cides at once, and only once, while wa- that the annual average quantity of tea imvering between his two little parts of ported in the four years above mentioned, speech, as follows:- If the pagan semi was 37,827,774 pounds, producing to the barbarians,' as he calls the Chinese, have exchequer an annual revenue amounting really destroyed the drug, and are desi- (to 3,830,0001. rous of stopping the opium trade, through Compensation for these losses of trade fears regarumg the morals of their peo- and revenue is at this moment suspended, ple, or the loss of their sey.cee silver, let us and placed in imminent peril. The dedemand immediate payment, with interest, privation of the article of iea alone would of only one half the value of the opium seiz- prove a public calamity of no slight imed, at an average of seven years' price ; portance. It is an article that affords a let our two governments pay one-fourth, luxury to the rich, and a blessing to the and let those concerned bear the loss of poor. The moral effect of this beverage, the remaining fourth part ; say, China pay as preventing recourse to stronger stimu. fifty per cent., England and India twenty. lants, is inestimable. five per cent., and the concerned lose It is easy to say we shall get it through twenty-five per cent.' On this point of other channels ; we are not so sure of indemnification, we should once more that; for should our trade be cut off, the say,—wait the issue of the contest with supply of tea itself in China will undoubt. China; after which, and, perhaps, indeed edly fail

. Immense as is the empire in before, the Chinese may not object, on a population, not a fourth part of the quanvery slight pressure, to announce that tity of tea produced is consumed by the their benevolent emperor, out of compas- inhabitants; and if foreign export be cut sion for the ignorance of foreigners in the off, the cultivation will, to a very great ex. sublime and merciful laws of the Central tent, be abandoned.' Flowery Land,' and as an act of charity The Chinese now admit, and we beto the starving English, whose property lieve for the first time, that the loss of fohas been so properly destroyed, to save reign trade would be to them a great misthe lives of millions of his beloved sub. fortune ; but they have brought it upon jects, has ordered, &c. &c. A friend of themselves, and let them look to the reours, who, from long experience, knows covery of it: and as to the prevention of the Chinese better, perhaps, than any opium, whether on account of its destrucother individual, has suggested to us the tive quality, or as to its draining the same notion, and that it will be done by country of its specie, it is their business, four or five annual instalments, as was the not ours. If, with a population of three general practice with regard to the debts or four hundred millions, they cannot afof Hong merchants, whenever they be- ford a coast-guard sufficient to prevent its came insolvent. By a juggle of this kind introduction, let them suffer the whole in. the government knows well how to in- convenience--the loss of their sey-cee sil. demnify itself, at the expense of future ver-and all those deplorable effects of traders, by laying on additional imposts. smoking, which, however, we have rea

But the question of indemnification son to believe are greatly exaggeratedforms but a small portion of the evil:-a and that not so much by them as by us. lucrative legal trade destroyed ;-the mer. We give very little credit to the followchants engaged in it in danger of being ing statement drawn from the Methodist ruined ;-a defalcation in the revenue of missionary who collected it, with other four millions ;-these are the most im- tales, from an American house at Canton portant and serious results of the opium -none of whose partners, we venture to crisis. We are told, on the best authori. say, ever saw a Chinese smoking-shop :ty,* that the extent of the China trade, separate and distinct from that of opium, • Opium is not only regularly introduced, but was as follows, on an average of four openly sold in all parts of China. Notwithstanding

the prohibition, opium shops are as plentiful in years, from 1835 to 1838 :

some towns of China as gin-shops are in England. Imports into Canton £2,666.194

The sign of these receptacles is a bamboo screen Exports from

3,825,744 hanging before the door, which is as certain an in

timation there as the chequers are here that the £6,491,938;

slave of intemperance may be gratified. Into these that the amount in the year, from April, the pampered official to the abject inenial. Noone

shops all classes of persons continually flock, from 1835, to March, 1836, was £8,844,044; and makes a secret of the business or the practice; and

though the officers of government are loud in deReport of the London East India and Chinese nouncing the indulgence in public, they privately Association in 1840.

wink at what is patroniscd by their own example, warded by baving a fine healthy race of men grow. * Travels in China.


p. 123.

or subservient to their own interests.'—Thelwall, who appears to have walked a great part

of the way along the banks of the grand We fearlessly assert that this is not a canal, that in the whole distance (about true statement; it wears an absurdity on 1,200 miles) he did not see one man in a the very face of it. Openly! why, the state of intoxication ; and we believe that poor Chinese that was strangled had only this smoking of opium is, in fact, a very a little opium concealed in his back pre confined and limited practice. The 'Remises; and can it be supposed that, after sident in China' has made a calculation, its solemn denouncement on penalty of the result of which is, that 40,000 chests death, opium is openly sold, and that opi. a-year will just afford a daily whiff

' to no um-shops are as plentiful as gin shops in more than one person in 166, men, woEngland? Opium, in fact, is not openly men, and children, out of a population of sold ; opium-shops are not plentiful; and 350,000,000 'inhabitants; that is to say, a bamboo screen is not the sign of these about 2,110,000 individuals would smoke receptacles ; such a screen may be seen opium, and the cost to each person would hanging before the door of almost every be something less than a penny a day. poor peasant. If Mr. Thelwall, who If we must extend our sympathies to seems to be courting a crusade against the other side of the globe, let them be, opium, is not satisfied with our denial, at least, in favour of our own subjects, in let him inquire of any or all of the gentle-preference to those who have nothing in men of Lord Macartney's and Lord Am- common with us, whose religion, morals, herst's embassies, who traversed the ind habits are altogether at variance with country from Pekin to Canton, through our own, and whose natural protectors the very densest part of the population, ought to be the authorities under whom and mixed with the people—let him ask they are governed. But there are among any of those gentlemen, whether they us a certain description of persons, whose ever saw one of these shops, “into which sensitive feelings are ever ready to ex. all manner of persons continually flock?' pand in proportion to the distance of the Nay, let him ask Mr. Medhurst himself, objects. To such philanthropists may we who supplies him with a text-book, if he suggest a little compassion for the condiever saw one? He traversed the whole tion of our subjects in Assam, so pain. coast of China, from Canton to the pro- fully described by Mr. Bruce, the supermontory of Shan-tung, landed at various intendent of the tea plantations :places, visited cities and villages, found • I might here observe,' he says, that the British the people civil, sober, and quiet; talks government would confer a blessing on the Assamof their tobacco pipes and pouches, but ese, and the new settlers, if immediate and acnever once mentions the word opium. vation of opium in Assam, and afterwards to stop

tive measures were taken to put down the cultiOne gentleman of the Company's factory, its importation by levying high duties on opium hearing of one of these shops in Macao, land. "If something of this kind is not done, and visited it, and found three Chinese smok- done quickly too, the thousands that are about to ing. He tried a pipe himself, and the emigrate from the plains into Assam will soon be

infected with the opium maniathat dreadful only effect it had on him was to make plague, which has depopulated this beautiful coun. him very sick. Mr. Lindsay, indeed, try, turned it into a land of wild beasts, with says, “the public smoking houses were

which it is overrun, and has degenerated the Assam. open to all, and no one who has been in jeci, servile, crafty, and demoralised race in India.

from a fine race of people, to the most ab. Canton can have failed observing opium This vile drug has kept, and does now keep, pipes, with all the apparatus for smoking, down the population; the women have fewer, publicly exhibited for sale, not only in children, compared with those of other countries, shops, but by common hawkers in the but in general die at manhood, very few old men

and the children seldom live to become old men, streets.' But all this was in the peace being seen in this unfortunate country, in compar, ful and regular days,' when, he tells us, ison with others. Few but those who have resided there was no mystery.

long in this unhappy country know the dreadful and One would really suppose, from Mr. immoral effects which the use of opium produces

on the native. He will steal, sell his property, his Thelwall's lamentations, that the whole children, the mother of his children, and, finally, population of China were opium-smokers. commit murder for it. Would it not be the highest a drunken, depraved, and immoral set of of blessings, if our humane and enlightened gove beings, wholly absorbed in inhaling this crnment would stop these evils by a singlo dash deadly poison, destructive both of body about to emigrate into it as tea cultivators, from and mind. Nothing can be more incor. the dreadful results attendant on the habitual use rect. It is stated by Sir John Barrow, * of opium? We should in the end be richly re

ing up for our plantations, to fell our forests, to


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ill dressed or well dressed, without shame or re. morse.'-p. 6.,

Most undoubtedly we have human depravity and human misery enough at home, not to trouble ourselves with the subjects of the emperor of China. The authorities of Canton, at least, have very little claim on our compassion or forbear. ance. We have frankly done them justice as to all the early series of transactions; but the haughty intractable vio. lence of Commissioner Lin, in not being satisfied, as he had pledged himself he would be, with the great surrender of March-but trampling on the English Superintendent, who had but too far com. plied with his previous demands, in proceeding to tax Captain Elliott with a farther and apparently unlimited supervision of all who were, or were suspected of be. ing, engaged in this opinm trade-above sioner in expelling, en masse, our countryall, the brutality of the Imperial Commismen, who had neither offended him nor the laws of China, from Macao, where they were living under the protection of a friendly power-forcing men, women, and children, at twelve hours' notice, to flee to the ships already crowded, depriving them when there of all provisions, and preventing them by armed vessels from taking off those they had purchased from the willing natives these are proceedings for which we suppose no Englishman but Captain T. H. Bullock, in the service of H. H. the Nizam,' would have the courage to demand applause. We are bound to admit that the parliation of the whole res gesta subsequent to mentary papers give but an obscure noCaptain Elliott's final abandonment of Canton; but still the outline seems to be one of unquestionable atrocity. There appears to have been something so vin. dictive in the conduct of this Commissioner Lin, in subjecting the victims of his persecution to all the horrors of dying by famine, that it is utterly impossible to imagine he can have been acting under, or sanctioned by, the orders of his government; and all this because the Superintendent very properly refused to give up an innocent person, who happened to have been one in a general scuffle of


clear the land from jungle and wild beasts, and to plant and cultivate the luxuries of the world. This can never be effected by the enfeebled opium. eaters of Assam, who are more effeminate than women. I have dwelt thus long on the subject, thinking it one of great importance, as it will affect our future prospects in regard to tea; also from a wish to benefit this people, and save those who are coming here from catching the plague by our using

timely measures of prevention.'

Now, we have already intimated our suspicion that the evils of opium are greatly exaggerated-we have very strong doubts whether they are worse than those of gin and whisky; but supposing the above picture to be not a gross caricature, surely our government has reason to be alarmed for things nearer home than the habits and health of the Celestials. The importation of opium into England is rapidly increasing the use of the drug is extending, especially in our manufacturing districts; and, we understand, many of the temperance societies are making up for their abstinence from gin by the use of opium. What will they do when tea is no longer to be had? They will, no doubt return to gin, or have recourse to opium. We cannot but think that a strict inquiry should take place as to what the effects of opium-taking really are; but

that in the mean time no evidence is re

quired as to the necessity of putting down the open, profligate, and unblushing manner in which those glaring buildings in the metropolis, known by the name of gin-palaces, are frequented. On this point we entirely concur with the writer of the 'Letter to Lord Palmerston.'

'Canton,' he says, 'is said to contain 800,000 to 1,000,000 of inhabitants; but I do not remember to have seen in its crowded thoroughfares the same debilitated frames, the flushed faces or squalid features, that constantly meet the eye in the streets of London, and traceable to the haunts of the gindrinkers They talk of the smoking shops, or opi. um dens-as some have been pleased to call them -of the Chinese, but they at any rate have the merit of retirement from the public eye. Here the petty gin-shop has swelled out its dimensions, and assumed all the splendour of a gorgeous palace, affronting the eye and ear of the sober and respectable passenger, with the disgusting appearance and language of the deluded beings that throng its portals. I remember the time when those who visited these, then more humble, resorts of the wretched

and vicious, used to stop and look round to see if they were observed; but now all such precaution is abandoned; for in they go, both men and women,

Pretty well for one year!


By a return made to the House of Commons in the year ending
5th January, 1839, Imported, 95.832lbs.
Ditto 196,246.



Consumed 31.204 bs.
Ditto 41,671


English, Americans, and Chinese on cipline, their numbers are so great, that shore, in which one of the latter was un- near every city they will be found to fortunately killed; but to point out any swarm like a hive of bees ; and like particular individual, who gave the fatal them, they can sting; nothing short of a blow, was utterly impossible, and if pos- whole army could be of any avail, or sible, no Englishman would dare to give sufe, in inland operations. Their troops him up to certain destruction without may not be expert in the field, but, gen. trial. We will not accuse Lin of the erally speaking, few people are more diabolical act of murdering five innocent clever at expedients than the Chinese. lascars, when carrying over an English The general feeling of the British nagentleman of the name of Moss from tion seems to be for war with the Chinese ; Macao to the ships, of hacking or stab- ministers are for it ; almost all the writbing this gentleman, and, when in a state ers of the pamphlets we have recorded more dead than alive, of cutting off his are for war-but differ as to the manner ear and cramming it into his mouth. He of prosecuting it One would level the could not be so far lost to every feeling forts at the Bogue, and lay Canton in of humanity as to give direct sanction to ashes; and, not satisfied with this, would such fiendish doings; but he is strongly march on to Pekin (1200 miles). We suspected of having ordered the seizure, hope, however, he knows the road someand his inveterate conduct towards the what better than a Mr. Walter Stevenson English must have been quite enough to Davidson, who, when examined by a countenance the wretches who actually committee, proposed to march thither committed the enormity. But whether with 20,000 men, but admitted that he or not-taking into consideration the had no hints to offer for the details of whole of this imperial commissioner's such a movement. The present writer conduct, whether the extreme outrages would not only “march on to Pekin, but committed had or had not his assent, he conclude a commercial treaty in the imhas done enough to make the interposi- perial palace. Nay, he tells us very tion of the English crown inevitable. briefly what might be the tenour of this

And the truth isthat sooner or treaty :—You take my opium ; I take later the commercial intercourse of your island in return, we are therefore China with the nations of Christendom quits; and henceforth, if you please, let must have been brought to some crisis us live in friendly communion and good of a nature enforcing the necessity of a fellowship. You cannot protect your very serious demonstration at least, on sea-board against pirates and buccaneers the part of one or more of the 'outside -I can ! So let us understand each foreigners. It is practically impossible other, and study to promote our mutual for any nation to carry on a great and interest.'-(Brief Observations.) We have lucrative commerce with others, and yet even seen a proposal for paying a visit to refuse to enter into some species of Pekin in a first-rate man-of-war, though diplomatic relation with them. The in- 100 miles inland. The · Barrister-atconveniences of the want of such recog. Law' would also penetrate to Pekin,' nised relations may be endured for a and see what they were doing there. season ; but individual violences, on one But none of them tells us how we are to side or the other, are sure, at some time reach that city, much less how we are to or other, to bring the reductio ad absur. get back again. And as to seeing the dum; and now that the crisis has arrived emperor,' we must first cross the great in this case, our only prayer is that it wall, and peneirate not only to Pekin, may be made use of wisely.

but into Tartary, for thither he would We hear of troops being ordered to certainly betake himself. What (besides join the naval expedition from India. the emperor) the invaders would not find Will not Lord Auckland find enough for at Pekin, we have stated elsewhere. the services of his soldiers in that terri- They would, however, find, among other

We cannot imagine in what articles exposed for sale in almost every beneficial way land troops could be em- shop, in the four wide streets, what ployed in the dispute with China : sea- might somewhat surprise them, as many men and marines appear to us the proper most splendidly-decorated coffins description of force for that service. "In would be sufficient to hold the whole of a every part of China the population is more numerous party than will ever abundant ; and though their soldiers are reach that capital. Some, again, are not in the best state of training and dis- satisfied with blockading the whole coast



of the Eastern and Yellow Sea ; taking, compel us to extend our limits, and our career of sinking, or destroying every species of British India would be repeated in China.'—Lindcraft fallen in with, from the Gulf of say, pp. 36, 37. Petchelee to Hainan, an extent of 1400 or But Mr. Lindsay says, 'to

to prevent 1500 miles, full of fine rivers, bays, and future quarrels, free access to the imharbours, which would require more than perial court is the first and foremost half the navy of England efficiently to point, which can only be attained by the blockade. But almost every one calls residence of an ambassador at Pekin.' Then out for the seizure and occupation of we can venture to assure him, it never some island ; though whether Amoy, or will be attained, but if it were possible, one of the Chusans, or Hong-Kong, God help the unfortunate ambassador ! Lantao, or Lintin, they seem not to The indignities and insults he would agree.

constantly receive would soon drive him We cannot say that we should reckon


We have had one embassy too on much advantage from the possession many already. The treatment which of an island on the Chinese coast, whe- Van Braam and Lord Amherst met with ther seized or granted. In either case it the one for a full compliance with the could not fail to be a source of jealousy degrading demands of the Chinese court, and dislike ; and instead of benefiting, the other for non-compliance-ought to would be more likely to damage, our be sufficient to deter any man of rank or commercial interests. Let us suppose character from accepting such an appointone of those outside the Bocca Tigris ; ment. But the Russian mission, says what should we gain by our exclusion Mr. Lindsay, is a precedent. We know, from the great mart of trade at Canton, in modern times, of but one mission from while all other nations were on the spot Russia, which was accompanied by Mr. taking the earliest advantage of the Charles Stuart (the present Lord Stuart market--except the immense benefit of de Rothesay). After a long and tedious involving ourselves in perpetual broils journey through Siberia, and just as they with the natives, probably in frequent 'were approaching the great wall

, they homicides? Or, of what use would it were met by a deputation from the embe, if we were still to live in the Canton

peror of China, conveying more of confactory? Those who talk of taking pos- dolence for their fatigues, than congratusession of Hainan or Formosa, islands lation at their arrival in his dominions, nearly as large as Ireland, are not de- and expressing his hearty wishes for serving of notice. If we could succeed their safe return-but anything rather in obtaining leave to establish a factory than the remotest hint of a desire that on the eastern coast, -at Amoy, for in- they should extend their labours by pro. stance in the neighbourhood of the tea ceeding to Pekin. Others, we perceive, districts, or on the great island of Chusan, talk of the Russian legition at Pekin : as a depôt from whence a most extensive this too is a mistake. They have what trade in silks and other valuable articles they call a college there, where half-amight be carried on with the wealthy dozen youths are instructed in the Chicity of Hong-cheu-foo, and the populous nese language, for the mutual benefit of districts bordering on the Imperial Canal ; the two nations, in their commercial one or both of these would be worth con- transactions at the great market of Kiattending for; but neither these, nor any cha, near to which they are conterminous; island, should be taken or held by com- a permission granted so far back as in pulsion. On this point we are glad to the time of the Empress Elizabeth, nearly find that Mr. Lindsay concurs with us :- one hundred years ago,

The American friend of Captain Elliott Many people are disposed to maintain that some insular possession on the coast of China is desirable, points out, very obligingly, various modes where we might carry on our trade under the pro. in which we may settle the Chinese. tection of our own flag. I confess that in my mind I seo great and serious objections to such a measure. • Finally, there are two powers in the hands of Nothing would tend so much to degrade the impe. Great Britain, capable of being wielded for the sub. rial government before their own people as demand. duing of the Chinesc--the power of inflicting infi. ing such a concession; and merely looking to our nite harm, and the power of imparting infinite biesown interests, anything having such a tendency is sings. To recommend the latter means, is the most seriously to be deprecated. Our object in object of this publication. If, however, all confi. China is mere commercial intercourse, not territo. dence in truth, in peaceful policy, is lost; if resist. rial aggrandisement; and I cannot help fearing, ance to rival aggrandisement can be reconciled that if we once planted our flag and built a fort with these remoter usurpations; if it be consistent within the Chinese dominions, circumstances would to uphold the Mohammedan power in Europe with

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