpassed the he- cleverness, and a dash of chivalry, based roism here recorded :

on the solid foundation of information and In the battle four men ran away together. They good sense ;-thirdly, a grave F.R.S., were pursued, and one was killed, but the other loaded with foreign statistics enough to

sixteen pages

make Dr. Bowring jealons, and foreign lordships without end. It is enough that political information that might well make the present emperor rules over more than Lord Palmerston ashamed ;--fourthly, a 35,000,000 of subjects of all degrees of cispecimen of the true church militant, the vilisation and all modes of faith ;-enough divine engrafted on the soldier, combining -perhaps more than enough, for those the love of adventure inspired by his for- who cannot form a notion of national hap. mer profession with the tone of feeling piness without sundry facilities for disafsuggested by his last ;—and fifthly, an fection which they are pleased to term libauthoress of singular acuteness and origi- erty—that his power is based, not on nality, who boasts that the Princess Met- force, but affection—not on habit or bigternich has assigned her portrait a place otry, but on an enlightened sense of benin an album hitherto devoted exclusively efits conferred ; and that the people to males.

are prosperous and contented in exact We need hardly add that so heteroge. proportion as they are placed by situaneous a company is more amusing than tion or circumstances under the direct harmonious; that they often disagree with influence of his authority ; in other one another and occasionally with them- words, that the practical advantages of selves; but far from feeling embarrassed the present system of government are in or disconcerted by their differences, we an inverse ratio to its checks. Thus, the do not despair of turning these to good hereditary dominions of the emperor, account. If in a multitude of councillors where he is all-powerful, are the most there is safety, in a multitude of witnesses thriving ; Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, there is truth that is, for those who where there is still a privileged class with know how to look for it ; and by collating some vestige of independence, only rank the summaries or results of one with the as second best ; whilst Hungary and Trandetails of another, observations with ad- sylvania, with their constituent bodies, ventures, and theories with facts, we shall their county meetings and their turbulent try to do for Austria, the autocrat of the barons, are about as far advanced in civi. south of Germany, what we not long since lisation as the English under the Plantaattempted as to Prussia,* the head of the genets. northern portion of the confederacy-de- This is the obvious and almost necesscribe the real nature of her constitution, sary result of a paternal government; and estimate the actual amount of her resour- we quite agree with Mr. Turnbull that the ces, analyse the true spirit of her society, Austrian is on the whole a paternal gov. and vindicate her government from the ernment, in the truest acceptation of the broad reproach of despotism.

term. Joseph II.—that most mischievous Archdeacon Coxe, in the preface to his and dangerous of characters, a liberal, phiMemoirs of the House of Austria,' com- losophical sovereign-had ways of his pares that House to the Danube of its na- own for making his subjects happy, and tive mountains, ' at first an inconsiderable was full as much influenced by vanity as rill, obscurely wandering amidst rocks aad philanthropy in the sweeping innovations precipices, then swelling its volume by he endeavoured to force upon them. But the accumulation of tributary streams, his nephew, Francis, acted on a widely carrying plenty and fertility to numerous different principle : in all he said or did nations, and finally pouring its mighty there was a perfect abnegation of self; waters by a hundred mouths into the Eux- equally sagacious and well-meaning, hé ine Sea. The peculiar policy to which consulted the tastes, habits, and even preit is principally indebted for its aggran- judices of his poople, as well as their real disement is indicated in the well-known wants; and preferred the homely affection lines

inspired by his quiet unassuming virtues, • Bella gerant alii: tu, felix Austria, nube;

to the dazzling glories of the conqueror, Nam quæ Mars aliis, dat tibi regna Venus.' or the deceitful halo a correspondence But it is beside our purpose to state by with foreign jurists or philosophers, a Vol what alliances, conquests, or treaties the taire or a Bentham, might have flung descenda nts of Rhodolph of Hapsburg around his name.* His first step, before contrived to mount the throne of the Cæsars, and became possessed of two an

* The termination of Voltaire's correspondence

On the cient independent kingdoms, besides arch- with Frederic the Great is well known.

Emperor of Russia's refusing to follow Jeremy duchies, principalities, countships, and Bentham's advice implicitly, the philosopher indig

nantly returned the portrait and ring which had acQuarterly Review, No. CXVI. companicd the imperial application for a code.

adopting any scheme of consequence, tried galleries, he was followed by as many was to ascertain how far the existing state as could squeeze in. Deeply touched, he of feeling would be disturbed ; and, not exclaimed to the officer at his side, 'This content with the reports of agents, he is affection—it may be that I have never took every occasion of bringing himself done good to any of them.' into personal contact with individuals of Nor must it be supposed that this perevery class. Extremes meet. There is sonal feeling was confined to the inhabitan amusing account in Major Downing's ants of the capital. More than one Jeanie Letters of the labours imposed on the Deans has wandered up from the dells of President of the United States during his the Tyrol, or the remotest confines of Boprogresses. After shaking hands for five hemia, to tell her tale of sorrow to Franz ; or six hours successively, he is obliged to and we believe there is not a corner of sit down on a sofa and suffer his hand to be his dominions, out of Italy, where they put through the required exercise by his do not still kindle at the bare mention of secretary. The Emperor Francis must his name. He had one failing, however : have undergone little less on his weekly the new-fangled French doctrines of the rece -days, when everybody, without day had given him such a horror of indistinction of rank, sex, or age, was pri- subordination, that the bare semblance or vileged to enter; and he might be seen suspicion of it was sufficient to effect an mingling amongst them with the inquiry, entire change in his disposition. Let the *Well, my children, what is there I can meanest peasant complain of the highest do for you?'—to which, as Mrs. Trollope noble, and he was sure of a patient hearassures us on the Princess Metternich's ing; but woe to the subaltern, civil or authority, the frequent answer was, 'We military, who ventured to bring a charge are not come to ask for anything, only to against his superior in command. The have the pleasure of looking at you.'

charge would be investigated, the wrongTwo incidents of his life, also related doer punished or displaced; but the subby the Princess, illustrate in the strongest altern's chances of preferment were at an light the enthusiastic affection he in- end. We need hardly add, that his Italian . spired.

subjects were the objects of his marked After a dangerous illness, which had distrust. It may be all very well,' he thrown the whole empire into dismay, he would reply to those who ventured to rewas taking an airing in a close carriage, monstrate with him against the severity when he was surrounded by a crowd exercised towards Pellico and other prisshouting their congratulations on his re-oners of state, 'to say that these are highappearance and, with uplifted hands, call-spirited, gallant men, acting from a sense ing down blessings on his head. For- of duty. Reflect on the mass of misery getting the prescribed caution, he let caused by a single insurrection, and then down the glass to thank them; but instead sày whether such attempts as theirs can of being impressed with the condescen. be too rigidly suppressed.' sion, the populace seemed to think only On one occasion Prince Metternich re. of the imprudence of the act. “No, no quested leave to allow a few books to a oh! he will catch cold, he will catch cold, state prisoner of rank, and offered to select was the cry, and those who were nearest some from his own library for the purthe carriage instantly laid violent hands pose, but the request was peremptorily on the window and forced it

up

refused. A nearly similar manifestation, render We dwell particularly on these traits, ed still more striking by the time, occur- because for years, perhaps for centuries, red on his return from the fatal campaign Francis will be regarded as the beau ideal of 1809, when the resources of the empire of an emperor: his successors will try to had been taxed to the uttermost, and her tread in his footsteps, and the mention of debest blood expended at his bidding, but in spotic rule will be associated in the minds vain. He entered Vienna in a plain car- of the people with the blessings his gov. riage, with a single attendant, hoping to ernment conferred upon them. What is escape attention, but he was recognised still more important, almost the whole exat the turning of a corner by an apple. isting system of internal administration woman, and the news spread like wildfire was established by him, and is marked through the town. In a few moments the throughout by the peculiar features of his horses were taken out and he was drag. policy. An outline of this system forms ged in triumph to the palace, into which, an essential part of the task we have unup marble staircases and through tapes- dertaken ; and, fortunately, the informa

tion supplied by Mr. Turnbull regarding nobled a great many merchants and bank. the main topics is complete. But before ers, not a few amongst them being Jews, proceeding farther, it may be as well to In fact, almost any man who chooses to specify the principal divisions of the em- pay the price may have a patent of nopire, and the classes of which the popu- bility ;* which may serve to account in lation is composed.

some measure for the exclusive spirit There are, first, the German States, which we shall find in full force in the namely, Upper and Lower Austria, Styria, capital when we come to its society, Carniola, Carinthia, the Tyrol, the Istria The condition of the clergy is next to Littoral (the country round Trieste), Mo- be considered, and the Austrian church ravia, Silesia, Bohemia, Gallicia, and Dal. establishment is well worth studying, if matia, containing altogether about fifteen only for the sake of the curious anomalies millions of inhabitants; secondly, the presented by it. The pope has always Italian states, containing about four mil. been the acknowledged head, but down lions and a half; thirdly, Hungary and to a very recent period his authority Transylvania, with a population, including seemed almost extinct; and although the “the military frontier, of between four- Vatican is at this moment straining every teen and fifteen millions.

nerve to regain its old power here as elseThe German states are under the direct where--and in some isolated cases, such control of the Imperial Chancery at Vien- as that of the Zillerdalers, the priesthood na, and are all governed by one and the have been able to produce scandalous same code of laws, civil and criminal. violations or evasions of the law-we The Italian states, which are hardly yet hope the Imperial government will suc. consolidated with the rest, are governed cessfully resist this new spirit of encroachby a viceroy, and have a jurisprudence of ment. According to the system which, their own. Hungary is a totally distinct in spite of a few audacious outrages, we kingdom, with an independent constitu- do not believe to be abrogated, Austria is tion; and Transylvania, except that it is tolerant. Every sort of employment or but a principality, stands on pretty nearly occupation, the law, the army, the civil the same footing as Hungary.

service, are, by law, open to all persons • In Austria, as in most other countries without reference to creed; and the imof Europe, the rights of the feudal pro- perial family have shown, it must be alprietors long presented a fatal barrier to lowed, by their own conduct that they improvements of every sort, whether in feel no disposition to abet the pretensions the cultivation of the soil, the diffusion of of the papacy. commerce, the administration of justice, The Archduke John, the actual Palaor the condition of the peasantry. The tine of Hungary, has had three wives; the emperors gradually contrived to abolish first was a member of the Greek church, or mitigate the most injurious of these the second of the Calvinistic communion, rights within their hereditary dominions, the third of the Lutheran. and in some of the rest in which they remind the reader of the boast of a well could venture to carry things with a high known literary character of the last cenhand; but the nobles were too strong for tury : “I am not a man of prejudices : I them in Bohemia and Moravia, until 1773, have had four wives : two catholịcs, a when a general rising of the peasantry jewess, and a methodist : two were sistook place, and the lords were compelled ters, and my second was living when I to give way to the combined influence of married my fourth.' The Archduke the popular movement and the crown. Charles was married to a Lutheran : when

In Hungary and Transylvania (which, she died, the Emperor gave orders for before concluding, we must make the the funeral rites to be performed in St. subject of a brief episode), the most op- Stephen's. The Archbishop of Vienna, at pressive of the feudal rights and restric- the request of the Nuncio, remonstrated tions exist still; but throughout the rest against the incongruity: 'Tell the Nunof the empire, the only prerogative of cio,' said the Emperor, that this is no afvalue retained by the nobles (and the fair of his : the Archduchess must be bu. Italian nobles have not even this) is ex. ried as I have directed.' She was so buemption from military conscription and from certain civil offices in the provinces.

* Mr. Paget says that the price of the title of Even the prestige of rank has been a good Baron is 20001., and that of Count 50001., but that

Baron Stultz was compelled to pay 10,0001., which deal broken of late, probably with malice strikes us to be exceedingly anjust. According to prepense, by the emperor, who has en. the old adage, he ought to have paid nine times less

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VOL. LXV.

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