feasible. It has often been attempted, I diately or immediately from a superior and sometimes, for a season, succeeded. Divine authority, but to human enjoyment But to abolish property, and retain wealth - to what they call happiness. On this —to prohibit covetousness, and yet en principle, Mr. Owen has taken his stand ; courage luxury—to make the multiplica- and he has followed it out-correctly, tion of the means of enjoyment a crime, we think, most correctly—with a courage while the multiplication of enjoyment it- and perseverance far superior to any of self is the very end of his system-and his predecessors, into its legitimate and to expect that this singular balance of necessary consequences. His conclu. opposite tendencies will be maintained, sions, indeed, are so accurate, that we not by the strong arm of superior power, must warn from any conflict with himbut by the voluntary agency of voluntary from any contempt or sarcasm, or any members of a joint-stock society, is real. attempt to convert him-every eudæmo. ly too bold a theory, we should have sup. nist in the nation-every political econoposed, even for the unhappy and ignorant mist, who measures the prosperity of his mechanics for whom he is writing. And country by the amount of the excise and yet this is the fundamental axiom-the customs-every moralist who makes the corner stone of a system, which boasts exercise of the intellect, or the indul. to overthrow all difficulties-to have no gence of the affections, or the pursuit of connection with any mysteries—to say an end, or the pleasures of the sense, nothing but what is intelligible to all or power, or honour, or any gratification men, and founded on habitual experience. whatever, in the body or in the mind,

Unhappily, this absurd theory-melan- the supreme end and rule of man-and choly as it is to think on the sad state every religionist, also, who makes devoof the population among whom he ven- tion an enjoyment, and religion easy, and tures to broach it—is the only part of a future life the motive of piety, forgeto his speculations on which it is possible ting the express declaration respecting to mention him, even in the comparative- a 'strait gate and a narrow way. Not ly mild terms of an uninstructed enthu- one of these but must be foiled, if he siast; and it was this alone which Mr. engages in battle with the poor infidel, Southey, and Mr. Wilberforce, and other who has taken the same ground with men of high character, contemplated, themselves, but has understood it better. when they spoke, in former days, of his For if our own happiness, that is, the benevolence and respectability. He has happiness either of ourselves or of the spe. seen, and, we hope, felt deeply for, ancies, be the sole object and rule of man, he evil which is, and will be, a curse to this needs no other. If any other

is to country; and he has imagined a silly be referred to, to guide us in our pursuit, scheme for its removal, which, however, then this rule, and not our happiness, is is not more silly than the scheme of abo- our ultimate law; and this law could lishing the corn laws, or increasing the have no validity except as the dictate of suffrage, or giving vote by ballot, or a supreme authority over man; and that many other projects of modern date, for supreme authority is God: and thus, remedying the same evil-an evil which obedience to God, and not benevolence never can be remedied, so long as our to man, either to ourselves or to others, manufactories exist under a high pressure is the criterion of our duty, and the of covetous free-trade competition. essence of our perfection. But this

But the political economy of this would little suit the cnlightened eudæmoscheme is coupled with certain ethical nist, who, by his first maxim, necessarily and religious speculations; and, like an excludes the idea of a divine revelation. ulcer in a body generally diseased, they He, therefore, takes his stand with his deserve to be inspected--they indicate own dim telescope to make a survey of something far worse than either depravity human happiness, and his own poor hands or hallucination in the mind of one and feet, without a guide, to carry him in individual.

the pursuit. And when he starts on his Mr. (wen is an Eudæmonist—that is, course, and tumbles into this ditch, and he belongs to a school, or, rather, we befouls himself in that quagmire, and should say, to a generation, which, now breaks his head against an unseen following the fashion of several genera- wall, and now is run over and trodden tions before it, makes all goodness, all on by the more rapid pursuers in the action, and all knowledge referable, not same chase, and still more frequently to a positive law emanating either me knocks down and mutilates the parties,

for whose benefit he is racing-quiet the weal of a nation to consist in its ex. spectators look on with amazement, and ports and imports-those exports and pity and praise him for his zeal, whatever imports being only so many indulgences be his blunders, as a benevolent and ami. for man's flesh and blood. able enthusiast, with a good heart, but Having arrived safely thus far, and rather heated head ;- instead of calling fixed his end, he then claims an undoubt. him, as they ought, and as the Scriptures ed right (and all the expediency gentlecall him an infidel or a fool, for walking men, either moral or political, must rein the sight of his own eyes, when his ceive him among them, whether they like Creator has expressly forbidden it. it or not, just as fine ladies in muslin

In this race Mr. Owen is supremely dresses would welcome a chimney-sweepenergetic. Few have been more so since er)—be claims an undoubted right to the days of the French Revolution. His form his own judgment as to the means only law being his own notion of his own necessary and proper for obtaining his happiness, and of the happiness of other end. In selecting them, indeed, he is people, of both which he naturally forms bold, and in prosecuting them vigorous, pretty much the same conception - he but not to any degree which is not logiasserts, with undoubted consistency, that cally defensible on the expediency prinhe has as much right to his own views of ciple. happiness, as any other man has to his; One of the first of these is not the a claim which no eudæmonist can dispute, abolition of marriage; no wise or moral without allowing an authority in man to man would dream of recommending 'a dictate to his fellow man on his nearest promiscuous intercourse like beasts;' but and dearest interests, and to dictate, as marriage is one of the trinity of cursesmere man, with common human frailties property and religion being the two and human fallibilities, without any divine others, which hang like a blight upon the assistance.

world. What can be more miserable Mr. Owen, therefore, is fully at liberty than an ill-assorted union?

What more to adopt his own views; and his own hard than the prohibition of consorting views will seem very sensible, and what as we choose--joining when we choose philosophers in the present day call sound -and separating as we choose? Milton and practical. There is not a taint of (oh, what a lesson it is to see the sophismysticism about them. He seems to tries and follies of such men, clothed as think, as far as we can discover, that they have hitherto been by the delusion when a man has a good coat upon his of a name, now brought out and exposed shoulders, and a joint of meat upon his to shame!)—Milton in this point was a spit, and a good fire to warm him, and a socialist; and they reprint a number of good house to keep out the weather, and his works. And they follow Milton's pretty sights to please his eye, and agree- steps, perhaps with rather a greater plenable sounds to soothe his ear, and the itude of licence, but nothing which any wants of the touch and the nostrils pro- logician can refuse, in petitioning for an perly provided for, like the other senses, unlimited power of separation—whether then man is a happy animal, and may lie it is to be daily or hourly, they do not down in his sty content. And Mr. Owen say; but, of course, no objection can be has a large, a very large number of sup- raised on the score of frequency. Whatporters in this ennobling theory, who yet ever is necessary for man's happiness is would little like to be ranged under his right ; and who can be happy if prevented banners. If enjoyment in any shape is from withdrawing, whenever he may wish, the end of our life, and the rule of our from a disagreeable companion ? conduct, why the pleasure of the body is We wish particularly that it should be more easily obtained than that of the observed, that these new ideas respecting mind, and is liable to fewer disappoint- marriage follow close upon the New Marments, and is assuredly more poignant; riage Act. They are, indeed, very intiand if properly and prudently husbanded, mately connected. as Mr. Owen carnestly recommends, why But the permanence of the marriage it will last for a considerable time, and tie is not the only curse' in the present bring perhaps in this world few disagree. system of domestic life.

Children are able results; and so Mr. Owen will carry generally troublesome. with him not only the whole Epicurean are poor and starving they are peculiarly herd, but all the grave, respectable politi- so ; and life is not a blessing either to cal economists, who make the wealth or themselves or to their parents. And Mr.

When persons

Malthus has satisfactorily shown by besides property and marriage-it is recountless figures, omitting only one (the ligion ; and we can well understand that power of a merciful Providence), that it should be so. Religion-true, genuine man multiplies and will multiply more religion-is of all things most opposed to rapidly than food, and therefore we must dreams of epicurism, cxpediency, and liput some stop to this growth of popula- cence. It sets up for the guide of man, tion. It is interesting to remark how not man himself, but law; stern, uncomevery foul sink of doctrine, which has promising law, for his reason as well as been opened of late years in this country, for his will. It speaks nothing of pleaall run together into this grand cloaca of sure at first, but of pain and self-denial ; Owenism. The present is a sewer avow- that man must work before he rests; sufedly drained off from the lucubrations of fer before he is crowned; show, in the the Benthamites. Mr. Owen has not yet sight of heaven, that he can bear, and act, reached the acmé of wisdom on this sub- and be a hero and a martyr,—not merely ject; but we are sure that a little reflec. that he can eat, and drink, and sleep, and tion will show him the mistake which he fatten like a pig in his sty. And Religion has made in stopping short of the plan has her truths-her fixed, indisputable which has been proposed and published truths-her message and commission for the instruction of the labourer, by one from heaven, countersigned and attested Marcus. Charcoal vapour' (we quote --and she cannot slur over errors, or from Mr. Carlyle, who had the book be- think light of blasphemies, or bear that fore him*) and other easy methods exist, men should walk on in ignorance and by which all children of working people folly, without raising her protest, drawafter the third, may be disposed of by ing her lines of exclusion, censuring, painless extinction.' 'And beautiful ce- warning, condemning, and punishing. It meteries,' adds Marcus, 'with walks and is the task laid on her by God. The very flower-pots, may be provided at the pub- office of the Church is to hold up the light lic expense, for the reception of super- of truth in the world; to save it from befluous infants, and as consolatory prome- ing blown out by every wind of fancy; nades for their afflicted parents.

to bring it constantly and firmly before We beg to assure the reader that the the eyes of all men, that those who will proposal is perfectly serious; and, more see, may see. If bad men have gone be. than this, we may assure them that it is yond this, and made religion the mask of almost innocence compared with what cruelty, religion is as much to be censurhas been written and sanctioned by the ed for it, as justice would be, if a judge man Owen himself, and his son, on this gave a corrupt judgment and declared it loathsome subject, and to which we dare law. not allude farther.

But all this illiberality, this condemnaBut one fact is curious: the infidel, to tion of others for not thinking as we do speak generally, has discovered two ourselves, is to be banished from the New ineans, by which man may hope to escape World. Unhappily the author of the from the catastrophe prophesied by po- New World, like others of the same litical economists: they are, fasting and school, does not set so good an example self-denial—a self-denial, however, which as we might hope from his professionis not to exclude a gross sensuality. We · Moral monsters,' robbers and murderthought that the Church long since-not ers,' 'cruel and irrational creatures,' looking to political economy, not afraid persons fit only for the cells of our terof perishing with famine under the eye restrial lunatic asylums,' the curses of of a merciful Creator, unless famine was mankind,''intellectual hypocrites,' which sent on us for our sins, but obeying the are the least uncomplimentary terms aplaw of the cross, and mortifying its plied to all, who happen to differ from earthly passions in order to fit itself for Mr. Owen's notions ; surely these indi. heaven--had anticipated, nineteen cen-cate something like the old leaven of illituries ago, this modern discovery; had berality. But then, Mr. Owen knows full prescribed the same rules to her child well what liberality and toleration really ren, only leaving out the sensuality, and mean. And he speaks the language of consecrating the marriage union with a the day. It means, opening one's door, mystery of purity and holiness. But we when a thief asks for admission ; throwmust proceed.

ing down one's arms when a murderer is The man has discovered a third curse threatening an attack-giving without

taking-submitting without resistingChartism, by T. Carlyle, p. 111.

not our own.


and all this, when under a solemn injunc- mony with Scripture itself, but testimony tion to give nothing, and yield nothing, a million times weaker. When the Bible because, what we are placed to guard is has been disposed of, the course is plain ;

But Mr. Owen is quite for not having as yet any system of Masafe. All the haters of positive doctrines, hometanism or Buddhism recognised by all the lax sentimental religionists, who Parliament, and supported by grants from have made charity, not truth, their wor- the Treasury, the unhappy beings who ship, and would sacrifice God himself for have been exposed to these attacks have peace and quietness, have spoken, as he no place of refuge from themselves but has spoken, for the last two hundred in the rational religion, of which Owen is years; and they will all fall into the pro- the apostle, and halls of science the cession of absurdities, with which he churches, and infanticide, in some shape hopes to be inducted into the throne of a or other, an article of its creed. New Moral World.

And now let us look back to Mr. Owen's Still there is a difficulty to be sur- allies-to those who, we are told, pave mounted.' With all our laxity of princi. the way for him, and pave it smoothly. ples-hollow as the ground is, on which First and foremost, Conservatism ; and hy every branch of sectarians have been Conservatism we mean not loyalty and resting their belief-the great mass of attachment to our old and sound instituthe British nation still do call themselves tions, both in Church and State-God Christians—still profess their faith in the forbid !-but the support of the Church different creeds, which they each make merely as an establishment, as a civil for themselves, and all declare to be functionary, not as an independent relifound, clearly and palpably written, in gious society founded by God himself. the pages of Scriptures. Till this preju- Secondly Dissent -dissent which attacks dice be overthrown, a system which de- the Church, but hopes to leave religion unnies Christianity, which denies all re- touched ; which calls for liberty of conligion,* must be liable to illiberal cen- science, meaning by liberty of conscience

the right of every individual to hold and to The very judicious course taken in re- promulgate his own fancies, whether true moving this difficulty cannot be pointed or false, without checkor rebuke. Thirdly, out better than in the words of a very popery, -Popery with its strong and irreeminent man, an eye-witness :

fragable arguments against the principles

of dissent, and attested at every turn by the • In private," he says, 'I find their course to be miseries of our distractions, and the dethis. A socialist calls perhaps on a young man just leaving our Sunday school; he falls into con.

struction which they have wrought in soversation about the Church, admits that an Estab. ciety and in truth. Then Ultra-Protestante lishment is useful for many purposes, but insinuates ism, or a blind indiscriminate hatred of all objections urged by dissenters; and so he leaves that mixed system which is well called Rohis friend over to general Protestantism; against man Catholic-Catholic in its truths, Ro. genes al Protestantism he brings the Romish objec man in its falsehoods--a hatred which tions; at last he insinuates the objections against condemns practices and tenets, not beChristianity altogether; and, speaking of the Bible, cause they are novel interpolations of the affirms that the Socialists have a great regard for Divine word, but because they do not acthe Bible—that is, for the moral parts, excluding, of course, the iminoral.” These are the words cord with our notions of what is right or often used, and then begins the attack on the Bible.' wrong, useful or pernicious, true or false.

Then morality-the moral system of the The attack on the Bible is carried on, day, which follows up the principle of as may be seen in their tracts, and in the Ultra-Protestantism, and makes it own republication of Volney, and Voltaire's, conscience the standard of truth, and and Payne's exploded blasphemies, by looks down calmly and contemptuously the aid of physical science-by geology, upon the combatants for theological chemistry, geometry, astronomy, and dogmas, as they are called, without deignother modern onomies and ologies brought ing to enter into questions of words, to bear on the historical facts of the and names, and of your law. Then folScriptures, forgetting that those very lows Biblical criticism, the captious sciences rest on the same basis of testi- quibbling scepticism, coming in upon us

from Germany like a flood ; which, arm** All the Mythology of the Ancients, and alled with the maxim of the Bible and the the Religion of the Moderns, are mere fanciful no; Bible alone,' strips it of all its defences, tions of men.'--Owen's Book of the New Moral World, p. 46.

while nominaliy magnifying its authority,

- which, instead of approaching it with a again we warn them all against attemptreverential and child-like spirit, and read. ing to battle with him openly, until they ing it as it lies open in the hands of the have provided other principles, and a Church, under the guidance of her eye, sounder creed than they profess at preand with the support of her testimony, sent. Theirs are the premises-his is the snatches it from her, runs with it into a conclusion; and a conclusion, which corner, doubts this point, disputes that, cannot be evaded by any subtlety of logic, modifies another, is startled at a fourth, or any horror at its atrocity: and tears out text after text, leaf after But such doctrines, it will be urged in leaf, until nothing is left but the empty the vain hope of escape, arc contrary to cover, and the word of God has the law of the land. The Government vanished, as before from the mouth of has answered, No; the toleration system the Church, so now from the written answers, No. There was a time when page - vanished altogether from the the doctrines of the Church were the world. And, lastly Physical Science, in law of the land. Then-when Protestanevery age and country the great hand-maid tism was sufficient ; for no one yet of infidelity. Not as if the works of God dreamed of a creed, which should go were not also His word, though written farther in modifying Catholic truths than in ciphers and hieroglyphics ; or as if to the ahjuration of Popery. Then came know His works were not man's privilege Christianity, anything which called itself and duty.

But when men will study Christianity. But Christianity has had its God's works before they have learnt turn ; and now comes Rational Religion, His nature—when they will bury them- avowing, as its boast, the principle of selves in the darkness of the brute mate- rationalism from which all the rest prorial world, till the very sun, as they turn ceeded. You cannot punish the blaspheto look up, becomes black to their daz- mies of Socialism without following it zled eye-when they will fix men's up by the condemnation of Dissent. If thoughts and hearts on what they taste. you allow Dissent, receive it into your and see, and touch, and handle, so that all legislature, admit it to your homes, treat the world unseen becomes unreal and vi. it as an erroneous opinion, but an opinion sionary--when they make their experience for which man is not responsible to man, their teacher, instead of their assistant, you cannot shut your doors against only distrust the power of the mind in gener- another species of dissent, though the ating truth, and call it a dead passive dissent is from the name of Christianity, machine at the mercy of external im- as well as from its fundamental axiom of pressions—and when they have traced One Apostolic Catholic Church. the motions and the laws of matter till But it is morally mischievous, destruc. they can prophesy, and combine, and tive to the peace of society, not merely to the control them, worshipping it for its unity of religious belief! We had thought, power, and yet governing it as a slave, and every lax, easy religionist, who has then, indeed, physical science turns into ridiculed polemical controversies, has an open foe of Christianity. It becomes made the outcry also, that of all things idolatry. It raises up for man the same which destroy the peace of society, reliobject of worship in Nature - precisely gious dissension was the most formidable the same, as the person does, of whose – the most to be repressed. But what. more open blasphemies it is our pain to ever be thought of this-moral or immo. be now speaking

ral-Socialism is safe from attack. Our These are the considerations which hands are tied. We have laid down the have induced us to notice him at present. principle, and acted on it for years,

that By himself he would pass away like a blasphemy and sedition are not the pro. Home, a Carlisle, or à Thoms, or any per subjects of legal condemnation-that other wretched being, who has been per- to punish the circulation of them only promitted to disturb the peace of society. motes it; that we may trust to the good But he has friends and agents in every sense and wisdom of Englishmen to reclass of the community, from the highest pudiate such absurdities. Let things to the lowest—in our expediency politi. alone, and all will come right. May we cians, in our evangelical clergy, in our ask then, what is the use of a govern. pious dissenters, in our German scholars, ment? What need of laws, and courts of and literary and scientific societies-all justice, if the grossest of crimes-treaunconsciously but zealously doing his son against God and our country-are work, and preparing the minds of the na- encouraged by the sight of punishment ? tion for imbibing his poisons. And 'If we are so sensible and so wise, what do

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