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without feeling that such an appeal to the them as their father and as their friend, civilized world in behalf of the Indians will be affectionately repeated by them ought not to be permitted to end in run; in our colonies until the Indian heart for, as his means are slender, it need not has ceased to beat there, and until the be concealed that he himself cannot long Red Man's language has ceased to viafford even house.room to his large fami- brate in the British wilderness of this ly of pictures, which, if rejected, would world.' Although European diseases, hang as a mill-stone round his neck. and the introduction of ardent spirits
But, leaving the worthy artist's own bave produced the lamentable effects interests completely out of the question. we have described, and although as a and in the cause of science casting aside nation we are not faultless, yet we inay all party feeling, we submit to Lord Mel. fairly assert, and proudly feel, that the bourne, to Sir Robert Peel, to Lord Lans-English Government has at least made downe, to Sir R. Inglis, and to all who every possible exertion to do its duty toare deservedly distinguished among us as wards the Indians; and that there has the liberal patrons of the fine arts, that existed no colonial secretary of state who Mr. Catlin's Indian collection is worthy has not evinced that anxiety to befriend to be retained in this country, as the re- them which, it is our duty to say, particu. cord of a race of our fellow-creatures larly characterized the administration of whom we shall very shortly have swept the amiable and humane Lord Glenelg. from the face of the globe. Before that catastrophe shall have arrived, it is true, a few of our countrymen may occasionally travel among them; but it cannot be expected that any artist of note should Art. IV.-1. L'Ecole des Journalistes. again voluntarily reside among them for Par Madame Emile de Gerardin. Paris, seven years, as competent as Mr. Catlin, 1839. whose slight, active, sinewy frame has 2. Un Grand Homme de Province à Paris. peculiarly fitted him for the physical diffi Par H. de Balzac. Paris, 1839. culties attendant upon such an exertion.
Considering the melancholy fate which CHAMFORT said of the ancient government has befallen the Indian race, and which of France that it was a monarchy temper. overhangs the remnant of these victims to ed by songs. The present government is our power, it would surely be discredita- a monarchy tempered (or distempered) ble that the civilized world should, with by newspapers. The stanza is superseded heartless apathy, decline to preserve and by the paragraph: the chansonnier gives to transmit to posterity Mr. Catlin's gra- place to the fulletoniste ; and Béranger is phic delineation of them; and if any na- thrust out of fashion by Janin. tion on earth should evince a desire to Enter the Chamber of Peers when a preserve such a lasting monument, there new batch are to take their seats, and the can be no doubt that there exists none odds are that every third man of them is better entitled to do so than the British an editor or ex.editor. Attend the Cham: people ; for, with feelings of melancholy ber of Deputies on a field day, and the satisfaction, we do not hesitate to assert most influential speaker will be a gentlethat, throughout our possessions on the man of the press. Dine at the Rocher continent of America, we have, from the de Cancale, and the chief room is engag; first moment of our acquaintance with ed by a rédacteur en chef : ask for a stall them to the present hour, invariably main at the Tháire Français, when Mars or tained their rights; and at a very great Rachel is to act, and the best are secured expense have honestly continued to pay for his contributors. That suite of rooms, them their annual presents, for which we brilliantly lighted, has been fitted up by have received from them, in times of war the founders of a journal, who give a bail as well as of peace, the most unequivocal to.night in honour of the undertaking : marks of their indelible gratitude. Their that grand cross of the legion of honour, respect for our flag is unsullied by a re- who is just coming out, gained his decoproach-their attachment to our sove- rations by his articles: that splendidly. reign is second only in their br sts to dressed woman, who is just going in, is the veneration with which they regard the daughter of a millionnaire, who lately their 'Great Spirit'—while the names of bestowed her hand and fortune on a jour. Lord Dalhousie, of Sir Peregrine Mait- nalist; that gay cabriolet, now dashing land, and of Sir John Colborne, who for through the street, belongs to a theatrical many years respectively acted towards critic, who supports himself by levying
contributions on the singers and dancers multitude. Chabot announced,-'Qu'elle of the opera. Vogue la galère! Power, (la presse) avoit été nécessaire pour ame. pleasure, places, wealth, ribands, stars, ner le rigne de la liberté ; mais que, ce heiresses, truffled turkeys, and cham bout une fois atteint, il ne falloit plus de pagne, all showered down in endless pro. liberté de la presse,
compro. fusion upon men, many of whom were mettre la liberté elle-même.' living au cinquième in want of downright "It's ill arguing with a king who has an necessaries until the glorious Revolution army of a hundred and fifty thousand men, of July! No wonder that they are intoxi and such very hard-soled boots !' said Quincated with their success; that they have tus Sicilius (alias Guichard), after having grown giddy with their elevation; that, had his shins well kicked by Frederick like other usurpers, they have forgotten for suggesting a doubt as to his royal the principles which raised them to the patron's theory regarding the immortality throne, or, like other possessors of irre of the soul.. 'It's ill arguing with gensponsible authority, have become capri tlemen who have a committee of public cious, tyrannical, and corrupt: no won safety and a guillotine at their back!' der, lastly, that their dynasty is now tot. said the French journalists; and the 18th tering to its fall
Fructidor effectually silenced the few who • Le trône a succombé par excès de puissance ;
disregarded the warning, and wrote on. La liberté mourut en devenant licence ;
But no sooner had Napoleon enforced Et la presse, Monsieur, nouvel astre du jour, order than they re-appeared with renewPour avoir trop brillé, va s'éteindre à son tour.'
ed vigour; and were we required to name Whilst that event is yet pending, it may the period when the French press enjoy. be both amusing and instructive to in- ed the highest degree of influence and quire how this social and political anoma. consideration, we should name the two or ly has been brought about.
three concluding years of the consulate. We need hardly say that the old régime Then the truth of Benjamin Constant's afforded no scope for journalism, or that aphorisin,—the press is the mistress of the moment the restrictive laws were re. intelligence, and intelligence is the mis. pealed or became powerless, the conflict- tress of the world !'—was admitted to its ing parties eagerly resorted to the press. full extent. Power, according to the preWithin a short period after the breaking vailing theory (for the practice turned out of the Revolution each section of the out rather differently in the end), was National Assembly, and each of the clubs only to be acquired or retained through of Paris, had its organ.* Bailey, Barnave, opinion ; and about the year 1800 all that Lameth, and Madame Roland, were con- was most distinguished in literature and tributors; and the attempt of Mirabeau politics was in direct or indirect commu. to establish a newspaper fills one of the nication with the periodical press. most characteristic chapters of Dumont. The journals which took the lead were It failed from bad management; nor are the Journal des Débats and Le Mercure : we at all astonished to find that no one the Journal des Débats with Delalot, else at that particular epoch was able to Fievée, the Abbé de Boulogne, Dussault, perfect the invention ; for hardly had the and Geoffroy (who, according to Janin, writers begun to emerge and breathe then divided the attention of Europe with freely, when, wave after wave, the revo. Napoleon), for contributors; Le Mercure lutionary tide rolled over them, and taste, with Fontanes, de Bonald, La Harpe (the talent, feeling and information were swept author of the Cours de la Littérature), and away or lay buried in its depths; whilst Chateaubriand, who sprung, by one bold the grossest ignorance, the most stupid bound, into celebrity. Their principles prejudice, the most unmitigated brutality, were royalist, but with no peculiar pre. raved, revelled, blasphemed, and cele- dilection for individuals; and they both brated revolting orgies, in their stead. supported Napoleon, because they thought During the height of the democratic him alone capable of maintaining order, phrenzy no man's life would have been re-establishing religion, and protecting worth a minute's purchase who should industry. have endeavoured to speak sense and
On the other hand, the movement party reason, or impose the slightest check on were wanting neither in talent nor ener. the sovereign will and pleasure of the gy; but the re-action had begun, the still fresh upon their minds, to risk a re- to attend the minister. The ordinances newal of the tragedy. The grand organ were put into his hands. He glanced of this party was La Décade Philoso- over them to see that all was right; but, phique : the principal writers being Gin- instead of making his bow and leaving guené, Chenier, Cabanis, Benjamin Con- the room as usual, he paused, and stood stant, and Say. We have already men with the door in his hand, anxious, yet tioned the circumstances under which hesitating to speak. Well, sir, were not three of them were expelled from the your instructions plain ?' Monseigneur,' tribunat for opposing the wishes of the replied M. Sauvo, I have had so much first consul ;* and it was hardly to be ex- experience, I have known so many govpected that they would be allowed the ernments—That,' broke in the prince, free use of their pens, by way of compen- | 'you must have learned by this time that sation for lost liberty of speech. Their you have nothing to do but to obey. Sir, journal was soon found troublesome and I wish you a good evening.' The door suppressed. The conservatives enjoyed closed, and the fate of the reigning dy. a longer respite, and down to so late a nasty was sealed. period as 1807, the press enjoyed some
spirit of the epoch was against them, and * The first of note was Le Logomache, edited by
it was difficult to persuade the people, H. Niarct, and afterwards by the Duc de Bassano! with the impression of the reign of terror
On the very day of the Emperor's comsemblance of liberty ; but in the course pelled abdication, in 1814, the Bertins, of that year an eloquent article of Cha- disregarding Talleyrand, who cautioned teaubriand's-in which, apropos of M. them to wait, rushed back to their old Delaborde's Spanish journey, he spoke of bureau de redaction, and were the first Nero and Tacitus-proved fatal to the to raise and fling abroad the long prosMercure ; whilst to rebut, at all events, trate banner of journalism. But it had the imputation of partiality, the Journal a hard battle to fight long after its fellest des Débats, metamorphosed into the Jour- oppressor was overthrown, and during nal de l'Empire, was about the same time the next fifteen years, struggled on taken out of the hands of the proprietors through a series of restrictions—relaxed (MM. Bertin, brothers) and placed un- by Martignac, or tightened by Villele and der the management of official editors. Peyronnet. During the greater part of Amongst these was M. Etienne, the au- this trying period, Chateaubriand and thor of the comedy of Les Deux Gendres, Benjamin Constant bore the brunt; and a man of tact and talent, who has since when the censorship put an occasional become a proprietor and conductor of the stop to the contest in the newspapers, Constitutionnel, member of the Academy, they went on plying opposing ministries and peer of France !
and each other with pamphlets. The From this period until the Allies enter. chief royalist journal was the Conservaed Paris, there was no political paper teur, under Chateaubriand, Bonald, La worth mentioning but the Moniteur, which Mennais, Clausel de Cousserges, &c. &c. might well supply materials for a philo- It was ably encountered by La Minerve, sophic treatise on despotism. What under Constant, Etienne, Jouy, Arnault, ingenious comments on the text of might and others professing liberal and constimakes right! what garbling of facts! tutional principles. MM. Comte and what perversion of motives! what Os. Dunoyer also, in Le Censeur, bravely sianic amplifications of victory! what maintained the cause of what they besophistical apologies or mendacious sub- lieved liberty, and endured all sorts of terfuges for defeat ! And then the persecutions for its sake. M. Comte, in nightly conferences of the trembling edi particular, was for many years an exile tor with the imperial penman, expecting in consequence. sense and grammar to wheel about at the But the power and resources of the word of command like grenadiers. The press could hardly be said to have been editor in question was M. Sauvo, who fully developed or made known until after contrived to retain the office and dis the invasion of Spain, in 1823, when the charge its duties to the entire satisfaction various and before conflicting elements of his employers, through every change of opposition formed themselves, as if of dynasty, till after the Revolution of by tacit combination, into one compact July A well-authenticated anecdote column, and bore down upon M. Villele. may serve to convey some notion of his Amongst the most formidable of the capacity. Late at night on the eve of attacking body was still, as ever, his that revolution, he was hastily summoned former colleague, Chateaubriand, who,
though fighting with his vizor down, was * Quarterly Review, No. cxxviii. easily recognised, by the force of the
stroke and the glitter of the weapon, in most critical emergencies, threw himself the Journal des Débats. The Constitution into the fray, without much regard to nel, founded subsequently to the Resto consequences. In his Pamphlet des Pamration, first became remarkable for the phlets he thus ludicrously describes the good sense, tact, and cleverness with horror with which this mode of publica. which it adapted political truths to ordi- tion was then regarded by entire classes nary apprehensions, and won over the of the community :feelings or prejudices of the mass. The principal writers were MM. Etienne, de Broë, homme éloquent, zélé pour la morale pub.
J'y ai réfléchi, et me souviens qu'avant lui M. Buchon, Felix, Baudin, Jay, de Pradt, lique, me conseilla de même, en termes moins flat. and Thiers—who had just then been teurs, devant la Cour d'Assises. Vil Pamphlétaire ! brought forward and placed in connec -Ce fut un mouvement oratoire des plus beaux, tion with this paper by Manuel. The quand se tournant vers moi qui, foi de paysan, ne doctrinaires, too, were then vehement Vilo Pamphlétaire, &c., coup de foudre, non, de
songeais à rien moins, il m'apostropha de la sorte : against the government in the Courier massue, vu le style de l'orateur, dont il m'assomma Français, where the school was ably sans remède. Če mot soulevant contre moi les represented by M. Guizot and his first juges, les témoins, les jurés, l'assemblée (mon avowife a woman of great and varied ac. Je sus condamné dès l'heure dans l'esprit de Mes.
cat lui-même en parut ébranlé), ce mot décida tout. complishments. They were seconded sieurs, dès que l'homme du roi m'eut appelé pamby M. Mignet, the historian, who was phlétaire, à quoi je ne sus que répondre. Car il me brought forward, at the same time as his semblait bien en mon ame avoir fait ce qu'on nomme friend Thiers, by Manuel.
un pamphlet; je ne l'eusse osé nier. J'étais donc The Globe, founded in 1824, with a l'horreur qu'un tel nom inspirait à tout l'auditoire,
pamphlétaire à mon propre jugement, et voyant view to literature and philosophy, obtain- je demeurai confus.' ed little consideration at starting, but when it diverged into politics, and per. M. Martignac, one of whose first steps
M. Villele fell, and was succeeded by sons of established reputation were currently named as contributors, it rapidly was to free the journalists from the worst rose into importance, and took its station of the restrictions that weighed them amongst the most influential journals of down ; but he failed in conciliating their the day. The best of the writers were
favour-and whether it was that they M. Sainte Beuve, M. Dubois (now depu- distrusted his eventual intentions, or, inty, and councillor of the university), M. toxicated with their recent victory over Tanneguy Duchatel (the minister), MM. M. Villele, had already begun to think of Jouffroy and Damiron (the eclectic phi- setting up for themselves, certain it is that losophers), M. Thiers, for a season, MM. they made no allowance for his peculiar Vitet, Charles de Remusat, Duvergier de position as regarded the court, but on Hauranne, &c. &c.-all men of undoubt the first disappointment assailed him ed talent, as every one conversant with without ceremony, and contributed largemodern French literature and politics ly to his fall. The Doctrinaires commitmust admit ; and they had then advan- ted the same mistake as that section of tages which few of them possess now
the Tory party who drove the Duke of the high hopes, the warm feelings, the Wellington from power in 1830 ; they dash, the vigour, the elasticity and viva- assisted in overthrowing a moderate, con. city of youth.
stitutional, and truly conservative gov. In 1827, M. Villele's patience gave ernment, to precipitate a crisis which way, and he re-established the cen
has shaken monarchy to its base in both sorship. Whilst this lasted, the demand countries. for periodical writings of the more stim.
It may be difficult to fix the precise peulating kind was almost exclusively sup
riod when a revolution became inevitable, plied by the exertions of one man, M. de but it is clear that it was confidently antiSalvandy (since Minister of Public In. cipated a considerable time beforehand; struction), who sent forth weekly a and the National was established in 1829 pamphlet, or bundle of pamphlets, con for the avowed object of accelerating the taining a sufficient number of pages to ex
crash. The founders were Carrel, Mig. empt it from the operation of the law. net, Sautelet, and Thiers, who thought His Lellres à la Giraffe were published the Constilutionnel too tame and unenterin this manner, and enjoyed a very large prising for the emergency.* They have circulation. Nor must we forget to men
been accused of republican projects, but tion the songs of Béranger, or the pam.
there is no foundation for the charge. phlets of Paul Louis Courier, who, on * M. de Talleyrand had shares.
There is a current anecdote to the effect, Constitutionnel gave way, and remained that one day, during the Polignac minis. silent, the property being too valuable to try, M. Cousin, (the present Minister of risk; the Journal des Débats, and two or Public Instruction), who hides a good three others, entered into a composition deal of worldly shrewdness and love of with the government; but the majority mischief under his philosophy, meeting set the law at defiance, and when their Thiers, Mignet, and Carrel, laughingly printing presses were seized, placarded exclaimed, Eh, bien ! quand vous aurez the walls of Paris with their articles. An renversé la monarchie légitime, que mellrez. article from the Globe, beginning, “Le vous à la place ? Carrel replied : ‘Bah! crime est conmencé,' was circulated in this mon cher Cousin, nous metróns en place la manner, and produced a prodigious effect. monarchie administrative.' An adminis. It was written by M. de Remusat, now trative monarch, according to Carrel's Minister of the Interior. A curious scene acceptation of the term, would have been took place at the office of Le Temps, the more like a president than a king; and proprietors of which (MM. Baude and the Duke of Orleans (Louis Philippe) Coste) acted like so many Hampdens. was already under consideration, and an The functionaries of the police, finding understood candidate for the post. the door locked and barred, sent for a
A report, drawn up at the time by M. blacksmith, who had just commenced ope. Chantilouze, attributed all the evils of rations, when a head, a book, and a blun. the country to the newspapers; and the derbuss were protruded from a window, struggle now lay entirely between the and the blacksmith was requested to take monarchy and the press. It was clear notice, that, by an express enactment of that one or the other must succumb; the the code, any member of his fraternity movement party burnt their ships and aiding in an act of illegal violence might threw away their scabbards; and the be treated as a housebreaker :-he threw wisest statesmen in Europe were agreed down his tools, and before they could get that a coup d'état must be attempted, at all another the tumult was at its height. hazards, by the crown. The measure The conductors of the National were failed from the improvidence and irreso. taken by surprise, and had no time to lution of the projectors; to illustrate strengthen their position. The original which a single incident may suffice.--A protest with the signatures, which was literary friend tells us that the moment lying on the table and might have fatally (on Monday morning) he read the ordi compromised some of the first men in the nances, and found that no unlicensed country, disappeared in the confusion, publication could appear, he hurried off and has never been seen since. One of to his printer, and requested that, as a the most distinguished of the parties pregood deal of the regular work would pro. sent is commonly suspected of having bably be discontinued, the extra hands pocketed it. might be put upon a purely scien It is beside our purpose to enter furtific production of his own. The re-ther into these details. The best proof, ply of the printer was, that he had al. however, that the Revolution of July was ready demanded licences for works un. well understood and acknowledged at the connected with politics, and, having been time to have been effected by journalism, informed that the bureau of examination is to be found in the fact, that when Cha. would not be ready until the Thursday teaubriand, a professed royalist, appeared following, he had given his establish in the streets, he was actually laid hold of ment a holiday till then. Thus the capi. and carried in triumph by the populace, tal were to be deprived of their daily as the man, par excellence, of the press. reading—as necessary to a Parisian as his Yet from this very period must its decline daily bread-for four days, and the most be dated—ex illo retro fluere et sublapsa dangerous part of the population were referri-prosperity paved the way for corset loose. By an unlucky coincidence ruption; another such victory and they also the printers hold a meeting every are undone. Monday evening, so that they were ena Smollett tells a story of a troop of monbled to concoct their measures without keys, who, under the management of an delay.
able trainer, had been taught to go The journalists acted, on the whole, through a succession of military movewith spirit and unanimity. Most of the ments with surprising precision ; till one leading writers signed the protest, and at- evening, in the midst of their evolutions, tended the consultation at Dupin's. The a spectator threw a handful of nuts