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and he does not appear to have attended companied Paget, we meet with no amthem in an official capacity; if he did, it bitious memoranda-no hints for governmust have been in a very subordinate one. ment or statistical collections—but a meIt seems tolerably certain, however, that thod of cultivating the willow is carefully with his characteristic sagacity, Cecil did set down, dated from Menen. This taste attach himself in some degree to Cardinal seems to have acquired strength he Pole. "The Cardinal,' says Burnet, 'was advanced in years. His temperate mind a man of a generous and good disposi- ever tempered all his actions,' says a cotion, but knew how jealous the court of temporary biographer ;-If he might ride Rome would be of him if he seemed to privatlie in his garden upon his little favour heretics, therefore he expressed muile, or lye a day or two at his little great detestation of them. Nor did he lodge at Theobalds, retyred from busiconverse much with any that had been of ness or too much company, he thought it that party but the late Secretary Cecil, his greatest happiness and onlie great, who, though he lived for the most part pri- ness. As to his books, they were vately at his house near Stamford, where pleasing to him, as when he got liberty he afterwards built a sumptuous house, from the Queen to go unto his country and was known to favour the Reformation house to take the ayre, if he found but a still in his heart, yet in many things he book worth the opening, he would rather complied with the time, and came to have lose his riding than his reading ; and yet, more of his confidence than any Eng- riding in his garden and walks upon his lishman.'

little muile, was his greatest disport. If The question in how far Cecil conform- the reader ever dreamed away a happy ed to the popish church after his return hour in the picture-gallery of the Bodto England is one with which his biogra- leian, he will not require to be reminded phers have coquetted. There is in the that he has seen Burleigh pursuing this State Paper Office a document illustrative favourite recreation. of this subject, from which Mr. Tytler It would be an endless task to collect prints a few extracts. It gives the names all the curious evidences of the extent to of them that dwelleth in the parish of which Cecil indulged this passion for his Wimbleton, that was confessed, and re- garden and his library; but particularly ceived the sacrament of the altar,' at for his garden. Allusions to it occur in Easter, 1556 : the first three persons being the official correspondence of many of our 'my master Sir William Cecil, my Lady ambassadors, and some high dignitaries Mildred his wife, and Thomas Cecil [his in church and state at home testified their son)' (vol. ii. p. 443): from which, view- solicitude to gratify the minister in this ed in connection with other documents particular by many an interesting postcited by Mr. Tytler, the fact that Sir Wil- script, and indeed often by entire letters. liam Cecil conformed to the full extent But above all, we have abundance of Ceduring Queen Mary's reign may be consi- cil's correspondence with his own stewdered as established. He confessed, at- ards and servants; where, amid the most tended mass with his wife, and brought miscellaneous notices relating to the up his son, Thomas, afterwards Earl of building of his house, the state of his Exeter, in the profession of the Roman farms, &c. &c., such passages as the folCatholic faith. The paper to which Mr. lowing are of perpetual recurrence : Tytler has called attention was apparent- “Sir, I have sent to Burleigh seven pearly in the hands of Dr. Nares before him; tree stocks and six apple-tree stocks to yet could it extort from the latter nothing graft in ; and if I can find any more, I will beyond the general admission — Of Sir send them thither. This was written by William Cecil's conformity, to a certain Sir James Hurst, the vicar of Essenden. extent, there can be no doubt. (Life, vol. Another passage from a letter of another i. p. 673.) Sir William Cecil's conformi- vicar and steward, Sir John Abraham ty was exactly what he found necessary (Lansdowne MSS., 3 75), is worth insertto his personal security.

ing. At the time it was written, Cecil A more pleasing feature, which comes was busied enclosing his ground with prominently forward during this reign, quickset. When your swans,' says Sir was his strong attachment to country oc- John, “are fat, I shåll

, as I may, sell one cupations,-his love of his farm- of his of them. Your Jennet is, and shall be, garden-of planting and horticulture. In both favoured and foddered as well as we the pocket-book which he carried with can do it. I beseech you let us have either him into the Low Countries, when he ac- the grey or bay mare to draw, whereof

we have much need, and she not worse a ther into the depth of causes, and found pin. The hop yard was dressed above out more resolutions of dubious points in three weeks ago, and the holes in the or. his bed, than when he was up.' In vain, chard dug ready for fruit trees, but none therefore, did he exclaim at night, when came to be set but two dozen of crab-tree he put off his gown, ‘Lie there, Lord stocks. The 19th of this month were Treasurer!' your sheep drawn and numbered. There To read his private journals, (of which was of young wethers seventeen, one several have been preserved,) one would ram, lambs with tithe lambs five score and seriously doubt whether, instead of the four, ewes five score.' So wrote Sir John memoranda of a prime minister, we had Abraham on the 22d November, 1557. not stumbled on those of some ancient Gerhard, the author of the well known and very methodical housekeeper,-or at Herbal, was for twenty years Cecil's best, the precise steward of some small gardener.

property The wages of servants the It was in pleasures and concerns such allowances or little perquisites to the milas these that the secretary sought relief ler, brewer, butcher, cook, &c., are all from the overwhelming cares of such a prescribed in his own hand. Thus, beweight of business as, perhaps, never be- side the miller's name, Burleigh writes, fore or since fell to the share of a single 'He shall have but three hens and one officer of the state. Well might it be said cock; opposite the butcher's, the Atlas of him by one of his household, “I myself, of the state indites, 'Of cattle-socking he as an eye-witness, can testify that I never shall have but the head, offal, and the saw him half an hour idle in four-and- skin.' We have notices of his minutest twenty years together;' for through his domestic arrangements; he tells us, for hands, as well as through his head, every instance, that his Sunday dinner consisted transaction involving in any degree the in- of 'brawn and mustard, beef boiled, veal terests of the nation, seems to have pass- or pig, or such roast, roast capon, or some ed. He was far, indeed, from being of Choi-baked meat,' &c. Then we are treated seul's opinion, -to wit, that there is ink with an inventory of his wardrobe ; for enough in a premier's standish if there which some excuse might perhaps be be de quoi signer son nom.' Was an made, for ambassador to be despatched to some for- • Without black velvet breeches what is man?' eign court,--the rough draft of his instructions is found in Cecil's handwriting ; But how shall we picture to ourselves the was any negotiation pending, any treaty care-worn statesman at Wimbledon, findcontemplated--the arguments pro and con ing time and inclination ever and anon to will be found drawn up by the same vigi- weigh himself, his wife, children, and serlant, inwearied pen, and the question, in vants, and gravely recording the result of private, decided by him alone. His en- the experiments in his memorandumdorsement is seen on most of the des- book ? patches of our statesmen, as well as on While speaking of such small traits, we most of those letters which he daily re- may notice one which we never remember ceived from the spies and emissaries which to have seen pointed out, viz. that Cecil's the dangerous complexion of the times handwriting was invariably excellent. He and the want of newspapers rendered seems to have been gifted with a calm it indispensable to have distributed over self-possession, which, even in moments England, Scotland, and the continent. of most pressure, never deserted him. In addition to his business in the council, Another peculiarity was his habit of prehe is said to have daily received never serving everything in the shape of a writless than twenty or thirty letters con- ten paper which came into his hands; and taining domestic intelligence, and, during this is deserving of notice, because to this term time, from sixty to a hundred peti- we are indebted for much of the accurate tions. 'Indeed, he left himself scarce information we possess concerning Queen time for sleep, or meals, or leisure to go Elizabeth's reign. No one who considers to bed,' says his domestic :— It was not. his papers attentively will doubt for an able to see his continual agitation both of instant that his intention was to have body and mind. He was ever more weary destroyed a large proportion of them, of a little idleness than of great labour. which, owing to their immense variety When he went to bed and slept not, he and extent, it is not difficult to underwas either meditating or reading; and stand that he never lived to accomplish. was heard to say that he penetrated fur- We have sometimes been much struck

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VOL. LXV.

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with this last-named feature of Cecil's continuation of this work. The plea upon mind; how does it happen that he be- which this very unusual step has been came re-possessed of so vast a number taken is, it is said, an alleged alarm that of his own letters; and, above all, how is Mr. Tytler's labours may interfere with it that the rough drafts of letters addressed the large quarto volumes of State Papers to himby his son's tutor, for example— now in progress of publication by these came into his hands? There can be no Commissioners. But surely it requires question that he procured the surrender only a cursory glance at the vast plan of into his keeping of all the documents these gentlemen, as detailed in their prewhich in any way concerned himself, his face, and as contrasted with the object family, or his affairs, as well as of a vast and execution of Mr. Tytler's volumes, number with which he had no concern at to be convinced how perfectly groundless all. His love of pedigrees must not be are all such terrors. To bring before the ranked among the minor features of his reader the gigantic undertaking of Govcharacter; for, from his county-visitation ernment, it need only be mentioned that, books it was that he derived that intimate although these Commissioners have alknowledge of the interests and alliances ready published five or six volumes, each of private families, which he was enabled containing about nine hundred pages, in to turn to such good account on so many illustration of the reign of Henry VIII., occasions.

not more than one-fourth, or at most oneBut it is time to close this sketch, with third, of the papers relating to that one an allusion to the sincere piety which reign have been hitherto printed by them; seems to have influenced Cecil through--that the papers of a later period inout the greater part at least of his life. crease so enormously in numerical extent, The earnestness with which he looked that fifty volumes, at least, would be reupward for support amid his trials, as quired to embrace-on their plan-the well as his habitual reference of every annals of Elizabeth; and that the mateblessing to the source of all good, have rials for history swell out in such an been dwelt upon at considerable length enormous ratio throughout all succeeding by his contemporary biographer. In this reigns, that it becomes absolutely impospractice we shall find the best explana- sible to say where the labour of publication of the same writer's assertions re- tion would end. Next, it must be stated specting the calmness with which he re- that the volumes in question were originceived the most unfavourable, as well as ally published at three guineas each, so the most agreeable intelligence-never that it was contemplated that a person, to moved with passion in either case ; and possess himself of a copy of the State it was worthily noted of him that his Papers, was to disburse—it cannot be an courage never failed, as in times of exaggeration to say-several hundred greatest danger he ever spake most pounds. No one will deny that it was cheerfully, and executed things most intended that the State Papers of Henry readily, when others seemed full of doubt VIII.'s reign should cost about £60; or dread.' And when some did often talk since, to prevent any one from buying a fearfully of the greatness of our enemies, single volume, or at least to prevent any and of their power and possibility to harm use being made of it when bought, the us, he would ever answer, They shall do index has been reserved for the end of no more than God will let them."

the last volume ! Before we close thi

paper, we must Although the price of the volumes has say a word on what appears to us a most of late been lowered to one guinea, we ridiculous matter. It is stated by Mr. apprehend that we are not far from the Tytler in his preface that by far the lar- mark in asserting that a complete set on gest portion of these original letters were, the scale originally projected, would still by permission of Lord John Russell, then cost some hundred pounds sterling; and Home Secretary, selected from the inval- let them cost what they might, the work uable stores of the State Paper-office; cannot certainly be meant for the present but we have heard with some surprise a age-it is obviously meant for posterity, report that Lord John, shortly before he and for a very remote posterity too. No transferred himself from the Home Office living man must hope to see the State to the Colonial, in deference to the re- Papers of even Queen Elizabeth's reign; monstrances of certain royal Commis- happy if he lives to possess the index to sioners for the publication of State Pa- the volumes already published, relating to pers, was prevailed on to interdict any the history of her father. And all this

cheerless as the prospect is-is on the in the opening of the second volume, supposition that the work will be con- where the fall of Somerset is discussed) tinued. Notwithstanding that the price --all these features of his work effectuhas been so considerably reduced-a ally disconnect it from and render it dismeasure, we may be well assured, not of similar to the State-Paper publications; choice, but of stern necessity—the work and they are features, we must say, which has no sale ; nor was a sale ever to be we had strongly wished to retrace in a expected for it. It is, as far as it goes, collection respecting the glorious reign well and carefully done; we have no fault of Elizabeth. to find in its execution; but it is not a We do not comprehend the Commisbook to be read; it is a book to be refer- sioners. To anticipate what booksellers red to; and of most books of reference call a lively sale' for their productions it

may be truly said, not only that they would be about as reasonable as to expect are to be found in all public libraries, but a Treatise on the Cube Root from Lady that they are not to be found anywhere Stepney-Mr. Sydney Smith to circulate else : while of the volumes hitherto pub- papers for an addition of St. Jerome in a lished, it is obvious that their utility as score of folios--or Dr. Pusey to start books of reference is almost annihilated another "Book of Beauty' in opposition by the want of an index. The pains to Lady Blessington. Their sole ambition which have been taken to preserve the in following out their colossal scheme ancient orthography is also a serious ob- must be to become the means of depositstacle which they have to contend with; ing in each of the principal towns of the for in point of fact, those who have never United Kingdom, as well as in each of served an apprenticeship at the British the capitals on the continent, a complete Museum, or elsewhere, cannot decipher a series of most important materials for sentence so as to render it intelligible. history. To accomplish this must be the Scarcely, therefore, does it seem an ex- summit of their ambition; and they need aggeration to say.of the volumes in ques- dread no collision. · General as the love tion, that they are parts of a work which, of history undoubtedly is, it is quite obin the first place, will never be complet- vious that a taste for the study of its oried; which, if completed, would never be ginal documents is still with the mass of bought; and lastly, which, if bought, society in its infancy. The public is like would never be read.

a great child : it requires to be led ; and Mr. Tytler has printed, in all, 191 let- it is our deliberate opinion that, so far ters; of which about 160 are preserved in from interfering with the sale of the ofthe state-paper office: these 160 letters ficial State-papers, a series of volumes, extend over a period of twelve years, conceived and executed like Mr. Tytler's, viz., from 1547 to 1558. Now, consider- would conduce more effectually to proing the official volumes to contain on an mote the objects for which the commisaverage, 450 letters each—(the first vol- sion was appointed than any scheme ume contains 468, and we have not the which could be devised for that purpose. others at hand to refer to)—it appears The whole of this business appears to us that thirty years of Henry VIII.'s reign absurd: and we are sure we are only do(for the earliest date is 1517) will claim ing Lord John Russell justice when we illustration from about 9000 letters! This avow our belief that he never found lei. comparison must of itself demonstrate sure to bestow personal attention upon how groundless is the assertion, that one its bearings. If Lord Normanby should of these publications interferes with the remain any time in the Home-office, we other. It would be almost as just to say hope he may some fine morning happen that a literary man selecting a few instru- to take up the fancy of overhauling the ments or treaties to illustrate some ques- outrage of these Chartists. tion of national history, finance, or political

economy, was encroaching upon Rymer's Federa. Moreover, the modernized spelling which Mr. Tytler has adopt. ed—the narrative with which he connects his letters—his criticism-his biographi- Art. IV.-Mémoires d'un Touriste ; par cal sketches—and, above all, the protracted l' Auteur de Rouge et Noir. 2 tomes disquisition which he brings to bear upon 8vo. Edition seconde. Paris, 1839. a disputed point-unbroken, occasionally, throughout the space of twenty pages (as we have read these volumes with lively

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interest : much amusement is to be found ten per cent.-what signifies the result of the con. in them; not a little of valuable informa- cern? The original share-holder realises his advantion: the observations, reflections, jokes, ed : 'never will our clever journalists have patience

tage. The subject is too troublesome to be explain. and sarcasms, of a clever man-a very to clear up the tricks to which a railroad scheme favourable specimen of the libéral of the may give rise. Adroit people, therefore, may spec. present time; noted down from day to ulate in tranquillity on this important subject; for day, as he repeatedly asserts, in the course 5000 francs for a railway that could never yield of journeys undertaken for professional more than three per cent. on the cost of construcpurposes, through several of the finest, tion-persuade the public, by means of the newspa. and one or two of the obscurest, provin- pers, that a return of ten per cent. is certain—sell ces of France. The book is undoubtedly 2000 on each share, and good bye to the enterprise ?'

all your own shares at 7000 francs-pocket your one of the ablest that the Parisian press -vol. i. p. 255. has lately produced ; and we are inclined

Elsewhere he asksto believe that it offers better materials for an estimate of the actual social con • What will become of railways, should they real. dition of the France of Louis Philippe ly succeed in making steam-carriages to travel on than could be gathered from a score of the common roads ? :-Ibid. 57. works holding forth graver pretensions. We suspect that this gentleman's con

We understand it is generally ascribed nection with the iron-trade amounts to to the pen of M. Beyle, who, in former his having been bit in some little tamperdays, was pretty well known under the ing with a railway bubble. If not, his nomme de plume of M. Stendhal. About shares just at present would seem to lie twenty years ago, in particular, he pub- in the Entreprise Marseillaise. lished two little volumes, entitled, we He has one or two shrewd and very think, De la Physiologie de l'Amour et gloomy pages on the state and prospects du Mariage,' which had a great vogue in of the silk manufacture of Lyons; and he his own country, and were read, admir- enters con amore, we must allow, into the ed, and abused here. He met Lord By: history and management of some of the ron at Milan ; and his reminiscences of most celebrated vineyards of Burgundy; the poet are included in Mr. Moore's bi- but these things will hardly induce the ography. We are not well acquainted simplest reader to believe that this volupwith M. Beyle's personal history; but it tuous wit travelled over the French prois evident that, if he be the author of vinces with specimens of iron bars in the these Mémoires, he has endeavoured to well of his calèche;—which calèche, bymystify his readers by the account which the-by, he is almost as fond of alluding to the Touriste is made to deliver of himself. as if he had been much more familiar M. Beyle must be a good deal older than with the coupé of the diligence. He the traveller

says he is; and never was chatters about it and his valet Joseph, althere a thinner disguise than this gentle most as pitiably as Prince Puckler did of man's assumed character of an iron mer- the barouche and my people.' chant. There is not one mercantile atom

The author's time of life is not much in his composition. He is evidently a better disguised. He is by no means in practised professional littérateur, who has love with the popular literature of la spent a considerable part of his life in jeune France, which, we are sorry to say, Italy, and is so imbued with Italian ideas is giving its colour to much of our own. as to the fine arts that he must needs He has hardly one allusion, other than have the supremest contempt for French

contemptuous, to the names now in vogue. sculpture, painting, and architecture—but Their whole plan of writing merely for whose notions on all other subjects what- effect he considers as a melancholy sympever are intensely and exclusively Parisi- tom of the extent to which taste has been

Beaumont and La Chapelle might as vulgarised in consequence of the Revowell have tried to support the characters lution of 1789, and its sequel of the Barriof a couple of Epiciers—or the author of cades; of which last performance, howevthe 'Voyage autour de ma Chambre' that

er, as a step in the march of liberal policy, of a Doctor of the Sorbonne.

he seems to be a decided admirer. In his I do not believe,” he says, “that any possible view all great revolutions are, and must railroad in France could ever pay six or seven per be, accomplished at the expense of the cent., except one to Lyons and Marseilles. But is temporary destruction of social refinelieve one word of it. Fashion, aided by handsome ment, an obliteration of the reign of ele. douceurs,} will give us abundance of railroads. It gance in manners and arts. He propheis so convenient to create shares on which one gains sies better things for the hereafter; but

an.

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