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received from those who prefer this mode | from twenty-eight to thirty-eight-with of contribution. Depôts of mendicity are the exception of the nobility, who are exestablished in the principal towns, but the empt from both. The period of service aged, the infirm, and the victims of casual in the line is fourteen years, after which misfortune are relieved at their own the soldier is liable to serve in the landhouses. In addition to the endowed hos- wehr till forty; but the landwehr is rarepitals and infirmaries, medical assistance ly mustered, and only exists on paper is afforded gratis by the government, but, during peace. In 1835, the entire army except in cases of accident, the testimo- on foot, and receiving pay, amounted to nial of the parochial minister is required. 380,000: namely, infantry, 290,000; cavAnnual reports from each parish are duly alry, 38,000; artillery, 20,000; engineers, forwarded by the minister, the father of sappers, and miners, 2,500; waggon-train, the poor, and the medical attendant of artificers, &c., 30,000. each district, to their respective superiors, who forward them in turn till they arrive at the Central Board of Charities at Vienna, which sends in an annual re port to the Emperor.

The Austrian discipline has been highly commended by competent judges; but it is said that the strict rule of seniority is too often evaded, and that the aristocratical spirit is too strong. Mr. Turnbull, our first clear and accurate expounder of Austrian institutions, says:

The National Debt of Austria is something between fifty and sixty millions sterling; the yearly charge for the interest and a sinking fund, about four millions and a half. The income is about thirteen millions, thus leaving eight millions and a half of available revenue, which is supposed to fall short of the actual expenditure by nearly two millions, hitherto raised by loans. Of the gross revenue, about 4,800,000l. is raised by direct taxes on houses, land, income, and inheritances: about 4,200,000l. by indirect taxes, three or four hundred thousand pounds by lotteries, and more than two millions and a half by monopolies in salt, tobacco, and gunpowder.

Little less than 6,000,000l. sterling is required for the Army, the organization of which we must explain.

to serve.

Hungary furnishes a fixed force of 64,000 men, and 500,000/ sterling for their maintenance. The crown has also the right of proclaiming what is called the insurrection of the nobles' in the time of war, when every Hungarian noble is bound Within the district called the Military Frontier every male from eighteen to sixty, is trained to arms, and liable to serve: the permanent force, which could be called together at a few hours' notice, consists of 50,000 or 60,000; and it could be increased to four times that number on an emergency. In the Italian provinces and the Tyrol, all classes, without exception, are registered, and the required number is chosen by lot, the period of service being eight years. In the German provinces there are two registers, one for the line, comprising all males from eighteen to twentyeight-and one for the landwehr-an army of reserve, comprising all males

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'The Austrian army is open to all: but its genius is, in the same sense in which the observation may be made of the British army, as compared with the Both the crown French, decidedly aristocratical. and the proprietary colonels are inclined to give a preference to the members of those families which with us would be understood to constitute the gentry; and it is the policy of the state not only to engage in its service members of its own highest native nobility, but many princes likewise of the smaller reigning houses of Germany. What Austria wants, as does every continental country, is that beautiful system of regimental mess which is adopted in England alone -that system which unites in social intercourse, for one portion of the day, the oldest with the younges officer-which stations the junior ensign, in his turn, as president at the table, where the colonel must re ceive from his lips the law of the banquet-that sys tem which alone can inspire a frank community of sentiment, amid all the differences of years and rank; and which, curbing alike the arrogance of age and the petulance of youth, teaches all to combine the high and manly bearing of social equality with the most strict observance of military subordination.'*

The mess is certainly the grand preservative against exclusiveness. Protected by it, the English army, we believe, will almost to a man exclaim with Sir William Draper, in one of his letters to Junius, 'I feel myself happy in seeing young noblemen of illustrious name and great property, come among us: they are an additional security to the kingdom from foreign or domestic slavery. Junius need not be told that should the time ever come when this nation is to be defended only by those who have nothing more to lose than their arms and their

may be seen

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* A more detailed account of the Austrian army that very valuable publication the United Service Journal, edited by Major Shadwell Clerke. We more particularly refer to papers by Captain Basil Hall, in the Numbers for September and October, 1835, to the general accuracy of which Mr. Turnbull bears testimony. See also the Number for April, 1833.

pay, the danger will be great indeed. A ther the spirit of the laws nor the tone of happy mixture of men of quality with sol- the administration can be much open to diers of fortune is always to be wished reproach. for. Had the strict rules of seniority As regards the press, indeed, the pobeen enforced, Wolfe would not have lice has an invidious duty to perform. scaled the heights of Abraham, nor Wel- Twelve censors are established at Vienlington have led the armies of the Penin- na, to some one of whom every book pubsula. lished within the empire, whether original or reprinted, must be referred :

The censor (says Mr. Turnbull) having received the manuscript, exercises his own taste and judgment in erasure or alteration of such passages as he disapproves; and being generally some phlegmatic personage, well imbued with the genius of the government, one great object of his care is to exclude all

The police establishment costs 164,350l. sterling a year, which includes the charge for two regiments kept for the preservation of order in the Italian provinces, and the armed force maintained for the same purpose in the German States. When it is considered that the expressions which might appeal to the imagination cost of the proposed rural police for Eng-tioned to me, of a work treating of conflicts quite or passions of the reader. Thus, a case was menland and Wales alone was estimated by unconnected with the Austrian empire, where the the Commissioners at 450,000l. a-year; expression "heroic champions" was cut down to and that 610 men, including 40 horse pa- who flocked around the glorious standard of their "brave soldiers," and "a band of youthful heroes trol, do the duty of Vienna with a popu- country," became, "a considerable number of young lation of 350,000, whilst our Metropoli- men, who voluntarily enlisted themselves for the tan Police consists of 2,300, and the public service." I was even informed by a learned City of London is provided for apart, reprint of a scientific work whereof he was the professor at a foreign university, that the Austrian some doubts may reasonably be enter- author had been suspended until he consented to the tained whether the police of Austria can removal of a passage expressing, among the medical be quite such a bugbear as it has been qualities of some plant, that it was occasionally used thought. Indeed, all recent English tra- for an immoral purpose.' vellers admit that, when they had once If Mr. Turnbull will take the trouble passed the frontier, they had little cause to consult the annals of the stage, or read to complain of interruption on their the preface to Sir Martin Shee's Alasco,' route. But the government is reasona- he may chance to hear of hypercriticism bly distrustful of foreigners of the propa- on the part of English censors, well wor gandist order, particularly Frenchmen; thy to stand as parallels with the above. and if a traveller wishes to stay long in There are edicts still in force to the the country, it may be as well to keep a effect that all foreign books shall be forguard upon his tongue, and be somewhat warded to the nearest board to be examcautious as to the company he keeps. ined; but these regulations are rarely We know an instance in which a whole enforced against ordinary travellers, and company ran some risk of being stopped booksellers find little difficulty in proin consequence of the imprudence of a curing any books demanded by their cusJuly hero, who thought proper to deliver tomers, provided they do not expose a diatribe against monarchy-concluding those of an ultra-liberal tendency in their with Messieurs, c'en est fait des rois-shop-windows. Thus, Lord Byron's just as they were approaching the fron- works are prohibited, chiefly on account tier. He was sent back, not a little to his of the notes and letters, in which the Ausmortification, and somewhat to the sur-trian government is bitterly assailed; prise of the party, who were beginning but every bookseller of note keeps a large to give faith to the alleged omnipre- number of copies amongst his stock, and sence of the police, when an old colonel, has the implied sanction of the police who had remained comfortably ensconc- for disposing of them. It is not informed in his corner and apparently asleep ation, inquiry, speculation, or philosophy, during the discussion, solved the myste- unsophisticated literature, or pure sciry by stating that he had thought it right ence, that the imperial cabinet is anxious to put the officer on duty on his guard to exclude; but the intemperate discusagainst the political firebrand in the sion of political questions-dangerous coach. Instances of this sort are far enough in any country, but useless, as from rare, and they afford a key to more well as dangerous in one where the peomysteries than one. They show that ple neither have, nor wish to have, any the chief spies are the people themselves, active or direct share whatever in the cheerfully co-operating with the authori- making of their laws or the direction of ties; and wherever this is the case, nei- their affairs. We enumerated the lead

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ing literary and scientific characters of | cachet, and one of the victims of its most Austria on a former occasion. oppressive exercise was Mirabeau. Civil The same policy prevails in the man- justice is administered in Austria in agement of the periodical press. There much the same manner as in Prussia; are two newspapers published at Vienna, the judges decide in private, on written and one or two at each of the provincial allegations: the stages of appeal are capitals. The home intelligence consists many, so that, in cases of importance, of little more than official announce- the delay and expense can hardly be ments, but full accounts are given of otherwise than great. what takes place in foreign countries; We must now turn aside to make a and thus, though the Viennese radical, if short excursion into Hungary, with Mr. there be such an animal, is not permitted Paget for our guide. It would not be to indulge in diatribes against Prince well possible to choose a better, for he Metternich or Count Kollowrat, he has never suffers our interest to flag, and apfrequent opportunities of solacing him pears to have made himself accurately self with the best effusions of our crack acquainted, not only with the localities radical orators-greatly improved in style and traditions of the country, but with its and grammar by the translator. Foreign whole history and institutions, which journals are freely admitted for private present so many points of analogy to use, but none are allowed to be circulat- those of England, as really to invest the ed in coffee-rooms except such as are subject with a new and peculiar interest specially authorised. Amongst those so for an Englishman. Their Stephen corauthorised are the Algemeine Zeitung,' responds with our Alfred, and their Goldand The Times,' which was admitted en Bull with our Magna Charta. just the same when it took the lead Hungarian's house is as much his castle amongst the advocates of reform. One as an Englishman's. They have lord. of the best continental reviews Die Wie- lieutenants, sheriffs, counties, and counner Jährbücher, is published in Vienna, ty meetings like ourselves; their muniand we see no want of independence in cipal corporations resemble ours of the its tone. olden time; and their Diet is constituted The criminal code in force in the Ger- much in the same manner as the English man States was framed under the Em- parliament three or four centuries agoperor Francis, and partakes of the mild- being composed of magnates sitting in ness of his character; capital punish- their own right-members representing ments being confined to high treason, the minor landholders-and deputies from murder, and some few cases of forgery. the towns, overawed by the nobles and The most objectionable part is that re-hardly allowed a voice except in the votlating to procedure, which, as in the ing of a subsidy. But the similarity is other great states of Germany, excludes historical, not actual: though the two jury trial, oral pleading, and publicity. In nations began the race of freedom within the first stage, indeed, there is a slight seven years of one another,—the Bulla infusion of the popular element--the dis- Aurea bearing date in 1222, Magna trict tribunal by whom the accused is Charta in 1215-and neither had any oscommitted for trial being composed of a tensible advantages-we have ever since judge and two assessors taken from the been advancing, and they remain pretty most respectable inhabitants; and Mr. nearly where they were. Turnbull states that the sittings are public, except when any matter requiring secresy is before the courts. In furtherance of the paternal or patriarchal principle which lies at the root of most Aus-al state of apprehension lest the Sclavish trian institutions, the law enjoins that no portion of her subjects should be temptcharge for any domestic irregularity be ed to reunite with their kindred. The received otherwise than through the head Sclavacks were treated by the Magyars of the family; and, on occasions, will like the British by the Saxons, or the authorise the seclusion of an unruly son, Saxons by the Normans-driven from the daughter, or servant, for a week or two, most fertile parts of the country into the unknown to any body but the police. mountains, or compelled to serve the The same sort of power was formerly ex- new settlers as scrfs. There is a tradiercised in France by virtue of lettres de tion, indeed, that they were not fairly 18

Hungary was originally peopled by the Sclavacks, a branch of the great family of which Russia is the chief; and Mr. Paget tells us that Austria is in a perpetu

VOL. LXV.

beaten, but that Swaloptuk, the last of their kings, sold his kingdom to the Magyars for a white horse :

• For snow-white steed thou gav'st the land;
For golden bit, the grass;

For the rich saddle, Dura's stream;
Now bring the deed to pass.'

Mr. Paget's German servant gave this as
a reason for his detestation of the race,
which recall Dr. Johnson's suppos.
may
ed ground of aversion to the Scotch:-

'I have been anxious to show the English reader which governs in Hungary as we are led to believe that it is not so small a proportion of the whole

when we hear it called an aristocracy,-not so small as governs in democratic France [nor, as he says above, much smaller than in England] at the present moment; and as for the argument, that the nobles as a class have the power to oppress the peasantry, and that the interests of the one, when opposed to the interests of the other, are sure to be sacrificed, it seems to be so nearly the same case as that of the rich and poor with us, that it is hardly worth speaking of.'-vol. i. pp. 418, 419.

Boswell. Pray, Sir, can you trace the cause of your antipathy to the Scotch ?-Johnson. I cannot, Sir.-Boswell. Old Mr. Sheridan says it was because they sold Charles I.-Johnson. Then, Sir, old Mr. Sheridan has found out a very good reason.'

Did Mr. Paget never hear of such a thing as virtual representation? Does he mean to say that the electors of England and France all belong to a privileged class, or that the rich and poor are separated by a broad line of demarkation, as wholly destitute of applicability or point, in Hungary? If not, his argument is The Diet must be called together once in three years at least, and remains sitting till the whole business has been dispatch

Be this as it may, the Magyars got the land, and parcelled it out amongst their

magnates, leaving little, beyond the hon-ed. In strictness it ought to entertain no

measures but such as emanate from the crown but the members are in the habit

our of tilling it and bearing all public burthens, to the peasantry. In Hungary, at the present moment, noble is synonymous with freeman, and as the nobles do not constitute one-twentieth part of the population, (about five hundred thousand out of ten millions,) it follows that the Hungarian form of government is aristocratical in the strongest acceptation of the term. Originally, it is said, the members of the privileged class stood on an equal footing, and titles (as at Venice in her best days) were unknown: but there are now three distinct gradations or divisions, namely, the magnates or titled nobles, answering to our peers ; the untitled nobles or squires; the poor or one house nobles, as they are called, who, in manners and education, are hardly distinguishable from the peasantry.

of bringing forward topics of every sort under the title of grievances; and we are sorry to have to record, that within the last two or three years bills of grievance, narrating astute and deliberate mancures of papal agents against the legally determined rights and privileges of the protestants in Hungary-more especially in the matter of mixed marriages-though eloquently supported by not only the prime speakers in the lower house, but the chief ornaments of the upper one jected through the cunning pertinacity of also, appear to have been uniformly recertain prelates, and the blind subserviency of their noble dupes.

Mr. Paget arrived at Presburg whilst the Diet was sitting, and gives an interesting account of a debate :—

The Diet consists of two chambers, though, like the English, it anciently 'As we entered the chamber, not a sound was to formed one. The upper chamber is com- be heard except the deep, impassioned tones of posed of the magnates, who exceed six Deák, who was listened to with the greatest attention. hundred, and thirty-six bishops or archDeák is one of the best speakers, and has one of the most philosophical heads in the Diet. Heavy and bishops. It has a veto on all measures dull in appearance, it is not till he warms with his of the other house, but no independent subject that the man of talent stands declared. He power of legislating. The lower chamber spoke in Hungarian, and I was much struck with consists of the county members, fifty-racter of the language. From the number of words the sonorous, emphatic, and singularly clear chatwo in number, chosen by the nobles: the ending in consonants, particularly in k, every word magnates, the higher clergy and the towns is distinctly marked even to the ear of one totally unsend deputies, but these are not entitled acquainted with the language. I cannot characterise the Hungarian as either soft or musical, but it is to vote. Mr. Paget, who is evidently strong, energetic, manly: the intonation with which imbued already with the spirit of the it is uttered gives it in ordinary conversation a mecaste, apologises for this state of things lancholy air, but when impassioned nothing can exby a fallacy which can deceive no one out of Hungary :

ceed it in boldness.

And thus the peasant and the philosopher meet on the common ground of preju

dice.

"The subject of debate was a remonstrance proposed to be presented to the emperor against the il

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legal proceedings of the government in the case of Baron Wesselényi, or rather as to the manner in which such remonstrance should be presented, whether immediately from the diet, or through the mediation of the palatine.'-vol. i. pp. 28, 29.

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dice, ranks his success in persuading the nobles to pay toll for passing over a bridge erected under his auspices at Pesth:

We cannot go into the details of this business. Mr. Paget seems to consider Baron Wesselényi as the beau idéal of genuine patriotism; but many other travellers describe him as a sort of Hungarian O'Connell. The prosecution against him has terminated in his condemnation, and he is now undergoing his sentence, which seems little more than to remain during a given time a prisoner on his parole. The evidence on which the government principally relied for proving the animus of his speech was (according to Mr. Paget) an expression in a private note, to the effect that he had all his life been 'pounding pepper under the German's nose.'

'What! an Hungarian noble pay taxes? A hornets' nest is a feeble comparison to the buzz these It was no gentlemen raised about Szechenyi's ears. matter: he inveighed against them at the Diet, he wrote at them in the journals, he ridiculed them in private, and in the end he conquered them: a bill passed both Chambers, by which the legal taxation ledged. The Judex Curiæ shed tears on the occaof the nobles in the form of a bridge-toll was acknowsion, and declared "he would never pass that illfated bridge, from the erection of which he should date the downfall of Hungarian nobility."-Paget,

vol. i. p. 219.

Another equally pregnant sign of the time is the present made him by the Transylvanian Diet, in 1835, of a gold pen!

Having given so fine a specimen of the intelligence of Hungary, we must now Far, however, in advance of all his fel- look about for an example of its magnilow-nobles, for zeal, talent, information, ficence. We need not look long, for the and true patriotism, stands Count Szech- house of Esterhazy is probably the most enyi, who made so favourable an impres- magnificent of non-regnant houses in the sion in London three or four years ago. world. That jacket of jackets, which is His first object was to bring his country- said to cost the Prince a hundred pounds men into more frequent communication, in wear and tear every time it is put on, which he effected, without exciting sus- has already impressed the English pubpicion, by the establishment of races and lic with the extent of his possessions; but clubs. He next resolved on the restora- the impression falls short of the reality. tion of the Hungarian language, and was His estates contain one hundred and thirty the first to speak it in the Chamber of villages, forty towns, and thirty-four casMagnates, where Latin had hitherto been tles. He has four country-houses as big used. On his bringing forward a propo- as Chatsworth, within an hour's ride of sition for its encouragement, the want of one another; one of them, Esterház, confunds was objected. I willingly contri- tains three hundred and sixty rooms for bute one year's income,' (6,0007.) said visitors, and a theatre. The well-known Szechenyi: 'I second it with 4,000l.' said story of the Prince's reply to the Lord of Count Karolyi Gijorgy; and 30,000l. was Holkham, who, after exhibiting a flock of put down without delay. Under his aus- two thousand sheep, inquired if he could pices Hungarian literature has actually show as many-'My shepherds are more grown into fashion, a result to which his numerous than your sheep'-turns out to own publications have largely contribut- be literally true; there are two thousand ed. The most striking is a work entitled five hundred shepherds on his estates. Hitel (Credit), in which the commercial But, as a lady of the neighbourhood obresources of Hungary are developed, and served to Mr. Paget, Les Esterhazy the existing obstacles to her improve- font tout en grand: le feu prince a doté ment eloquently and ingeniously exposed. deux cent maîtresses, et pensionné cent enOf late years he has almost exclusively fans illegitimes. They have a regular devoted himself to perfect the steam- grenadier guard in their pay, and the navigation of the Danube, the feasibility right of life and death on their estates. of which he is naturally anxious to demonstrate, having been amongst the first to set the undertaking on foot; but he is sure to be found at his post when anything great, useful, and practical (for that is his sine quâ non) is to be done.

It is a curious sign of the state of opinion in Hungary, that, amongst the greatest of Szechenyi's triumphs over preju

Some curious stories are told of the genealogical pride of the old French nobility. Noah is represented entering the ark with a bundle of papers under his arm, labelled 'Papiers de la maison de Croye and an ancestor of the Ducs de Levi is standing, hat in hand, before the Virgin, who says 'Couvrez-vous, mon cousin.' The Welsh, again, have no bad notion of

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