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What an exquisite train of associations zette de France and La Quotidienne. The is here suggested! What feeling, poe- chief support of the Quotidienne, until try, and truth! Would any one doubt within these few months, was M. Mithat there had been such a woman and chaud, the academician, and author of such a book ? Yet it is all sheer fancy. the History of the Crusades ; a man ill The shop or stall in question was a dark, fitted for the defender of a cause whose dingy little hole, hast hidden behind a main dependence should be faith. In pillar: the flowers looked worthy of the allusion to the use they were making of place ; and Madame Prevost herself is the church in the contest, he laughingly not to be named in the same day with a said, · Nous tirons par les fenêlres de la little bouquetière in Covent-Garden. In sacristie ;' and the remark is no bad fact, he writes best about nothing ; and illustration of his character. his papers may too frequently be com- supposed to be assisted with advice pared to a bottle of the late Charles or contributions by MM. Berryer, LauWright's champagne, which frisks, foams, rentie, the Duc de 'Valmy, and the Visand sparkles, titillates the palate and en- conte Lostanges. The general tone of livens the spirits, if you drink it off the the paper is careless, mocking, and cavamoment it is uncorked ; but subsides lier, with a marked affectation of the into a thin, sugary, insipid kind of beve- French gentleman of the ancient régime.

let it stand awhile with the The Gazette de France is the direct op. view of passing an opinion on its quality. posite of all this. Deep devotion, pro. Besides his Monday criticisms, he scat- found respect, steadiness of purpose, and ters his articles about pretty freely, with a strict regard for the decencies (with out much regard to political opinion or the small exception of veracity), are its principle ; and, unless he is much belied, characteristics : nor amongst its merits he has even been known to boast of an- or demerits must we forget its zealous swering his own articles in the Quotidi- adoption of one material portion of the enne, by way of frolic, in the Constitu- Jesuit creed—the maxim, that the end tionnel.

justifies the means. At least we cannot The Constitutionnel, a few years ago, give the conductors entire credit for becounted more than twenty thousand sub- lieving all their own fictions, or for being scribers. This was when the writers be- themselves the dupe of all the political fore mentioned were engaged in it, and speculations they put forth.

Their verwaging a fierce war against the Jesuits sion of the past history of France seems and the court. It has sensibly declined to be, that the old monarchy, actually since 1830, and it had become the fash- and practically, secured an equality of ion to say that " se désabonnait au rights for all classes-(if they had conConstitutionnel.' But, as the occasional tented themselves with saying that it organ of M. Dupin aîné, it has retained attained nearly as many of the true obno inconsiderable degree of importance ; jects of government as the present, the and during the Molé ministry the public doctrine would not have been devoid of attention was attracted to it by frequent plausibility)—and they anticipate future contributions from M. Thiers.

history, by assuring their readers that Le Courier Français fought side by side this source of prosperity will be very with the Constitutionnel against the mo- speedily restored. Nor is the advent of narchy of the restoration. Since the Henry V. postponed indefinitely, or to a Revolution it has leant towards the Du- period when no one is likely to retain pont de l'Eure and Odillon Barrot party any recollection of the prophecy. In or parties; and the latter has the credit this respect they resemble Cobbett, who of writing in it occasionally. M. Guizot long outlived the period when he was to has also been confidently named as a perish, like another Guatimozin, on a contributor. The editor, in its best days, gridiron. The restoration is confidently was M. Chastelain, an honest, though fixed for to-morrow, or next week, or heavy, writer. Since his death its lead- Monday fortnight (positively the last ing articles have been supplied by M. time of restoring); and when the predic. Foucher, who has improved upon his tion fails, they assert, that, by all the predecessor.

rules of predietion, it ought not to The royalist or legitimist party are have failed ; just as the French were much divided in opinion. The two prin- beaten, though by all the rules of war cipal divisions are represented by La Ga- they ought not to have been beaten,

on

at Waterloo. They are warm advo- | the price (forty francs a-year) of other cates of universal suffrage, probably on papers of the same class. The projector Coleridge's principle, that reverence was M. Emile de Girardin, a gentleman for ancient forms and institutions is now whose precise position and character it confined to the lower classes. The prin- is no easy matter to describe, for few cipal writer is the Abbé (formerly Baron) men have been more unceremoniously de Genoude. His maligners assert that calumniated, and, after being many years when he left his native place his appella. a member of the Chamber of Deputies, tion was Genou, and that he has placed a he has been recently declared ineligible de on both sides to make it doubly ac. on the ground that he could not prove ceptable to the aristocracy, or they give himself to be a Frenchman. The diffianother turn to the insinuation, 'Il a mis culty, it seems, hinged on the peculiar à sou genou deux charnières (hinges) circumstances of his birth, which he has pour mieux lé fléchir. The most mark. managed to turn (as he manages to turn ed occasion on which he is said to have most things) to account, by relating bent the knee was during the ministry them in an agreeable little book, entitled of M. Villele, who, by way of re-payment, Emile. He is a natural son of the Comte de we presume, has recently emerged from Girardin, grand huntsman to Charles X., his retirement to write letters on finance and has won his way against considerable in the Gazette. M. de Genoude is re- disadvantages with a gallantry which it puted extremely rich. We have heard is impossible to help admiring. He is his income estimated at not less than perfectly unrivalled in that species of sa• seventy or eighty thousand francs a-year, gacity which divines at a glance the ca. and we can believe it ; for the legitimist pabilities of a new project of speculation; nobles are both wealthy and generous. and, perhaps the true secret of his ex

They still cling to many habits and treme unpopularity is the jealousy felt prejudices injurious to their cause ; they by other adventurers at his success. He are bad canvassers, and they live too started Le Voleur, a paper made up of much within a clique ; but their houses borrowed articles, pushed it into circuand purses are freely opened to their lation, and then sold it on advantageous friends; and funds are never wanting terms. He started La Mode, and disposto maintain their hold upon the press. ed of it in the same manner. He took For this reason the sale of the legitimist the lead in establishing Le Panthéon Litjournals is an unsafe criterion of their téraire (a collection of classical writers) circulation, since every member of the under distinguished patronage, and is party makes a point of subscribing, and, said to have made an equally good thing perhaps, any given copy is seldom read of that. Such was now the confidence beyond a family.

placed in his tact, that, when he announcLe Monde, formerly (about 1837) edited the project of a forty franc journal, the ed by the celebrated Abbá de la Men- sum of 700,000 francs (28,0001.) was nais, with the assistance of the equally forthwith subscribed and placed at his celebrated Georges Sand, is no more. disposal ; and notwithstanding the comL2 Pair has also been given up, though bined attempts of the competitors, whom M. Guizot was understood to be a con- he thus undersold and half ruined, to put tributor. Le Commerce, a paper founded him down, it is far from clear that this at the restoration, and respectable from undertaking will not prove as prospeits information and consistency, is now rous as the rest. Soon after the estabthe

organ of M. Mauguin, the celebrated lishment of his journal, he became enorator and advocate, who makes use of it gaged in a controversy with Carrel. It to advance his own peculiar views in poli- led to a duel, in which Carrel was killed. tics, as well as to defend certain colonial Frenchmen-who in some respects are not interests intrusted to his care. Le Temps, above half civilized-regard disputes of founded by M. Jacques Coste, the hero this kind much in the same light as Sir Lu. of the barricades, and for many years cius O'Trigger : 'It's a very pretty quarrel very skilfully conducted by him, has as it stands. They never dream of explabeen hought by or for M. Conil, deputy nations, and have frequently no better and colonial delegate, who uses it much object in fighting than to show that they as M. Mauguin uses Le Commerce. are not afraid. Four or five years ago,

We now come to a paper which has the ultras of both sides seemed seriously effected a revolution in journalism, La intent on carrying the Bobadil plan of exPresse, established in July, 1836, at half termination into effect. We would

means

challenge twenty of the enemy; they ral belief that he forms a medium of comcould not in honour refuse us. Well, we munication or connecting link between would kill them! challenge twenty more; M. Odilon Barrot and M. Thiers. The kill them! twenty more; kill them, too! literary portion of the paper forms a and so on. This duel, therefore, was strange contrast with the political; the rather M. de Girardin's misfortune than one, like M. Odilon Barrot's speeches, his fault. By way of compensation he breathing a pure, stern, uncompromising had the good luck to marry the beautiful morality, the other exhibiting the most and accomplished Delphine Gay, the culpable laxity and indifference. We daughter of the celebrated Sophie Gay, have heard the conductors compared, in through whom he gained a legitimate this respect, to certain pious householders footing in society. Yet such was the who preserve the strictest regard to deprejudice excited against him by the cency in the upper portion of the house death of Carrel, and the establishment of occupied by their own families, but make his newspaper; such is the influence of no scruple of adding largely to their rethe press, when combined for any given venue by letting out the lower stories to object, good or evil ; such the over- persons of equivocal reputation, at a high whelming power of popular clamour, pas- rent. It is stated by M. Sainte Beuve, in sion, or caprice, in France, that M. Gi- his curious article on La Littérature Inrardin was driven almost by acclamation, dustrielle, in the Revue des. Deux Mondes from the Chamber, for not being able to for September, 1839, that the literary produce strict documentary evidence of contributors to the Siècle act in the same a fact of which no moral doubt was ever capacity in the Charivari, which may acentertained by any one.

count in some measure for the objectionThe journal participates of the charac- able tone of their lucubrations.* A writter of the founder; it is clever and er is not likely to learn manners or moamusing enough, but by no re- rals in such a school. markable for steadiness or consistency. This brings us to a class of newspapers At the present moment it is understood of which the Charivarit may now be conto be the organ of the king, a very differ- sidered as the chief-a class reflecting ent thing from being the organ of his little credit to the country, notwithstandgovernment. The chief contributor is ing their cleverness. Their business is M. Granier de Cossognac, a bold, dash- to laugh at everybody, and turn everying, paradoxical, ready writer, by whom thing into ridicule. If a celebrated man the political paper is most frequently has a foible or defect, mental or physical, supplied. The literary department is they point it out; if a celebrated woman rich in celebrated names, some of Dumas has been suspected of a faux pas, they and Balzac's romances having appeared dwell upon it. Woe to the advocate piecemeal in the columns of La Presse. who professes a fondness for rural amuseBut the contributions of Madame de Gi- ments, and shame upon the deputy who rardin, under the signature of the Vis- squints ! Nor do they confine themselves comte de Launay, form the grand attrac- to words-tion to subscribers; and nothing can be Segnius irritant animos demissa per anres happier or more alluring than the man- Quam quæ sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus,'— ner in which her weekly summary of lite, and their most biting insinuations are rary, musical, artistical, fashionable, and illustrated by caricatures. The real or social gossip is dished up. Her comedy, fancied resemblance of Louis Philippe's which we shall presently have occasion head to a pear was the discovery of Phito examine in detail

, was written to vin- lipon, one of the illustrators of the Chadicate her husband, and retaliate on his rivari, and gave the king more real an. calumniators. Le Siècle, started in opposition to La Go where he would, this unlucky print

noyance than the attacks upon his life. Presse on the under-selling principle, is haunted him; and it is thought that the one of the most zealous supporters of an famous laws of September, which exextension of the elective franchise, and tended to caricatures, were owing full as circulates widely. It is supposed to be un- much to the pear as to Fieschi. der the control of M. Odilon Barrot, whose views it advocates; but the political arti- * The history of their connection is given by M. cles are written by M. Chambolle, a mem-Alphonse Peyrat in the first number of his person. ber of the Chamber of Deputies, who de

i. e., marrow.bones and clearers. An unpopu. rives no slight importance from the gene- lar person is treated with a charivari.

alitis.

The Figaro, the first in point of time, pamphlets, entirely made up of the same earned its reputation fairly and honestly, materials as the Charivari, in the names enough by laughing at the Jesuits. After of the authors. Of this description are the Revolution of July, it changed its Les Guepes of Alphonse Karr, Les Papiltone, became a supporter of the establish- lons Noirs of the bibliophile Jacob (Laed order of things, and has ever since croix) and Les Personnalités of Alphonse been sensibly declining, though M. Al- Peyrat. We cannot say much for the phonse Karr undertook the management wit of these productions; but we recomfor a time.

mend them to the attention of those who The Charivari was founded by M. Des- think that the worst evils of the press noyers, a clever writer of vaudevilles and are produced by its anonymous characmelodrames. It professes to be edited ter. by trois hommes d'état, namely MM. Des. The only evening papers of note are noyers, Altaroche, and Cler. Most of Le Moniteur Parisien, lately an organ of the other wits of Paris contribute occa- the government; and Le Messager, the sionally; and MM. Philipon and Gren- property of M. le Comte Walewski, the ville are the illustrators. The general ten- son of Napoleon by a celebrated Polish dency is democratic, but great care is beauty, whose personal advantages, along taken not to offend the legitimist party, with a million or so of francs bestowed who subscribe to the paper for the sake by the emperor, have been inherited by of the jokes against the king. The Cha- the count. He is a popular member of the rivari was also the first to expose and best Parisian circles, and has lately writcondemn the treachery of Maroto, and ten a comedy to describe their manners, is consequently in high favour with the and (on dit) to bring forward an actress Carlists. Le Corsaire, and several others, named Anais. The piece, entitled L'Ecole belong to the same category as the Figa. du Monde, was not quite so successful at ro and the Charivari.

the public representation at the Théâtre To estimate the effects of these papers, Français, as at the private readings in the we must weigh well their precise object, salons of the initiated, and Janin cut it and bear constantly in mind the pecu- up without ceremony. An injudicious liar character of the people amongst friend of the author's, who volunteered a whom they circulate. Ridicule has been reply, insinuated that the habits of high called the test of truth, and so it may be life were beyond the jurisdiction of the in the hands of writers (like the Rev. pit, and that the play would have fared Sydney Smith) who use it only as the better had the critic been duly propitiated clencher of an argument; but in the by a few preliminary attentions. The hands of persons who get their living by rejoinder was in Janin's happiest manner. it, the case is widely different, and we He triumphantly vindicates the compeare quite sure that in the present state of tency of the public, turns off the person, the public mind of Paris, all that is great, alities with goodhumoured raillery, and good, pure, true, and holy, may be-we handles the pretensions of the count's much fear has been already lowered, coterie, the modern Précieuses Ridicules, soiled, perverted, and desecrated by in a style which must have made them means of it. Some of our Sunday news- the laughter of Paris for a week. There papers are bad enough in all conscience, was some talk of a duel, but in the next but these are excluded from all decent number Janin candidly assured the pubhouses, and even the shop-boys and milli- lic that he was still alive and merry. ners' apprentices, who form their chief The Bonapartist party-i. e., the adhepurchasers, must be disturbed by doubts as rents of Prince Louis Napoleon-have to the authenticity of the absurd accounts lately set up a newspaper entitled Le there set before them of the sayings and Capitole, under the management of M. doings of their betters. At Paris, on the Durand, formerly editor of the Frankfort contrary, every body reads the Charivari, Gazette, but they make few proselytes, and the contributors walk about apparent- and have little to depend upon but the ly no more ashamed of their vocation chapter of accidents, which, it must be than Dr. Lawrence of the Rolliad, Lord admitted, bids fair to prove a varied and Palmerston of the New Whig Guide, or important chapter in France. The RusMr. Canning of the Anti-Jacobin. Even sian interest is also said to be representthis sort of notoriety does not satisfy ed in this paper ! some of them; and it has recently be- Balzac relates, that when Blucher and come the practice to publish monthly Sacken reached the heights which over

32

VOL. LXV.

look Paris, the latter exultingly doomed saluted on his arrival, not with acclamait to destruction. It will suit our pur- tions or illuminations, but a charivari. pose better to let it alone,' said Blucher; However, he has no reason to be ashamed that great cancer will be the ruin of of his unpopularity, for he might have France. Th remark is not quite in made himself as popular as ever by pankeeping with what has been recorded of dering to the prejudices of the mass; the gallant veteran's capacity, but, who- and, with a little more tact and coolness, ever made it, it is founded on truth; for he would still rank high amongst the best the public opinion of the provincial journalists in France. His pamphlet, Du towns is a mere echo or reflection of the Gouvernement du Roi et des Limites Con. metropolis. It follows that the provin- stitutionelles, has been much read, and cial press exercises comparatively little possesses great merit. influence, and we know of only two Not long since M. de Lamartine conwriters who have risen into consideration tributed some political articles to a jourby its means–M. Anselme Petetin and nal of his own province (Macon), which M. Henri Fonfrede.

created a great sensation throughout M. Petetin was the principal writer in France ; but this is attributable to his pethe Précurseur de Lyons. His style culiar character and position. The high wanted polish, but his reasonings were moral tone he has uniformly sustained, full of vigour, and he honestly sought the practical though enthusiastic nature rather to discover a remedy for the evils of his philosophy, the solid foundation of which agitated Lyons during the com- reason and logic which underlies his mercial crisis, than to aggravate them in most imaginative flights, and the undeviorder to profit by the opportunity, as ating rectitude of his motives, have promost of his Parisian brethren would have cured for him an extent of personal and done. He has since retired from the individual weight, wholly unprecedented press, and devoted himself exclusively to in one who is not aiming at power, and is his profession, the bar.

more likely to frustrate the objects of any M. Fonfrede, the son of the well-known given party than to forward them. Girondist, won his early laurels in Le It has hitherto been found impracticable Mémorial, of Bordeaux. He is a man of to maintain a French review on the plan simple habits, residing on the Garonne at of the best English reviews. The sole a small farm near the city, which he visits solution that we have ever been able to obtwo or three times a-week in his boat, tain of the phenomenon is, that opinions enjoying his favourite amusement of and parties change too often, and that fishing by the way. His popularity knew the nation is too volatile to wait a quarno bounds for some years after the Rev. ter of a year for anybody. The experiolution of July, which he materially aided ment was fairly tried by M. Guizot and in Bordeaux; and, like many men of local the Duc de Broglie in 1829, when they reputation, he was led into the fatal mis. established the Revue Française, in which take of supposing that he could achieve their political, critical, and philosophical similar honours in the capital. He came doctrines were developed and applied to Paris about 1837, and enlisted as a with remarkable ability ; but it did not contributor in Le Journal de Paris, a last long, and the late attempt to revive doctrinaire print, edited by M. Jules Le it has received little encouragement; Chevalier. But he was transplanted too The Revue Trimestrielle was also well late : his provincial modes of thought conducted, but soon ceased. We hear, and expression had become inveterate : however, that it is about to be revived the fiery eagerness with which he advo- under high auspices. cated moderation verged upon the ludi- The best of the so-called reviews are the crous; and after a short time he con- Revue des Deux Mondes and the Revue de cluded his Parisian campaign by quarrel. Paris. They are composed much in the ling with M. Guizot, whom he recklessly same manner as our magazines ; and alassailed in a pamphlet. He then bade a though masterly pieces of criticism are long adieu to Paris, and returned to edit often to be found in them, these, being Le Courrier de Bordeaux. But a man who invariably signed, are necessarily regardhas been tried and found wanting in the ed merely as the opinions of an individual, capital is no longer the wonder of his and exercise no influence beyond what is townspeople; and M. Fonfrede was sus- derivable from the name. During the pected of having been faithless to the Molé ministry, when the whole energies democratic cause. He was, therefore, of the press were taxed to the uttermost,

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