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merciless course of conduct towards the in his civilized and uncivilized (or, as we * Indians, which must sooner or later term the latter), his 'savage' state ; and, bring upon us a day of retribution, the great as the contrast is, and self-interest justice of which we shall not be able to ing as it undoubtedly ought to be, it is, deny. But even dismissing from our nevertheless, most strange how small a minds the flagrant immorality of such proportion of our curiosity has been atconduct, as well as its possible results, it tracted by it. The scientific world has certainly appears unaccountable that we waged civil war in its theological discus. should have interested ourselves so little sions on the Huttonian and Wernerian in the philosophical consideration of the theories. In exploring the source of the condition of man in that unlettered simple Nile—in seeking for the course of the state, in which only a few centuries ago Niger—in making voyages of discovery, we found him on the two continents of in order triumphantly to plant the British America.

flag on the North Pole of the earth,' man If a flock of wild grey geese following has not been wanting in enterprise. In their leader in the form of the letter >, his endeavours to obtain the most accu. and flying high over our heads at the rate rate knowledge of every ocean, sea or of 1000 miles a day, be compared with river-of every country-of every great the string of birds of the same species range of mountains of every cataract which at the same moment are seen in or even volcano—and of every extraorsingle file waddling across their short dinary feature of the globe ;-in the pro. commons' to their parish puddle ;—if a secution of these and of similar inquiries flight of widgeon, hundreds of miles from he has not been wanting in curiosity or land, and skimming like the shadow of a courage. Into the natural history of almost small cloud over the glassy surface of the every animal, and even of insects, he has boundless ocean, be compared with a microscopically inquired. To every plant brood of lily-white ducks' luxuriously and little flower he has prescribed a name. dabbling in a horse-pond ;-if the wild He has dissected the rays of light, and boars, which with their progeny are roam- has analysed and weighed even the air he ing through the forests of Europe and Asia breathes: and yet, with volumes of inin quest of food, be compared to our formation on all these subjects, it is sty.fed domestic animals which, with astonishing to reflect how little correct every want supplied, lie with twinkling philosophical knowledge we possess of eyes grunting in idle ecstasy as the florid the real condition of man in a state of bacon-fed attendant scratches their hides nature. with the prongs of his pitchfork ;-if a The rich mine which contained this herd of buffalo with extended tails, re- knowledge has always been before us, treating across their plains at their utmost but, because its wealth was not absolutely speed from that malignant speck on the lying on the surface, we have been too horizon which proclaims to them the indolent to dig for it. In short, between fearful outline of the human form, be the civilized and uncivilized world a barcompared with a Devonshire cow chew- rier exists, which neither party is very ing the cud before a baru-door, while at desirous to cross ; for the wild man is as every stroke of John's flail honest Susan, much oppressed by the warm houses, by leaning her blooming cheek against her the short tether, and by the minute regufavourite's side, with her bright tin milk. lations of civilized men, as they suffer pail at her feet, pulls, pulls, pulls, so long from sleeping with him under the canopy as she can say, as John Bunyan said of of heaven, or from following him over his book, still as pnll'd it came ;-if the surface of his trackless and townless the foregoing, as well as many similar territory; besides which, if we reflect for comparisons which might be brought be a moment how grotesque the powdered fore the mind, were duly considered, it hair, pig.tails, and whole costume of our would probably be declared that there fathers and forefathers now appear to our does not exist in the moral world, and eyes, and how soon the dress we wear that there can scarcely exist in the phy. will, by our own children, be alike con. sical, a more striking contrast than that demned; we need not be surprised at the which distinguishes the condition and fact, which all travellers have experienced, character of birds and animals in a wild namely, that on the first introduction to and in an artificial condition.

uncivilized tribes, the judgment is too But there is a contrast in nature even apt to set down as utterly and merely stronger than any we have mentioned- ridiculous, garments, habits, and customs, we mean that which exists between man 'which on a longer acquaintance it often

cannot be denied, are not more contempt-in savage tribes. However inferior the ible than many of our own ; in fact, in stranger may be to him in stature or in the great cause of civilisation versus the physical strength, he at once treats him savage' we are but bad judges in our as a superior being. He is proud to serve own cause.

him : it is his highest pleasure to conBut even supposing that our travellers duct him—to protect him and to afford had been determined to suspend their him, without expecting the slightest reopinions and to prosecute their inquiries, compense, all that his country can offerin spite of hardships and unsavoury food, all that his humble wigwam may contain. yet when the barrier has apparently been If his object in visiting the Indian coun. crossed, the evidence which first presents try be unsuspected, the stranger's life and itself bears false witness in the case ;- property are perfectly secure ; under for just as the richest lodes are covered such circumstances, we believe, there has at their surface with a glittering substance scarcely ever been an instance of a white (termed by miners. mundic'), resembling man having been murdered or robbed. metal, but which on being smelted flies Mr. Catlin, who has had, perhaps, more away in poisonous fumes of arsenic--so experience of these simple people than is that portion of the uncivilized world any other white inhabitant of the globe, which borders upon civilisation always unhesitatingly adds his testimony to this found to be contaminated, or, in other general remark. From the particular words, to have lost its own good qualities objects of his visit to the Indians, he had without having received in return any- more baggage than any individual would thing but the vices of the neighbouring usually carry. At no time, however, was race,

his life in greater danger than theirs, and It is from the operation of these two in no instance was he pilfered of a single causes, that so many of our travellers in article-on the contrary, it was not until both continents of America, mistaking the he reached the contaminated barrier that mundic for the metal, have overlooked he found it even necessary to watch over the real Indian character, first, from a dis. his baggage ; and, indeed, it was not uninclination to encounter the question ; til he returned to people of his own col. and, secondly, having attempted to en- our, that he found it almost impossible counter it, from having been at once, and to protect the various items of his proat the outset, disgusted with the task. In perty. order, therefore, to take a fair view of the The Indians talk but little ; and though Indian, it is evidently necessary that we their knowledge is of course limited, yet should overleap the barrier we have des- they have at least the wisdom never to cribed, and thus visit him either in the speak when they have nothing to say ; vast interminable plains in the lofty and and it is a remarkable fact, which has realmost inaccessible mountains,-or in the peatedly been observed, that they neither lonely interior of the immense wilderness curse nor swear. in which he resides.-In each of these When an Indian arrives with a message three situations we have had a very tran- of the greatest importance to his tribe sient opportunity of viewing him, but it even with intelligence of the most immiwill be on the more ample experience of nent danger, he never tells it at his first others that we shall mainly rely in the fol. approach, but sits down for a minute or lowing sketches and observations. two in silence, to recollect himself before

It is a singular fact, that while in Europe, he speaks, that he may not evince fear or Asia, and Africa, there exist races of men excitement; for though these people adwhose complexion and countenances are mit, that when individual talks to individalmost as strongly contrasted with each ual, any licence may be permitted, they other as are animals of different species, consider that in all dealings between nathe aborigines of both continents of tion and nation the utmost dignity should America everywhere appear like children be preserved. The public speakers are of the same race; indeed the ocean itself accordingly selected from the most elounder all latitudes does scarcely preserve quent of their tribes; and it is impossible a more equable colour than the red man for any one who has not repeatedly lisof America in every situation in which he tened to them, to describe the effects of is found

the graceful attitude, the calm argument, Wherever he has been unruffled by in- and the manly sense with which they ex. justice, his reception of his white brother press themselves. Indeed, it seems peris an affecting example of that genuine fectly unaccountable how men who have hospitality which is only to be met with 'never read a line, who have never seen a

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VOL LXV.

town, who have never heard of a school, hind him. Not the slightest perspiration and who have passed their whole exist. appeared on his deep red body ; but with ence either among rugged mountains, on the gad or chisel in his left hand, he un. boundless plains, or closely environed by remittingly continued at his work, until trees,-can manage, all of a sudden, to we suddenly arrested his lean sinewy express themselves without hesitation, in right arm; and as soon as he had recovbeautiful language, and afterwards listen ered from his astonishment, we induced to the reply as calmly and as patiently. him to surrender to us the hammer he

It has often been said ex cathedrâ that was using, which is now in our posses the Indians are inferior to ourselves in sion. Its weight is no less than eighteen their powers of body and mind. With pounds, exactly twice as much as a blackrespect to their physical strength, it smith's double-handed hammer ; and we should on the outset be remembered that can confidently assert that no miner or lamen, like animals, are strong in propor- bourer in this country could possibly tion to the sustenance they receive. In wield it for five minutes, and that among many parts of America, where the coun- all the sturdy philosophers who congretry, according to the season of the year, gate at Lord Northampton's soirée or Mr. is either verdant or parched, it is well Babbage's conversazione, hardly one be. known that not only the horses and cattle sides Professor Whewell could use it for are infinitely stronger at the former sea- a tenth of that time. son than at the latter, but that the human Mr. Catlin states, that in another very inhabitants who feed on them are sympa. distant part of America, a short thick set thetically fat and powerful at the one pe- warrior, known by the appellation of the riod, and lean and weak at the other. Brave,' amicably agreed, before a large Even in our own country, a horse or a party of spectators, to wrestle with some man in condition* can effect infinitely of the most powerful troopers in a regimore than when they are taken either ment of United States' dragoons; and from a meadow or a gaol ; and accord. that the Indian, grappling with one after ingly a sturdy well-fed Englishman may another, dashed them successively to the with truth declare, that he has been able ground with a violence which they did to surpass in bodily strength his red not at all appear to enjoy, but with about brother : but let him subsist for a couple as much ease seemingly to himself as if of months on the same food, or on only they had been so many maids of honour. twice or thrice the same quantity of food, With respect to the moral power of and he will soon cease to despise the phy- the red aborigines, in addition to the few sical powers of his companion. The short specimens of their speeches and weights which Indian carriers can con- replies which we mean by and by to novey, the surprising distances which their tice, we must observe, that the tortures runners can perform, the number of hours which these beardless men can smilingly they can remain on horseback, and the and exultingly endure, must surely be ad. length of time they can subsist without mitted as proofs of a commanding fibre food, are facts which unanswerably dis- of mind, of a self possession-in short, of prove the alleged inferiority of their a moral prowess which few among us strength.

could evince, and which we therefore In one of the most remote and moun- ought to blush to deny to them as their tainous districts of their country, when it due. In justice, however, to the Indian was completely enveloped in snow, we character, we deem it a painful duty to happened, at the bottom of a deep mine, quote a single authenticated instance to see a native Indian in an adit, or galle- of the triumph of the red man's mind ry, in which he could only kneel. We over the anguish of his body. We hope had been attracted towards him by the that 'the better-half' of our readers will loud and constant reverberation of the pass it over unread, as revolting to the heavy blows he was striking ; and so soft feelings of their nature; but the great was the noise he was making that question is too important for us to shrink we crawled towards him unobserved, from the production of real evidence ; and for a minute or two knelt close be and, having undertaken their defence, we

feel we should not be justified in sudden* The Indians train themselves for war by extra ly abandoning it, from the apprehension food, and by sweating themselves in a vapour bath, lest any man should call it unmannerly over with a skin, under which they have placed hot to bring a slovenly unhandsome corse stoves, kept wet by a small stream of water. betwixt the wind and his nobility.'

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The Hon. Cadwallader Colden, who, in coup de grace given ; and I believe she thereby like. 1750, was one of his Majesty's counsel, wise obtained a favour to every reader, in deliver.

ing him from a further continuance of this account and surveyor general of New York, in his

of French cruelty.' History of the Five Indian Nations of Canada.** says,

We have selected this tragic story out

of many, because it offers a double moral; • The French, all this summer, were obliged to for it not only evinces the indomitable keep upon the defensive within their forts, while the Five Nations, in small parties, ravaged the power of an Indian mind, but it at once whole country, so that no man stirred the least turns the accusation raised against the distance from a fort but he was in danger of losing eruelty of his nature, upon a citizen of his scalp.

• The Count de Frontenac was pierced to the one of the politest and bravest nations of heart when he found he could not revenge these the civilized globe, and with this fact terrible incursions; and his anguish made bim before him, well might the red man say, guilty of such a piece of monstrous cruelty, in suo sibi gladio hunc jugulo!! burning a prisoner alive after the Indian manner,

With a view, however, to show that an as, though I have frequently mentioned to have been done by the Indians, yet I forebore giving Indian heart is not always unsusceptible the particulars of such barbarous acts, suspecting of the horror we must all feel at the torit might be too offensive to Christian cars, even in ture they are in the habit of inflicting the history of savages.

upon their prisoners of war, we have * The Count de Frontenac, I say, condemned two prisoners of the Five Nations to be burnt pub. pleasure in offering, especially to the licly alive. The Intendant's lady entrated him fairer sex, the following anecdote related to moderate the sentence ; and the Jesuits, it is by Captain Bell and Major Long, of the said, used their endeavours for the same purpose; United States army, and certified by cessity of making such an example, to frighten the Major O'Fallan, the American agent, as Five Nations from approaching the plantations.” also by his interpreter, who witnessed it. But, with submission to the politeness of the French A few years ago a Pawnee warrior, son nation, may I not ask whether every (or any) hor- of 'Old Knife,' knowing that his tribe, rid action of a barbarous enemy can justify a civil

. according to their custom, were going to ized nation in doing the like? or could not be moved, the Jesuits went to the pri. torture a Paduca woman, whom they had son to instruct the prisoners in the mysteries of our taken in war, resolutely determined, at holy religion, viz., of the Trinity, the incarnation all hazards, to rescue her, if possible, of our Saviour, the joys of Paradise, and the pun. from so cruel a fate. ishments of flell, to fit their souls for Heaven by

The poor creature, baptism, while their bodies were condemned to tor far from her family and tribe, and surments. But the Indians, after they had heard rounded only by the eager attitudes and their sentence, refused to hear the Jesuits speak; anxious faces of her enemies, had been and began to prepare for death in their own coun.

actually fastened to the stake-her funetry manner, by singing their death song. Some charitable person ihrew a knife into the prison, ral pile was about to be kindled, and with which one of them despatched himself. The every eye was mercilessly directed upon other was carried out to the place of execution by her, when the young chieftain, mounted the Christian Indians of Loretto, to which he on one horse, and, according to the habit walked, seemingly, with as much indifference as ever martyr did to the stake. While they were of his country, leading another, was seen torturing him, he continued singing, that he was a approaching the ceremony at full gallop. warrior brave, and without fear; that the most To the astonishment of every one, he cruel death could not shake his courage; that the rode straight up to the pile-extricated most cruel torments should not draw an indecent ex. pression from him ; that his comrade was a coward, the victim

from the stake-threw her on a scandal to the Five Nations, who had killed him the loose horse, and then vaulting on the self for fear of pain; that he had the comfort to re back of the other, he carried her off in flect that he had made many Frenchmen suffer as he did now.

triumph! He fully verified his words, for the most violent torments could not force the least She is won! we are gone-over bank, bush, and complaint from him, though his executioners tried their utmost skill to do it. They first broiled his “ They'll have fleet steeds that follow," quoth feet between two red-hot stones; then they put his

young Lochinvar.' fingers into red-hot pipes, and though he had his arms at liberty, he would not pull his fingers out ; The deed, however, was so sudden and they cut his joints, and taking hold of the sinews, unexpected — and being mysterious, it twisted the:n round small bars of iron. All this while, he kept singing and recounting his own

was at the moment so generally considbrave actions against the French. At last they ered as nothing less than the act of the flayed his scalp from his scull, and poured scalding Great Spirit, that no efforts were made hot sand upon it, at which time the Intendants to resist it, and the captive, after three ady obtained leave of the Governor to have the 1

days' travelling, was thus safely trans* We quote froin the London edition, 8vo. p. ported to her nation, and to her friends. 487–1750

On the return of her liberator to his own

scaur ;

people, no censure was passed upon his vices and virtues ought not to be thus extraordinary conduct-it was allowed to considered. In designating the human pass unnoticed.

character, there should be no compromise On the publication of this glorious of principle; no blending of colours; and love story at Washington, the boarding- accordingly we confess, without hesitaschool girls of Miss White's seminary tion, that nothing can be more barbarous were so sensibly touched by it, that they than the manner in which the Indians very prettily subscribed among each occasionally treat their prisoners of war; other to purchase a silver medal, bearing yet in this also they have two most rea suitable inscription, which they pre- markable extremes of conduct; for on sented to the young Red-skin, as a token presenting their captives to those who of the admiration of while-skins at the have lost relations in battle, if they are chivalrous act he had performed in having accepted, they immediately become free, rescued one of their sex from so unnatu- and enjoy all the privileges of the persons ral a fate. Their address closed as fol. in lieu of whom they have been received. lows:

In fact, they are adopted ; and in one

moment suddenly find themselves sur * Brother! accept this token of our esteem; rounded by people who address them, and have the power to save a poor woman from death, who act towards them as brothers, sisters, think of this, and of us, and fly to her relief.' parents, and even as wives ! On the

other hand, if they are rejected by the The young Pawnee had been uncon- families of the slain, then their doom is scious of his merit, but he was not un- fixed, their torture is prepared, and when grateful :

the fatal moment arrives, there again Brothers and sister: " he exclaimed, extending appear before the observer of the Indian towards them the medal which had been hanging character two extremes, in both of which on his red naked breast, this will give me ease they infinitely surpass us. For the nos more than I ever had, and I will listen more than blest resignation, the purest courage, the I ever did to white men.

• I am glad that my brothers and sisters have most powerful self-possession are conheard of the good act 1 have done. My brothers trasted in the same red race with the and sisters think that I did it in ignorance; but I basest vengeance, the most barbarous now know what I have done. • I did it in ignorance, and did not know that 7 that it is possible even for poetry to con

cruelty, and the most unrelenting malice did good; but by giving me this medal I KNOW IT!

ceive, The tranquillity and serenity which • About the time,' says Cadwallader Colden, of characterise an Indian in time of peace the conclusion of the peace at Reswick, the noted

The French gave are strangely contrasted with the furious Theronet died at Montreal.

him Christian burial in a pompous manner; the passions which convulse him in war. The priest that attended him at his death having demoral thermometer, which, in the English clared that he died a true Christian ; for, said the character, is generally somewhere about priest, while I explained to him the passion of our

temperate,' is with the Indians either Saviour, whom the Jews crucified, he cried out, many degrees below zero or high above on, had I been there I would have revenged his

death, and brought away their scalps ! the point at which it is declared that spirits boil.' The range of the red We have no desire to attempt to wash man's emotions is infinitely greater than out the damned spot' which we have that of his white brother; and to all who just described. Its stain upon the Indian have witnessed only the calmness, the character is indelible : at the same time patience, the endurance, and the silence we must offer a few observations on the of the Indians, it seems almost incredible subject, that the most furious passions should be The feelings which actuate the great lying dormant in a heart that seems filled armies of Europe are altogether different with benevolence; and that under the from those under which two tribes of sweet countenance which blossoms like Indians ineet each other in battle. In the the rose, there should be reposing in a former case the soldiers but imperfectly coil a venomous serpent, which is only understand the political question in diswaiting to spring upon its enemy ! pute, and they come into action very

Although, therefore, it might perhaps much in the same state of mind in which be said, that if the two extremes of the an individual would take his ground to Indian character were allowed to com- fight a duel for his friend with a person he pensate each other, they would not be far had never before seen, in defence of some distant from the mean of our own, yet unknown lady, who had received some

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