both these reviews took part in the con- In France, the principal editor of a first test, and were both said to have accepted class paper is considered entitled to gratifications of some sort ; but accusa- about 30,000 francs (12001.) a year. tions of this kind are rife, and deserved. Contributors are paid at the rate of from ly carry little weight.

30 to 50 centimes (from 31. to 5d.) a line, In the case of the political prints of and all therefore are penny-a-liners alike. Paris, a deposit (cautionnement) of about In the Journal des Débats the ordinary 100,000 francs is required, which is the remuneration for a leading article is reason why they bear a small proportion from 100 to 150 francs; and Janin's apto the rest. It appears that the leading pointments as theatrical critic (including papers have not reduced their prices in a cabriolet) amount to little less than imitation of La Presse ; but almost all 15,000 francs a year. Few English edi. of them have been obliged to increase tors receive 10001. a year, and the price their bulk, which has equally reduced of occasional articles is said to be low. their profits. The stamp on each news. The chief expenses of the best English paper is a sou ; the cost of distribution newspapers are, we believe, incurred in about a quarter of a sou. The O. P. paying reporters and procuring informapapers are sold at about four sous a copy; tion, to secure which on momentous ocLa Presse and Le Siècle at little more casions their outlay is quite munificent. than two ; and no great space is ordi- In England, the newspapers do little narily allotted for advertisements. Com- more than embody public opinion : in pute the interest on capital, the remu- France, they dictate it. In England, the neration to writers, the cost of manage leading or (as Canning was fond of proment, the cost of printing, &c., and it nouncing the word) leaden article is the will be seen that the regular returns of least attractive part : in France, the most most of the Paris newspapers are utterly so. In England, all topics of interest inadequate to their support.

are discussed at public meetings or dinThese are plain statistical facts. Be- ners : in France, almost the sole arena fore attempting to draw conclusions, we of discussion, when the Chambers are have a few general observations to add not sitting, is the press. Half an English to them. Their order is not material ; newspaper, during the recess, is filled for if called upon, in each instance, to with prosy speeches by common-place explain whether the circumstance or state people: the peroration of De Lamartine's of things to which we call attention, be splendid address to the Slave Emancipacause or effect, we should frequently tion Society is the only specimen of have no better answer to give than that popular (not parliamentary) eloquence given by a celebrated personage, when that the French newspapers have reportasked whether the sun went round the ed for months. earth or the earth round the sun,-'Some- Within the last ten years the French times one, and sometimes the other !'

newspapers have effected a revolution, In England, the editors are always the and repeatedly overthrown ministries. principal and often the sole writers : The only instance in which our most inthe occupation absorbs the greater part fluential newspapers have combined for of their time, and compels most of them any given object within the same period, to turn day into night. They consequent- was to prevent the passing of the Poor ly mix very little in society : the voca- Law Act--and they failed; the minority tion is adopted by few, if any, who can in the House of Commons, where their Hive without it ; and your dull cit, pert influence was necessarily most felt, being lawyer, or un-idea'd dandy, turns up his nineteen. nose at a 'gentleman of the press,'- In France a politician may make himprobably his equal or his superior in self known through his journal, and, when birth, education, and intelligence. In the time has come for the adoption of his France, the editor or rédacteur en chef, principles, step from it into place; in generally confines himself to the arrange- England, there is not a single instance of ment of the paper. The writers, political a journalist acquiring office by services as well as literary, are generally very performed in that capacity. numerous. In fact, everybody who can In England, a newspaper is essentially

does write ; and a young French-the subject matter of a commercial specuman used to be as proud of having writ-lation ; in France, until very recently, it ten an effective article for a journal as a was essentially the voice of a party or an young Englishman of having made an organ of opinion. In England, a newspaper effective speech in parliament.

is like old banking business or an estate.

Nothing is so difficult to establish, and by certain critics than those who do not. nothing so difficult to break down, as a But it has never been said that any

criti. good advertising connection, which is the cal journal in England, with the slightest test. When the Courier was at the low- pretensions to respectability, was in the est ebb in point of subscribers ten or habit of levying black-mail, in the Rob twelve years ago, it was valued at more Roy fashion, upon writers or artists of than 30,0001. ; and half a million would any kind; and it is alleged, on high aube a low estimate for The Times. In thority, that the majority of the French France, no paper is worth many years' critical journals are principally supported purchase; and the loss of a popular from such a source. For example, there writer might prove fatal to the best. In is a current anecdote to the effect that England, therefore, the whole secret ser. when the celebrated singer Nourrit died, vice money at the disposal of a govern- the editor of one of the musical reviews ment would be hardly sufficient to secure waited on his successor, Duprez, and, one of the second rates; and the bare with a profusion of compliments and aponotion of buying up or bribing the thun. logies, intimated to him that Nourrit had derer,' is preposterous. In France, on invariably allowed 2000 francs a-year to the contrary, it would be easy for a gov- the review. Duprez, taken rather aback, ernment to buy up a paper, establish one, expressed his readiness to allow half that ' or silence one by giving the editor a sum. "Bien, monsieur,' said the editor, place; and the hydra-head quality of the with a shrug, 'mais, parole d'honneur, j'y species is, perhaps, the only reason why perds mille francs.' this system of tactics is not more fre- But it would take a book to illustrate quently pursued.

this system of exaction; and a book has The best thing that can be said of the actually been written for the express purFrench political writers is, that they pose by a man thoroughly well qualified, generally preserve a certain decency of by habits and information, to expose it in tone in their disputes. The worst thing all its modifications. Balzac's Grand that can be said of the English is, that Homme de Province à Paris presents a their language is too frequently enriched graphic delineation, a living breathing with epithets borrowed from the vocabu- image, of talent perverted, taste vitiated, lary of piscatory females and Mr. O'Con- sensibility crushed, energy frittered away, nell, who would otherwise enjoy a mo- 'generosity hardened into selfishness, and nopoly.

virtue gangrened into vice, by the ordiWhat is here said applies to the politi- nary, every day life of journalism ; and cal portion of the press, So far as the it strikes us that a brief outline of the critical department is concerned the com- hero's career will be the most satisfacparison is decidedly unfavourable to tory mode of conveying a vivid impres, France. The spirit of camaraderie, so sion of the state of things by which so amusingly illustrated in M, Scribe's much mischief has been wrought. comedy, is, perhaps, equally active in Lucien Chardon, a young man of great both countries : as Sir Godfrey Kneller personal attractions, and cleverness acutely observed, one hand can do no- enough to be taken for a genius — as thing for itself, but two hands can rub Fielding says Joseph Andrews might have one another ;' and when a sect or school been taken for a lord-by those who get possession of a journal, they do rub never saw one, contracts a liaison of the away at one another with a vengeance. Platonic order with the great lady of his To say the truth, we know no better native place (Madame de Bargeton, née mode of getting out of the dilemma in Louise de Negrepelisse), and they arrive which the necessity of reviewing a con- in Paris together, she to become a leader tributor's book places us, than that re- of the fashionable world, and he to glitter commended by a late editor of celebrity as a star of the first water in the literary, -- to put it into the hands of another con. They very soon experience the truth of tributor in the same genre, an intimate the maxim with which James I. was wont friend, if possible ; in which case, he was to chase the country gentlemen from his wont to say, it was quite superfluous to court,- Ships which look big in a river, enjoin candour.

little when at sea ;' and the Incredible as it may appear, we have first effect of the change of scene is to also heard it stuied very contidently that dissipate their common illusion as to one English authors and actors who give din- another. The provincial goddess sub'ners are treated with greater indulgence sides into a very ordinary mortal alongside of the De Noailles and De Grammonts, | ards gravés sur les cailloux égyptiens appelés des whilst the 'mute inglorious' Victor Hugo obélisques, il ne connaît pas sa langue, et je le lui or Lamartine pales his ineffectual light loire naturelle et d'antiquités, il aurait dû ne s'occu. before the actual bearers of these appel- per que de l'avenir de l’Egypte, du progrès de la latives. Nay, his very good looks vanish civilisation, des moyens de rallier l'Egypte à la for want of the magic stamp of fashion ; France, qui, après l'avoir conquise et perdue, peut and the lady, taking the initiative, sum-dessus tartine patriotique, le tout entrelarde de ti

look very

. marily dismisses him for a battered, shat-rades sur Marseille, sur le Levant, sur notre com. tered beau of fifty, M. le baron du Cha- merce. telet, who, without rhyme or reason, is

Mais s'il avait fait cela, que diriez-vous ? in vogue.' Lucien sinks into the lowest de politique, il aurait dû s'occuper de l'art, nous pein;

•- Hé bien, je dirais qu'au lieu de nous ennuyer state of destitution ; his historical novel, dre le pays sous son côté pitioresque et territorial.' the · Archer of Charles IX.,' is declared a -Id. vol. i. pp. 129, 130. mere drug; his collection of sonnets is received like Parson Adams' sermons by

After dinner they repair first to the the booksellers ; and he even applies for shop of the then emperor of the book-sellwork at the office of a newspaper in vain. ing world of Paris, Dauriat, probably inHe is received, not by the redacteur-en- tended for Ladvocat, who, after ruining chef, M. Finot, but by one Girandeau, an

himself by his speculations, had interest old soldier, who seems to fill the place of enough with his authors to induce them fighting editor, and this dialogue takes to try and set him up again by the famous place

Livre des Cent-et-Un. He is here repre

sented in the heyday of prosperity ; his "Gir. Finot est mon neveu, le seul de la famille qui shop crowded with wits, deputies, aum'ait adouci ma position Aussi quiconque cherche thors, and artists, who are keeping up an querelle a Finot, le vieux Girandeau, cap. unremitting fire of repartees, whilst the itaine aux grenadiers, parti simple soldat, Sambreet. Meuse, cinq ans maitre d'armes au premier de great man himself floats about like a le. tirailleurs, armée d'Italie ! Une, deux! et le plaig. viathan nant serait à l'ombre, ajouta.t-il en faisant le geste de se fendre. Or donc, mon petit, nous avons dif- • On n'entre ici qu'avec une réputation faite ! De. férents corps dans les rédacteurs. Il y a le rédac. venez célebre, et vous y trouverez des flots d'or. teur qui rédige et qui a sa solde, le rédacteur qui ré. Voilà trois grands hommes de ma façon, j'ai fait dige et qui n'a rien, ce que nous appelons un volon. trois ingrats! Nathan parle de six 'mille francs taire ; enfin, le rédacteur qui ne rédige rien et qui pour la seconde édition de son livre, qui m'a coûté n'est pas le plus bête-il ne fait pas de fautes, celui- trois mille francs d'articles et ne m'a pas rapporté là, il se donne les gants d'être un homme d'esprit, mille francs. Les deux articles de Blondet, je les ai il appartient au journal, il nous paye à diner, il fiane payés mille francs et un diner de cinq cents francs.'

ans les théatres, il est très-heureux. Que voulez. "Je ne suis pas ici pour étre le marchepied des vous être ?

gloires à venir, mais pour gagner de l'argent et pour L. Chard. Mais rédacteur travaillant bien et en donner aux hommes célèbres.' partant bien payé. Gir. Vous voilà comme tous les conscrits qui

This is certainly the correct commerveulent être maréchaux de France !--vol. i.


cial view of the question, let incipient Still Lucien struggles on manfully, poetasters groan over the declaration as cheered by the exhortations and example they will. Lucien did groan over it, for of a set of young men, who are resolved it sealed the fate of his sonnets; but he on winning their way to fame and fortune down before a journalist; he heard him

bow by honest industry, when, in an evil hour, be becomes acquainted with one of the speak of the thousand franc articles of minor critics, who undertakes to make Blondet (Janin), and he hurries off to the him free of the corporation.

theatre, bent on producing such articles This worthy is obliged to sell the new without delay. Fortune favours him; the publications sent in to be reviewed, to regular critic is absent without leave; and pay for the dinner he is about to give Lucien, who has fallen in love with the Lucien. At the risk of exposing some principal actress, is allowed to undertake of the secrets of the craft, we must give

the criticism of the piece. It is dashed off the explanation which ensues:

whilst supper is getting ready, and makes

a sensation, which is the first step_to- Et vos articles, dit Lucien en roulant vers le wards making a fortune in France. "The Palais-Royal.

actress rewards him with herself and her • Bah! vous ne savez pas comment cela se bacle. establishment ; and the editor eagerly Quant au Voyage en Egypt, j'ai ouvert le livre et enrols him amongst the contributors. At lu des endroits çà et là sans le couper, j'y ai décou. vert onze fautes de français. Je ferai une colonne the first meeting of his brethren, they are en disant que si l'auteur a appris le langage des can. at a loss for subjects :



- Messieurs, si nous prêtions des ridicules aux | Gardons de quoi nous griser en cas de perte, et hommes vertueux de la droite ?

joue ! Commençons une série de portraits des ora. - Le conseil est bon, dit le grand inconnu.' teurs ministériels, dit Hector Merlin.

- Fais cela, mon petit, dit Lousteau, tu les He plays, gets drunk, and returns to his connais, ils sont de ton parti, tu pourras satisfaire mistress without a sou. quelques haines intestines.' They laugh at his reluctance to prais- le serrant dans ses bras.'

- Tu as bien fait, mon ange, lui dit l'actrice en ing a book one day and abusing it the next, and his mistress ridicules his pru- In this extremity he closes with an offer dery

to conduct a royalist paper against his - Fais de la critique, dit Coralie, amuse-toi !

own original party (the liberal), and falls Est.ce que je ne suis pas ce soir en andalouse, de. into a trap laid for him by his first mis. main ne me mettrai-je pas en bohémienne, un autre tress and the rival who has supplanted jour en homme ? Fais comme inoi! Donne leur him. They delude him with visionary des grimaces pour leur argent, et vivons heureux.?– expectations of favours from the lady and vol. ii. p. 81.

the court, until he is fatally committed, After laying aside all his scruples, how- and then persuade the minister that a ca. ever, his gains prove inadequate to his lumnious article in one of the opposition expenses, living, as he now does, in the papers is from his pen. Both parties now gayest Parisian sets; but on this point, repudiate him, and the critics combine to too, his friends have comfort in store for write down Coralie, who, after presenting him.

a really beautiful picture of female de.

votedness, sinks under the repeated mor'Quand le soir, à souper, Lucien un peu triste ex. tifications heaped upon her, and dies. Lupliquait sa position à ses amis les viveurs, ils noy. cien, forced into a duel with an early pagne, glacé de plaisanteries. Les dettes ! il n'y a friend, severely wounded, and reduced to pas d'homme fort sans dettes ! Les dettes repré. the very verge of starvation, quits Paris sentent des besoins satisfaits, des vices exigeants, in the hope of being able to reach his naUn homme ne parvient que pressé par la main de tive town on foot. About the same time, fer de la Nécessité. '— Aux grands hommes, le mont-de-piété recon

the great provincial lady gives her band naissani! lui criait Blondet.

to the old beau, Du Chatelet, who is made - Tout vouloir, c'est tout devoir! criait Bixiou. a prefect for the successful conduct of the

- Non, tout devoir, c'est avoir eu tout ! répon. intrigue. The concluding situation is indait des Lupcaulx.'-vol. ii. pp. 142, 143.

imitable : This is almost as good as Lord Alvanley's description of a man who ‘muddled

'La nuit surprit Lucien dans les plaines du Poi.

Il était résolu à bivouaquer, quand, au fond away his fortune in paying his trades- d'un ravin, il aperçut une caleche montant une men's bills ;' or Lord Orford's definition côlé. A l'insu du postillon, des voyageurs et d'un of timber, an excrescence on the face of yalet de chambre placé sur le siége, il put se blottir the earth placed there by Providence for derrière entre deux paquets où il s'endormit en se

plaçant de manière à pouvoir résister aux secousses. the payment of debts ;' or Pelham's


Au matin, il fut réveillé par le soleil qui lui frap. ment, that it was respectable to be arrest- pait les yeux, et par un bruit de voix. Il était a ed, because it showed that the party once Mansle a'ı milieu d'un cercle de curieux et de poshad credit. Aphorisms of this sort gene- qu'il devait être l'objet d'une accusation, il sauta

tillons. Il se vit couvert de poussière, il comprit rally lead to the same conclusion, and our

sur ses pieds, et allait parler, quand deux voyageurs, hero is now on the very brink of a catas- sortis de la caleche, lui coupèrent la parole : il voyait trophe. True, "le petit journal rendait le nouveau préfet de la Charente, le comte du Cha. des services inappréciables à Lucien et à telet et sa femme, Louise de Négrepelisse.'-- vol. Coralie en maintenant le tailleur, la mer

ii. p. 245. chande de modes et la couturière, qui tous tremblaient de mécontenter un journaliste

Madame de Girardin's comedy is based capable de tympaniser leurs établissements ;' the same moral, but the interest is more

upon the same views, and enforces much the other creditors are not to be kept off, and Coralie's furniture is seized.

general, and a far greater effect has con.

Four thousand francs are imperatively requir.

sequently been produced. ed; he can raise only the tenth part of

The opening scene represents an elegant apartment in the suite occupied by M. Pulchard, gérant of a new journal, La Vérité,

the first number of which is to appear on Je vais toujours lui porter cet argent.

- Autre sottise ! Tu n'apaiseras rien avec the morrow. He is giving a dinner to the quatre cents francs, il faut en avoir quatre anillo. contributors, with the exception of the


that sum.

p. 47.


chief, M. Martel, thus described in the list | seems, has joined the party in entire ig. of dramatis persona, "tournure élégante, norance of its object. tenue négligée, l'air moqueur et dédaig- The proofs of their articles are brought neux, manières d'homme distingué qui vit in and distributed amongst them whilst en mauvaise compagnie.' The partner of they are in this state, and the revel is his bed and board, unluckily without a le. about to recommence, when Martel is gitimate title to the character, is Cornélie, called away by a peremptory message danseuse coryphée à l'opéra—l'air maus. from his danseuse. The first act closes sade et prude, tournure de femme maigre with the following just and natural reflecqui se croit bien faite, manières de sotte tions from Edgar:qui se croit charmante.' This fascinat

• EDGAR, les regardant. ing creature keeps the editor in complete · Voilà donc ce pouvoir que l'on nomme journal ! subjection, and it is with difficulty that he Royauté collective, absolu tribunal : has stolen away to see how matters are

Un jugeur sans talent, fabricant d'ironie,

Qui tue avec des mots un homme de génie ; going on at M. Pluchard's. The festival

Un viveur enragé-s'engraissant de la mort; is at its height when he enters the draw.

Un fou—qui met en feu l'Europe et qui s'endort; ing-room. Voices are heard from be. Un poëte manqué, grande ame paresseuse, hind, singing :

Que se fait, sans amour, gérant d'une danseuse-
Tous gens sans bonne foi, l'un par l'autre trahis!

Ce sont là tes meneurs, ô mon pauvre pays !'-
O journal vertueux ! je bois à ta santé !
Vive La Vérité !

In Act the second, the editor, after Vive La Vérité ! a few reflections on his own wasted (On entend des rires.]

talents, sits down in earnest to the comAh! ah !

position of his leading article: PREMIER LAQUAIS, préparant le service du café. Les entends-tu ? peste, ils ne sont pas tristes !

• Mettons-nous franchement contre le ministère, DEUXIEME LAQUAIS, allumant les candélabras. Soyons durs, disons-lui qu'il est sans caractère, Les bons enfans, ma foi, j'aime les journalistes ! Qu'il subit sans courage une invisible loi, Ca mange bien, ça rit, ça chante des couplets,

Qu'il se laisse mener bassement-par le roi ; Et puis ça boit, ça boit! Hein!

Oui, commençons ainsi : "L'homme d'état ré

Comme des Anglais.',

Au monarque, et pour lui la fermeté_"
CORNELIE, dans la coulise ; elle crie,

Baptiste ! M. Martel desires that they may not

Martel. be interrupted, and is presently joined by Ah! mon Dieu, la voici-déjà-je suis perdu !** M. Guilbert, the banker who is to furnish the capital:

The dancer comes to complain of an

article against herself, which had escaped • Dans ce nouveau journal je prens un intérêt ;

the editor's notice. The banker rushes Mais ma position=mon gendre au ministère, in, to state that a paragraph against railVous comprenez

roads has lost him 12,000 francs; and is

not to be appeased even by the promise, Très-bien.

readily given, of a positive contradiction

the next day. J'agis avec mystère. Par moi vous obtiendrez plus d'un renseignement;

• GUILBERT. Mais vous en userez vous-même prudemment, D'une indiscrétion on chercherait la source,

• Tout s'explique ; vraiment, je ne m'étonne plus, Et je ne pourrais plus

* This sort of point is no novelty :-
MARTEL, à part.

Fag, solus.
Spéculer à la Bourse.'

• So! Sir Anthony trims my master-he is afraid

to reply to his father, and vents his spleen upon Some slight embarrassment is occa- poor Fag! Where one is vexed by one person,

to revenge one's self on another who happens to sioned by the worthy banker's declara

come in the way, shows the worst of tempers, tion in favour of strict decency and regu. the larity of conduct on the part of all per

Enter ERRAND Boy. sons engaged, but the editor manages to

• Boy. Mr. Fag! Mr. Fag ! your master calls

you. get rid of him before the main body of

Fag. Well, you little dirty puppy, you needn't writers appear on the stage. They rush bawl so—the meanest disposition, the in at last, a motley group in various • Boy. Quick ! Quick, Mr. Fag. stages of intoxication, accompanied by Ed

• Fac. Quick! Quick ! you impudent jacka. gar de Norval, the intended husband of napes! ain I to be commanded by you, too, you

little impertinent, insolent, kitchen-bred-(Kicks the banker's youngest daughter, who, it. him off.) The Rivals.


-P. 53,



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