which does not always accord with the ounces of bread, eight of meat, as much zeal displayed in the pursuit of know- of water, and twelve of wine; and for ledge. In no instance do we find that supper, eight ounces of liquid food, makhe infringed on the ties of humanity, or ing in all three pounds four ounces per subjected his patient to any trials which diem. This quantity may, he adds, be could have impaired his frame. In this increased one-third for those who take respect the man himself, by his excesses moderate, and one-half for those who in drinking, his irregularities in diet, and take violent exercise.

Thus Captain his occasional ebullitions of temper, solv- Barclay, when engaged in his great feat ed many a question, for the sake of of walking 1000 miles in 1000 successive which a conscientious inquirer would not hours, took daily from five to six pounds have tempted his poverty.

of animal food alone, besides bread and Most physicians agree with Dr. Hol- vegetables, while the proportion of liland, that there is more danger in relation quids, such as porter, wine, tea, and ale, to the quantity than to the quality of the was not less abundant. But we are of food, in the former of which it is our opinion that both Sinclair and Cheyne's author's opinion that the higher classes rules are applicable to those only who go of this country, and perhaps of all highly- on the generous moderation system, civilized countries, exceed. For exam- which differs from excess as a chronic ple, Dr. Abercrombie, in his admirable malady does from an acute--it is too work on the diseases of the stomach, full, and moreover, too unvaried. Mosays :

deration and monotony should not be

confounded. Of the two modes of in• Much certainly is to be done in dyspeptic cases jurious living, namely, the irregular, conby attention to the quality of the articles that are taken, but I am satisfied much more depends on

sisting of excessive feasting and fasting, the quantity; and I am even disposed to say that and the regular, or sustained and full, the dyspeptic might be almost independent of any though not excessive feeding, we attention to the quality of his diet, if he rigidly, ob- pect the latter to be the most hurtful. served the necessary restrictions as to quantity.'

A keen observer of society has some Baglivi, the celebrated Roman physi- apt observations on the habits of those cian, mentions that in Italy an unusually engaged in political life. large proportion of the sick recover dur

• It has been observed that men of great abilities ing Lent, in consequence of the lower

are generally of a large and vigorous animal nature. diet which is then observed as part of I have heard it remarked by a statesman of high religious duty. We may take the liberty reputation that most great men have died of overof adding that the discipline of our own eating themselves ; and without absolutely subchurch, were it inculcated and practised to a principal peril in the life of such men, namely,

scribing to this remark, I would say that it points more strictly, would leave little for the the violent craving for one kind of excitement which fashionable physician to do. Scarcely is left as in a void by the flames of another. If a any.combination of circumstances can be statesman would live long, he must pay a jealous conceived more unfavourable to general the fever.ward of an hospital scarcely requires to

and watchful attention to his diet. A patient in health than that afforded by the dissipa- be more carefully regulated in this particular; and tions of a London life during the season he should observe that there are two false appetites least propitious to it, namely, Lent, or, to which he is liable—the one an appetite resulting

from intellectual labour, which though not alto as the word itself signifies, the spring.

gether morbid is not to be relied upon for diMany dietists have attempted to fix the gestion in the same degree as that which results quantity which may be consumed with from bodily exercise ; the other, proceeding from benefit. Cornaro took twelve ounces of nervous irritability, which is purely fallacious. solid food and fourteen of (Italian) wine fort (and it tries the nerves of most men even after

Those to whom public speaking is much of an efdaily. Dr. Cheyne states, that for a they have been accustomed to it for years) should, healthy man following a laborious em- if possible, dine lightly at least an hour before they ployment, eight ounces of meat, twelve are called upon to speak, and should resist the of bread and vegetables, and a pint of propensity which they will feel to eat soon after

they have spoken.'— The Statesman, by Henry wine in the twenty-four hours is the just Taylor, Esq., p. 280. allowance ; but that a reduction in this quantity must be resorted to by those There is little to be added to these rewho are sedentary or engaged in intel- marks. A long and tranquil life is scarcelectual pursuits.

For this latter class, ly to be expected as the result of political Sir John Sinclair proposes the following agonistics, in which intellect and passion dietary :-for breakfast

, four ounces of are alike 'overtaxed, and which require bread and eight of tea; for dinner, foursome more natural sources of repose than

are to be found in debates lengthened Dr. Beaumont, as we see, believes that through the nights of a six months' ses- only a definite quantity of the gastric sion, or in the pure air of St. Stephen's, juice, exactly apportioned to the actual or the round of party and cabinet feasting. wants of the body, is furnished ; so that

Contrasted with those classes supplied if more food is thrust into the stomach with too abundant nourishment are the than the juice can solve, the surplus repoor, who, in most countries, are over- mains as an irritant ; and then to the untasked and under-fed.

happy gourmand will apply Abernethy's There is a curious essay of M. Viller- lashing description : mé, published in the 'Annales d'Hygiène,' where that gentleman endeavours to in- with all the cursed mixtures which a vitiated ap

Suppose a glutton to overcharge his stomach vestigate the mortality among the various petite can invent, what can he expect but the classes of Paris, and the broad result he constant production of an irritable material from obtains is, that neither air, nor space, nor the fermentation of the vegetable matter, and from water, nor density of population, nor ele- the animal matter becoming rancid ?' vation, nor any appreciable condition of In fevers, and febrile illnesses, it not only a similar kind, influences it so much as is a vulgar error, but a dangerous one, easy circumstances.' In many of the

to endeavour to restore health by nourpoorer districts the mortality was double ishment. Beaumont remarked; that in that of the richer. Taking the whole of similar predicaments no gastric juice was France, he found that the expectation of furnished by the stomach, the inner coat life for a child born of rich parents was of which was dry, red, and readily ulcer421 years, while that for one born of able. It is evident that the instinctive poor parents was only 30. Over or under-feeding, it would appear by the fever patient for days, nay weeks,

loathing against all aliment entertained then, are equally injurious; and most is his safeguard against the officiousness modern dietitians have given over the of nurses and housekeepers ; while the attempt to measure moderation by scales craving for fluids is as excessive as the and weights, investing, however, the coolness of the beverage is wholesome stomach itself with certain sensations and refreshing. Dr. Beaumont remarks which they would rank as a corporeal con- that the western Indian, after long fasting, science and sufficient guide. Thus Dr. will devour not only without injury, but Beaumont says :

with benefit, enough to have gorged any • There appears to be a sense of perfect intelligence civilized being to death. After the emaconveyed from the stomach to the encephalic cen. tre, which, in health, invariably dictates what quan

ciation of fever, especially in the advanlity of aliment (responding to the sense of hunger, cing stage of convalescence, the appetite and its due satisfaction) is naturally required for the is much increased : so, also, is it greater purposes of life, and which, if noticed and properly in childhood than in after life, where no attended to, would prove the most salutary monitor demands exist for material to build up of health, and effectual preventive of and restora. tive from disease. It is not the sense of satiety, the frame. But finally, to come to acfor this is beyond the point of healthful indulgence, tual experiment, Dr. Beaumont found, and is nature's earliest indication of an abuse and that if he wanted to obtain from St. Maroverburthen of her powers to replenish the system. tin much gastric juice, he had only to enIt occurs immediately previous to this, and may be known by the pleasurable sensation of perfect satis- join a severe fast ; he then, by gently faction, ease, and quiescence of body and mind. rubbing the inner membrane of the It is when the stomach says enough, and is distin- stomach with the smooth bulb of a therguished from satiety by the difference of the sensations—the former feeling enough, the latter too mometer, could obtain a larger quantity much. The first is produced by the timely recep

recep than when the patient had been allowed tion into the stomach of proper aliment in exact to have his ordinary meals. In these experfect digestion of which a definite quantity of those sensations so well known to the proportion to the requirements of nature, for the periments it was curious to remark that gastric juice is furnished by the proper gastric apparatus. But to effect this most agrecable of all dyspeptic, namely, the sense of sinking, sensations and conditions—the real Elysian satis. heart-burn, head-ache, vertigo, and many faction of the reasonable epicure-timely attention others, depended on the various condimust be paid to the preliminary processes, such as tions of the stomach, and could be prothorough mastication, and moderate or slow deglutition. These are indispensable to the due and duced at the will of the manipulator. natural supply of the stomach at the stated periods Another important fact was observed of alimentation ; for if food be swallowed too fast, by Dr. Beaumont. He remarked that the too much is received in a short time and in too im: gastric juice was not contained ready efperfect a state of preparation to be disposed of by fused in the stomach, as in a reservoir ; ihe gastric juice.'

consequently, that the popular notion of

the sense of hunger being dependent on tric fluid at the same time, those which the actual presence of this irritating fluid are termed most digestible are the quickis erroneous. He examined the coats of est to disappear. The devotees of venithe living stomach with a lens, and actu- son will rejoice to hear that they have ally saw the gastric juice exude from been eating up to the principles of the innumerable small points scattered over latest scientific discoveries.

The worthe surface of the organ, when solicited shippers of game, with its full aroma, by the contact of food, or by other may also plead in their favour the tenstimuli. When St. Martin was in derness and consequent digestibility of health, the liquid was clear, inodorous, the fibre. The "haut gout, however, and contained muriatic acid. It is pro- must not be excessive, as in some inbable that a little acetic acid enters into stances it has been known to produce its composition, together with slight por disease. Soups are, on the whole, much tions of the phosphates and muriates of less digestible than solids; and, indeed, soda, magnesia, and potash. This fluid

This fluid to digest them at all, the stomach is comis an almost universal solvent of animal pelled to solidify their contents by an matter, though incapable of acting, ex- absorption of the fluid part. But we are cept in a very slight degree, on inorganic anticipating. substances. Whatever be the kind of It would seem that the food is not kept food, various as it is in the various coun- in the stomach until all parts of it are tries inhabited by man, still, through the reduced to the pulpy state called, techniagency of this solvent, a simple milk-like cally, chyme, but that portions soonest nutriment, devoid of all the peculiarities fitted for the body find their way first to of the ingesta, is ultimately extracted for the upper part of the intestinal canal, the wants of the frame. The antiseptic where, with the assistance of the secrepowers of the juice are very great, so tions of the liver and pancreas, that that the process of putrefaction is speedi-milk-like fluid to which we alluded, ly stopped by it; thus permitting the termed chyle, is separated and conveyed well-cased epicure to indulge in game in speedily into the veins. Besides the solwhich the "haut gouť has reached the vent powers of gastric juice, chymificaverge of toleration. The quantity given tion is furthered by a churning motion out at each meal varies, but probably given to the contents of the stomach by is, like that of all other secretions, more its fibres, and this is again aided by the dependent on the nature of its stimulus temperature of that organ which, during than on any exact law such as that as- digestion, is 100° Fah. Thus the nutritive sumed by Dr. Beaumont, for

function is at once chemical, mechanical, • Increase of appetite doth grow

and vitalfor no subtle process, chemical By what it feeds on.'

or mechanical, but of the living body, can And it is certain that Wordsworth's elaborate a simple fluid like chyle, from Rosy man of purple cheer,

such a variety of ingredients as form the An oily man right plump to see,' food of man, especially a Frenchman. elaborates gastric juice enough to chy Various accessories have been gravely mify food very little demanded by the signalised by the learned as furthering wants of his system.'

digestion. Thus, Hufeland lauds the wisThe quantity is probably always con- dom of our forefathers in patronizing the siderable. Beaumont often extracted 'fool,' whose quips and cranks were one or two ounces for the purpose of wont to keep the table in a roar; for, testing its solvent powers out of the body. adds the expositor of the art of prolongAnd in one instance, where St. Martin ing life, ‘Laughter is one of the greatest had taken no fluid with his meal, still, the helps to digestion with which I am acstomach appeared as full of liquid as if quainted; what nourishment one receives he had drunk his usual quantum. When amidst mirth and jollity will certainly thus exuded it penetrates every portion produce good blood;' and Combe, who of the food; hence, the absolute necessi. makes the quotation, expatiates on the ty of due mastication, it having been as- text, as to the effect of agitation of the dia. certained that large lumps of food, by phragm, in laughter, on the trituration of affording much less surface for action, the food, and the diminution of the vivacity are much less quickly digested. Various and extent of the respiratory movement kinds of substances have different de- which always attends despondency and grees of digestibility, and though they grief, as one source of enfeebled digesmay be all under the influence of the gas- tion.


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Dr. Caldwell, in his Thoughts on Phy July 14, nine o'clock P.M.- Temperature of sical Education, says that dyspepsia com- stomach 102°. St. Martin has been in the woods mences as often in the brain as in the food since seven o'clock in the morning till eight stomach, probably oftener. According at evening. Stomach full of berries and chymify: to this gentleman, among the husband- ing aliment, frothing and foaming like fermented men of England who steadily pursue

beer or cider : appears to have been drinking litheir tranquil mode of life, regardless quors too freely:

"July 28, nine o'clock p.M.–Stomach emptyof the fluctuations of stock, the fate of not healthy—some erythema and apthous patches political measures, the bickerings of par- on the mucous surface. St. Martin has been ty, dyspepsia is almost a stranger. Mer- drinking ardent spirits pretty freely for eight or ten chants, manufacturers, and mechanics, toms of any general indisposition—says he feels who are engaged in a regular and well- well, and has a good appetite. established business, have good diges Aug. 2, eight o'clock A.M.-Extracted one ounce tions and bear the marks of it. On the of gastric fluids, consisting of unusual proportions other hand, dyspepsia is the torment of slightly with blood, appearing to exude from the

of vitiated mucus, saliva, and some bile, tinged literary men, officers of state, dealers in surface of the erythenia and apthous patches, which scrip, daring adventurers, anxious and were tenderer and more irritable than usual. St. ambitious projectors of improvements; Martin complains of no sense of pain, symptoms they exhibit deep traces of it in their of indisposition, or even of impaired appetite.

Temperature of stomach 101o.' haggard countenances.' Dr. Combe ap

Aug. 3, seven o'clock A.M.-Inner membrane of pends to this, that there is no situation stomach unusually morbid ; the erythematous ap. in which digestion goes on so favourably pearance more extensive, and spots more livid than as during the cheerful play of sentiment usual; from the surface of some of which exuded in the after-dinner small-talk of a well-as- larger and more numerous ; the mucous covering

small drops of grumous blood ; the apthous patches sorted circle.'

thicker than common, and the gastric secretions Dr. Caldwell's able division of the hu- much more vitiated. The gastric Auids extracted man species into fat and lean may, per- of thick ropy mucus, and considerable muco.puru

this morning were mixed with a large proportion haps, be cavilled at by many officers of lent matter, slightly tinged with blood. Notwithstate, and dealers in scrip, and daring ad- standing this diseased appearance of the stomach, venturers, as too exclusive, since just no very essential aberration of its functions was claims may be made by several such to manifested. St. Martin complains of no symptoms the laudable obesity with which the doc- indicating any general derangement of the system,

except an uneasy sensation, and a tenderness at tor endows the merchant, the mechanic, the pit of the stomach, and some vertigo, with and the husbandman. We rejoice, how-dimness and yellowness of vision in stooping down ever, at this well marked division of the and rising again ; has a thin, yellowish-brown coat

on his tongue, and his countenance is rather sal. 'genus homo,' and no less at the exposi, low ; pulse uniform and regular; appetite good; tion of the scientific uses of laughter and rests quietly, and sleeps as well as usual.** small talk,' as furnished by Hufeland and

Now, let those who tax their stomachs Combe. The value of the intellectual at the commands of an insatiable appeplay of ancient and modern symposiasts tite, ponder well on these facts of Beauwill now have received the sanction of mont, from which it is evident that our science by a process of subtle inquiry, sensations are but poor criteria of the which Horatio stamped as too curious, presence of disease in this the most imwhen Hamlet traced the noble dust of portant organ of the animal economy. Alexander till he found it stopping a beer- The surface of this viscus may be inbarrel.

flamed, nay,

even ulcerated, without The sum of all these erudite lucubra- influencing perceptibly our

feelings tions is that the nervous system has great as

to general health ; nevertheless the influence on the process of digestion ; secretions become altered, not only in so great that Abernethy resolved all of the stomach, but in other organs.

If what he termed the complicated madness this be sudden and excessive, the usual of the human race,' into 'gormandising, signs of acute dyspepsia are manifested; and fidgeting about what cannot be help- but if, as is generally the case, the stoed.' Dr. Beaumont repeatedly observes mach is constantly over-stimulated in a that digestion was impeded, and the sto slight degree, a chronic ailment is promach disordered, by the ebullitions of duced by the sustained effects of modetemper which overcame St. Martin.

rate excess, and the foundations of im. The following extracts will give to the paired general health are inevitably and reader a vivid picture of what he may make his organs suffer by infringing the *. Experiments on the Gastric Juice, &c. By

Wm. Beaumont, M.D. Boston, 1834.'—pp. 236. golden rule of moderation :


the very

firmly fixed. From this prolific source containing azote, while certain animal spring gout, the tendency to rheumatism, substances are devoid of it. gravel and dyspeptic phthisis, not to men- In addition to these “essential princi. tion that distressing host of ailments and ples,' there are others entering into the illnesses which arise from over-excited composition of organised bodies in very vessels and irritated nerves,—hypochon- minute quantities, and these are termed dria and determination of blood to the by Dr. Prout incidental.' They are, sulhead. Overcharged as the picture may phur, phosphorus, chlorine, fluorine, iron, seem, it is, nevertheless, under the mark, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, as those who suffer from dyspepsia and probably a few more. These, accordwell know, or as those who wish ing to this author, play a most important to trace out the ramifications of malady part in modifying structure; for it is they may learn, by a perusal of the works es- which are the chief instruments, produpecially devoted to this subject by Dr. cing those remarkable differences observJames Johnson,* Dr. Paris, Mr. Aber- ed in bodies having the same essential nethy, and others.

composition ; a theory which is illustrat We have hitherto commented on some ed by many striking facts and very origiof the mere conditions of the function of nal views. digestion. We must not pass over

The combination of these ultimate ele. profound work of Dr. Prout, which devel- ments with one another, according to ceropes the doctrines of modern alimentary tain laws, produces what the chemist philosophy. Mankind may go on eating terms the immediate or proximate elefor ever; but unless the third book of this ments of living bodies, such as sugar, oil, distinguished author's Bridgewater Treat- albumen, &c., which themselves are readiise be read, they will remain as ignorant ly modified, and assume the different asof what they are daily doing, as M. Jour- pects of organic life. As an instance of dain in the Bourgeois Gentilhomme. what an extreme change is made by a simThe mode, no doubt, in which the doctor ple alteration of the proportions of the has made use of his researches in illustra- same ingredients, we may notice, that the tion of the argument is often painfully antagonism between sweet and sour, as startling ; and indeed we have some mis- observed in sugar and vinegar, is owing givings, whether, as a whole, the Bridge- only to a little more or a little less of carwater Treatises have not lowered the high bon and water. Thus, if in one hundred and sacred theme handled with such con- parts about forty-two be carbon, and the summate ability by Paley.

rest be water, we shall have

sugar ;

but However, under the head of 'Alimen- if forty-seven parts be carbon, and the rest tary Substances,' Dr. Prout expatiates water, we shall have vinegar. on what he terms, " The system of univer

The essence of Dr. Prout's' system of sal voracity' (p. 472); the existence of universal voracity' therefore is this; the which as a phenomenon he makes use of lower organisms convert those elements as indicative of design. To render this denominated by him 'essential,' into cerintelligible, we must premise that the infi- tain substances which, however various nite diversity visible in the composition in appearance and in accidental qualities, of organic bodies, whether vegetable or are reducible to a few 'proximate princi. animal, is not owing to an infinite variety ples.' The organisms higher than these, of different substances, but to the modi- by preying on those below them in the fications of a few primary substances. scale of life, find a material already asThus the chemist finds that the vegetable similated to that of their own structure, kingdom in general is composed especi- and are therefore saved the trouble of ally of only three elements, namely, hy- forming these proximate principles out of drogen, oxygen, and carbon ; while ani- the elemental. There results, therefore, mal bodies involve a fourth, azote. There a great saving in the machinery of digesare, however, many vegetable substances tion. The more perfect animals, being ex.

onerated from the toil of initial assimilation

of the material composing their frames, * Dr. Holland has mentioned with praise the do not require that complicated apparatus works of these gentlemen among others.

Dr. which those below them needed--the ele. James Johnson's have been long before the public; ments on which they feed being already and have had very considerable favonr, as repeated in the order which is best adapted to fill editions testify. He is a quaint humorist, but has nevertheless set down a great number ot valuable up the waste of their bodies. "We could facts and hints.

form,' says Dr. Prout, some conception VOL. Liv.


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