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at the bottom of this cauldron about ten stereotype plates of publications of all minutes, when being raised by the arm of descriptions. But even in this epitome a little crane, it comes up completely en- of the literature of the age, our readers crusted with the metal, and is put for ten will be gratified to learn that the sacred minutes to cool over a cistern of water volumes of the Established Church mainclose to the cauldron. The mass is then tain, by their own intrinsic value, a rank laid on the wooden dresser, where the and an importance, their possession of founder unmercifully belabours it with a which has been the basis of the character wooden mallet, which breaks the brittle and unexampled prosperity of the British metal from the coffin, and the plaster-of-empire. Among the plates in this store Paris cast being also shattered into pieces, there are to be seen reposing those of the stereotype impression which, during thirteen varieties of Bibles and testathis rude operation, has remained unharm- ments, of numerous books of hymns and ed, is introduced for the first moment of psalms, of fifteen different dictionaries, its existence into the light of day. The and of a number of other books of acbirth of this plate is to the literary world knowledged sterling value. We have no an event of no small importance, inasmuch desire, however, to conceal that the above as 100,000 copies of the best impressions are strangely intermixed with publications can be taken from it, and with care it can of a different description. For instance, propagate a million! The plates, after next to "Doddridge's Works,' lie the being rudely cut, are placed on a very in- plates of 'Don Juan:' close to 'Hervey's genious description of Procrustesian bed, Meditations' lie “The Lives of Highwayon which they are by a machine not only men,' 'Henderson's Cookery,' 'The Trial all cut to the same length and breadth, but of Queen Caroline,' and 'Macgowan's with equal impartiality planed to exactly Dialogue of Devils. In the immediate the same thickness.
vicinity of the ‘Pilgrim's Progress,' reThe plates are next examined in another pose “The Newgate Calendar (6 vols.), chamber by men termed “pickers,' who, and · Religious Courtship;' and lastly, in with a sharp graver, and at the rate of this republic of letters, close to 'Sturm's about sixteen pages in six hours, cut out Reflections,' 'Ready Reckoner,' "Goldor off any improper excrescences; and if smith's England,' and Hutton's Logaa word or sentence is found to be faulty, rithms,’are to be found 'A Whole Family it is cut out of the plate and replaced by in Heaven,' “Heaven taken by Storm, real type, which are soldered into the Baxter's Shove to
Chrisgaps. Lastly, by a circular saw the plates tians,' &c. &c. &c. are very expeditiously cut into pages, On the whole, however, the ponderous which are packed up in paper to go to contents of the chamber are of great litepress.
rary value; and it is with feelings of pride We have already stated that in Messrs. and satisfaction that the stranger beholds Clowes's establishment the stereotype before him, in a single cellar, a capital, plates amount in weight to 2000 tons. principally devoted to religious instrucThey are contained in two strong rooms tion, amounting to no less than 200,0001.! or cellars which appear to the stranger to In suddenly coming from the inky be almost a mass of metal. The smallest chambers of a printing-office into the paof these receptacles is occupied entirely per-warehouse, the scene is, almost withwith the Religious Tract Society's plates, out metaphor, 'as different as black from many of which are fairly entitled to the white. Its transition is like that which rest they are enjoying, having already the traveller experiences in suddenly given hundreds of thousands of impres- reaching the snowy region which caps sions to the world. It is very pleasing to lofty mountains of dark granite. find in the heart of a busy, bustling estab- It must be evident to the reader that lishment, such as we are reviewing, a the quantity of paper used by Messrs. chamber exclusively set apart for the Clowes in a single year must be enorpropagation of religious knowledge; and mous. it is a fact creditable to the country in This paper, before it is despatched from general, as well as to the art of printing the printer to the binder, undergoes two in particular, that, including all the publi- i opposite processes, namely, wetting and cations printed by Messrs. Clowes, one drying, both of which may be very shortfourth are self-devoted to religion. The ly described. The wetting-room, which larger store, which is 100 feet in length, is forms a sort of cellar to the paper-warea dark omnium gatherum, containing the house, is a small chamber, containing
three troughs, supplied with water, like twenty-four sheets-marked or signed A, those in a common laundry, by a leaden B, C, and so on, to Z-stands in twentypipe and cock. Leaning over one of these four piles, all touching each other, and of troughs, there stands, from morning till which the height of course depends upon night, with naked arms, red fingers, and the number of copies composing the in wooden shoes, a man, whose sole occu- edition. A gang of sharp little boys of pation, for the whole of his life, is to wet about twelve years of age, with naked paper for the press. The general allow- arms, termed gatherers, following each ance he gives to each quire is two dips, other as closely as soldiers in file, march which is all that he knows of the litera- past these heaps, from every one of which ture of the age ; and certainly, when it is they each abstract, in regular order for considered that, with a strapping lad to as- publication, a single sheet, which they sist him, he can dip 200 reams a day, it is deliver as a complete work to a'collator, evident that it must require a considera- whose duty it is rapidly to glance over ble number of very ready writers to keep the printed signature letters of each sheet, pace with him. After being thus wetted, in order to satisfy himself that they folthe paper is put in a pile under a screw- low each other in regular succession ; press, where it remains subjected to a and as soon as the signature letters have pressure of 200 tons for twelve hours. It either by one or by repeated gatherings should then wait about two days before it been all collected, they are, after being is used for printing, yet, if the weather pressed, placed in piles about eleven feet be not too hot, it will, for nearly a fort- high, composed of complete copies of the night, remain sufficiently damp to imbibe publication, which, having thus underthe ink from the type.
gone the last process of the printing esWe have already stated that, as fast as tablishment, is ready for the hands of the the sheets printed on both sides are ab- binder. stracted by the boys who sit at the bot- The group of gathering-boys, whose toms of the nineteen steam-presses, they march of intellect we have just describare piled in a heap by their sides. As ed, usually perform per day a thousand soon as these piles reach a certain height, journeys, each of which is on an average, they are carried off, in wet bundles of about fourteen yards. The quantity of about one thousand sheets, to the two paper in the two drying-rooms amounts drying-rooms, which are heated by steam to about 3000 reams, each weighing about to a temperature of about 90° of Fahren- 25lbs. The supply of white paper in heit. These bundles are there subdivid- store, kept in piles about 20 feet high, ed into ‘lifts,' or quires, containing from averages about 7000 reams; the amount fourteen to sixteen sheets; seven of these of paper printed every week and deliverlifts, one after another, are rapidly placed ed for publication amounts to about 1500 upon the transverse end of a long-handled reams (of 500 sheets), each of which 'peel, by which they are raised nearly to averages in size 3893 square inches. The the ceiling, to be deposited across small supply, therefore, of white paper kept on wooden bars ready fixed to receive them, hand, would, if laid down in a path of in which situation it is necessary they 221 inches broad, extend 1230 miles; the should remain at least twelve hours, in quantity printed on both sides per week order that not only the paper, but the ink, would form a path of the same breadth of should be dried. In looking upwards, 263 miles in length. In the course of a therefore, the whole ceiling of the room year Messrs. Clowes consume, therefore, appears as if an immense shower of snow white paper enough to make petticoats of had just suddenly been arrested in its de- the usual dimensions (ten demys per petscent from heaven. In the two rooms ticoat) for three hundred and fifty thousabout four hundred reams can be dried in and ladies! twenty-four hours.
The ink used in the same space
of time When the operation of drying is com- amounts to about 12,000lbs. pleted, the lifts' are rapidly pushed by The cost of the paper may be about the 'peel' one above another (like cards 100,0001.; that of the ink exceeding which have overlapped) into a pack, and 15007. in these masses they are then lowered ; In one of the compartments of Messrs. and again placed in piles, each of which Clowes' establishment, a few men are emcontains the same signature,'or, in other ployed in fixing metal-type into the woodwords, is formed of duplicates of the same en-blocks of a most valuable and simple sheet. A work, therefore, containing machine for impressing coloured maps,
for which the inventor has lately taken ously inflicted. The north lid is no soonout a patent.
er raised than the south one, upon which The tedious process of drawing maps is embedded a metal plate coloured yellow, by hand has long been superseded by cop- performs the same operation; which is per engravings; but besides the great ex- immediately repeated by the eastern lid, pense attendant upon these impressions, the plates of which are coloured red; and, there has also been added that of colour- lastly, by the western lid, whose plates ing, which it has hitherto been deemed contain nothing but black lines, marks of impossible to perform but by the brush. cities, and names. The cost of maps, therefore, has not only By these four operations, which are operated to a considerable degree, as a consecutively performed, quite as rapidly prohibition of their use among the poor, as we have detailed them, the sheet of but in general literature it has very ma- white paper is seen successfully and hapterially checked many geographical eluci- pily transformed into a most lovely and dations, which, though highly desirable, prolific picture, in seven colours, of oceans, would have been too expensive to be in- empires, kingdoms, principalities, cities, serted.
flowing rivers, mountains (the tops of By this beautiful invention, the new art- which are left white), lakes, &c., each ist has not only imparted to woodcut not only pronouncing its own name, but blocks the advantages of impressing, by declaring the lines of latitude and longilittle metallic circles, and by actual type, tude under which it exists. The picture, the positions, as well as the various names or, as it terms itself, “The Patent Illumiof cities, towns, rivers, &c., which it nated Map, proclaims to the world its would be difficult as well as expensive to own title: it gratefully avows the name delineate in wood, but he has also, as we of its ingenious parent to be Charles will endeavour to explain, succeeded in Knight. giving, by machinery, that bloom, or in A few details are yet wanting to fill up other words, those colours to his maps, the rapid sketch or outline we have just which had hitherto been laboriously given of the mode of imprinting these painted on by human hands.
maps. On the northern block, which im. On entering the small room of the parts the first impression, the oceans and house in which the inventor has placed his lakes are cut in wavy lines, by which machine, the attention of the stranger is means, when the whole block is coloured at once violently excited by seeing several blue, the wavy parts are impressed quite printer's rollers, which, though hitherto light, while principalities, kingdoms, &c., deemed to be as black and as unchange- are deeply designated, and thus by one able as an Ethiopian's skin, appear before process two blues are imprinted. him bright yellow, bright red, and beauti- When the southern block, which is col. ful blue! "Tempora mutantur,' they ex- oured yellow, descends, besides marking ultingly seem to say, nos et mutamur in out the principalities, &c., which are to illis ! In the middle of the chamber be permanently designated by that colour, stands the machine, consisting of a sort a portion of it re-covers countries, which of open box, which, instead of having, as by the first process had been marked blue, is usual, one lid only, has one fixed to but which, by the admixture of the yellow, every side, by which means the box can are beautifully coloured green. By this evidently be shut or covered by turning second process, therefore, two colours down either the lid on the north, on the are again imprinted. When the eastern south, on the east, or on the west. lid, which is coloured red, turning upon
The process of impressing with this its axis, impinges upon the paper, besides engine is thus effected. A large sheet of stamping the districts which are to be depure white drawing paper is, by the chief signated by its own colour, it intrudes upsuperintendent, placed at the bottom of on a portion of the blue impression, which the box, where it lies, the emblem of in- it instantly turns into purple, and upon
а nocence, perfectly unconscious of the portion of the yellow impression, which it impending fate that awaits it. Before, instantly changes into brown; and thus by however, it has had any time for reflec- this single operation, three colours are tion, the north lid, upon which is embed- imprinted. ded a metal plate, coloured blue, suddenly But the three lids conjointly have perrevolves over upon the paper, when, by formed another very necessary operation the turn of a press underneath, the whole -namely, they have moistened the paper apparatus, a severe pressure is instantane- sufficiently to enable it to receive the ty.. VOL. LXV.
pographical lines of longitude and lati- flections, because we have determined tude, the courses of rivers, the little round not to pour a single bitter drop into a litmarks denoting cities, and the letterpress, erary cup which
we have purposely conall of which, by the last pressure, are im- cocted only for Christmas use. parted, in common black printer's ink, to
To the Governor' of the building a map, distinguishing, under the beautiful through which we have perambulated we process we have described, the various re- cordially offer, in return for the courtesy gions of the globe, by light blue, dark with which he has displayed it, the comblue, yellow, green, red, brown, and pur- pliments of the season ;' and with equal
gratitude let us acknowledge the importBy Mr. Knight's patent machine maps ant service rendered to the social family may be thus furnished to
our infant of mankind by the patient labour of each schools at the astonishing low rate of 4d overseer, compositor, reader, pressman, each.
and type-founder in his noble establishBefore the wooden clocks in the com- ment. Let us give them the praise which positors' halls strike Eight--at which hour is due to their art, and, to conclude, the whole establishment of literary la- |LET US GIVE TO THE DEVIL HIS DUE!' bourers quietly return to their homes, excepting those who, for extra work, extra pay, and to earn extra comforts for their families, are willing to continue their toilsome occupation throughout the whole night, resuming their regular work Art. 11.—Journaux des Sièges faits ou in the morning as cheerfully as if they
soutenus par les Français dans la Pé. had been at rest—we deem it our duty ninsule de 1807 à 1814, rédigé d' après to observe that there are many other les ordres du Gouvernement, sur les Docprinting establishments in London which
uments existant aux Archives de la would strikingly exemplify the enormous Guerre et au Dépôt des Fortifications. physical power of the British press-es
Par J. Belmas, Chef de Bataillon du pecially that of the “Times’ Newspaper, Gínie. 4 vols. Paris, 1836. which on the 28th of November, 1814, electrified its readers by unexpectedly in- This work, though neither so trustworthy forming them that the paper they held in or so interesting as the title-page promises, their hands had been printed by steam; is yet deserving of some notice. M. Beland it is impossible for the mind to con- mas's rédaction of the several operations, template also, for a single moment, the though less unfair than the works of the moral force of the British Press, without modern French school generally are, canreflecting, and without acknowledging not of course be of the same value that the that, under Providence, it is the only en- original documents from which he professgine that can save the glorious institutions es to have compiled his narrative would of the British empire from the impending have been. He has subjoined, however, to ruin that inevitably awaits them, unless his own narratives, copious appendixes of the merchants, the yeomanry, and the those original documents-some of which British people, aroused by the loud warn- are very curious ;-but even their authoring of the said press, shall constitutional. ity is seriously impaired by the fact that ly disarm the hand of the destroyers: we they are only a selection of such parts of will, however, resolutely arrest ourselves the general correspondence as it suited in the utterance of these very natural re- his own views to produce. Admitting
them to be authentic and valuable as far * We ought to observe that an analagous inven- as they go, it is obvious that they do not tion has already been brought to great perfection, by Mr. Hulmandell, in the department of lithogra? give the whole truth, and are rather to be phy. By using consecutively six, ten, or a dozen considered as ex parte statements than as stones, each charged with its separate colour, the a complete body of historical evidence. effect of a fine water-colour drawing is reproduced The first volume is dedicated not to in most wonderful lightness and brilliancy, the sieges, but to a general summary of given to the shadows which the cleverest master of the Peninsular War-occupying two hunthe water-colour school cannot reach in his own dred and ninety pages, followed by nearoriginal performance. A set of views of French ly five hundred pages of piéces justificascenery and architecture, done in this way, may tives. The other volumes contain respecnow be seen in the shops : they are, in fact, beauti. ful pictures ; and you get, we believe, twenty-six of tively narratives of the sieges of, them for eight guineas.
II. Saragossa, Roses and Girona.
III. Astorga, Lerida, Mequinenza, Ciudad doubt more) willing to enrich history
Rodrigo, Almeida, Tortosa, Tarrago- with a fuller and less select collection of na, Olivenza, Badajoz, and Campo such valuable documents.
We are grateMayor.
ful for every attempt to lift even a corner IV. Tarifa, Saguntum, Valencia, Penis- of that almost impenetrable curtain of
cola, Castro, Urdiales-all by the falsehood lined with terror,' behind French ;-Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, which Buonaparte prepared the various the forts of Salamanca, Burgos, St. incidents of his wonderful drama; and Sebastian, Pampeluna, and Monzon, (a in this view the present publication has small town and château in Aragon) — many interesting points. All the Buonaby the English
parte papers, though applying to a single each of these being followed by an ap- subject and a narrow period, mark strongpendix, more or less copious, of the origi- ly the character of their author—the nal correspondence. Of operations so affectation (if, indeed, like other imposvarious and extensive we cannot pretend tors, he had not grown to believe in himto give even a summary, much less any self) of omniscience and omnipotence details: we can only indicate to the mili- which prompted him to prescribe from tary student where the information is to Bayonne, St. Cloud, or even Vienna, the be found—but a few particulars which movements (some of them in minute demay interest the general reader we shall tail) of his armies in Portugal, Valencia, endeavour to condense into manageable or Andalusia—the harsh presumption limits.
with which he criticised what any one The most remarkable of these docu- else did, and the severe injustice with ments are assuredly certain Notes and which he visited on individual officers Instructions, dictated from time to time the natural impediments or inevitable, by Buonaparte himself relative to the accidents that happened to thwart his inmilitary operations in the Peninsula—a solent and often injudicious designs; and subject which never can be uninterest with all this personal arrogance—the ing to a British reader, particularly when, patience or policy with which he boreas in the present instance, he can obtain if indeed he did not (as we rather believe) a glimpse of the real motives and move foment—the squabbles, jealousies, and inments of the French, divested of the deed almost continual insubordination, falsehood and fanfaronnade of their pub- of his generals amongst themselves. lished despatches. M. Belmas does not Provided they obeyed him, he seems to state where he found these documents, have been totally indifferent how they nor to whom they were addressed, nor behaved to one another. His very
interon what authority they are given. It ests were often sacrificed to his vanity ; might be concluded from his title-page and even the reverses of his lieutenants that he found the Notes, as well as Buona- had to his mind the consolation of showparte's direct correspondence with sev- ing the world that Napoleon the Great eral of the generals, in the official ar- was all in all, and that without him La chives at Parts. But such is not the fact. belle France, and all her skilful marshals. M. Belmas did not like 'to own whence and her valiant armies, were—NOTHING. they came; we can supply the omission: As the most important of these docuthey were addressed to King Joseph ments have been already applied to their and his staff at Madrid, as the materials historical uses, it is chiefly as illustrative on which these puppets were to frame of Buonaparte's personal character and their orders to the several armies, and his mode of dealing with his Generals were taken with the rest of Joseph's and Marshals, that we shall now examine effects after the battle of Vittoria; they them were published (and more than M. Bel- The first of the Notes is of 13th July, mas has republished) in the Appendix to 1808, without date of place, but it must the first volume of Colonel Napier's His- have been from Bayonne, and is addresstory, and noticed in the Quarterly Re-ed to Savary, chief of Joseph's staff at view, vol. 56, but some further com- Madrid. It takes a general, but, as a
affairs munications between Joseph and Napo- turned out, not a very correct view of leon, and a considerable portion (not all) the operations in Spain. The chief soliof a correspondence with the Generals citude at that moment was as to the movecommanding the French armies in Spain, ments of Marshal Bessières, prior to the are new to us, and we heartily wish that battle of Medina del Rio-Seco. M. Belmas had been able, or (what we victory there Buonaparte rested the whole