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profligacy to contend with. And no one, That this aid, in order to supply even the not even the wildest theorist, can charge most pressing and immediate wants of the you with departing from the legitimate Church, to give single pastors and single functions of government. All this has churches even to a population of a thou. been forgotten in the recent legislation sand, must be vast, no one seems disposed on church revenues. The spiritual cha- to deny. But the whole statistics of the racter of the Church has been taken as spiritual destitution of this country, the basis of the proceeding, and its ene- coupled with a view of what a Church mies have thus been permitted to take a establishment should be to fulfil its apshare in their management; with about pointed work in such a nation is this, as much propriety as her Bishops might would present a view of its wants so enorregulate the finances of Homerton or mous as almost to produce despair. The Hoxton.
first thought of relief turns naturally to And now will come the question of the the State. It alone can command funds pecuniary aid which must be given to adequate to the emergency of the moassist her in her great undertaking of ment: and funds which can never be reclaiming the nation to her bosom. employed so well as in serving God, prothe Ministry” to be pronounced? Can it be by
moting piety, restoring peace and unaany one who is not authorised by the Church, to nimity to a distracted people, teaching whose “ Discipline it appertaineth ?"
them obedience to man by obedience to Again, the 33d Article says, " the person, God, and placing over their crimes and which, by just judgment of the Church, is rightly cut off from the unity of the Church, and passions the best of all controls, the conexcommunicated, ought to be taken by the whole trol of religion. But we would implore multitude of the faithful as an heathen and publi- the friends of the Church to make their can, until he be openly reconciled by penance, and petition, not for a voluntary gift, but for received into the Church by a Judge that hath restitution of plunder, the plunder of the authority thereunto."
How can a Layman, receiving his authority Reformation ; and, whatever be the form merely from the State, be esteemed the Church of the grant, to receive and apply it as an How can he deliver any“ just judgment,” being instalment on that enormous debt, which, without jurisdiction delegated to him by the if this country is ever to stand before the Church ?" How can he thus bind? or, again, God clear from the guilt of sacrilege, the how can he receive into the Church ?" What State is bound to cancel. Although the "authority thereunto” hath he ? How can he thus larger part of what was seized rashly, and loose ? " That the person to whom it is proposed to
most wantonly misbestowed, has been transfer this authority, is one who already holds a dissipated and cannot be recovered-imcertain spiritual jurisdiction by commission from propriations, at least, may still be redeem. the Archbishop of Canterbury, makes no difference ed. We know that it may
be called mere whatever in the question. It would make no dif. madness to broach such a measure at ference, even if the jurisdiction, which the Bill professes to confer on the Judge of the Court of present; but we hope, nevertheless, that Arches, were similar to that which the Archbishop's we may yet live to see a minister of the Commission has given to him. But the jurisdiction Crown capable of taking his ground upon contemplated in the Bill is totally different from that which is delegated by the Archbishop-it is a
a proposition so clearly just. jurisdiction which the Archbishop could not give
When tithes were enforced by the for he has it not himself-he having no original ju- State, it was as a payment already due to risdiction out of his own diocesc. More than this : God 'from individuals, just as another if given, as the Bill affects to give, it would not debt, not as a tax. The State never pos; merge within it the jurisdiction which he already holds by delegation from the Archbishop-viz., ju sessed them, and therefore never could risdiction in causes of appeal; but it would destroy give them. They belonged to God.* And it, for no causes of appeal to the Archbishop would Ethelwolf's grant, though using the lanappellate and original, would be extinguished, and guage of a gift,t was evidently founded the subject delegated to his official would of course
on ecclesiastical principles, which, as altogether vanish. In short, the Judge of the Tillesley has proved by seventy-two auCourt of Arches would be no longer an official of thorities from Fathers and Councils, bethe Archbishop, though he might be appointed by tween the second and thirteenth century, solely from Parliament, and might be transferred at formally asserted that tithes were of pleasure by Parliament. If it be given this year to divine right. But, says Mr. Gladstone the Judge of the Court of Arches, it may be given (p. 104), * If we admit that the tithe was next year to the Judge of the Court of Bankrupts, or to Her Majesty's Justices in Quarter Sessions. * Tillesley's Animadv. on Selden, pp. 3_31; What is Erastianism, if this is not ?'—Charge to Montagu, Diatrib., pp. 77–79; Collier, Eccl. the Clergy of the Diocese of Exeter, 1839, p. 102- Hist. part ii., b. viii., p. 712. 104.
† Monast. Ang., vol. i. p. 100.
given by legislative enactment, still the render. In 1540, the property of the tithe did not constitute the bulk of the Knights of St. John, to the amount of wealth of the English Church; its aggran- 100,0001. a year, was added to the plunder. disement was by gifts of lands which were in 1545, 90 colleges, 110 hospitals, and notoriously and indisputably voluntary.' 2374 chantries and free chapels, were Subsequently to the general establishment robbed and suppressed, without mentionof the tithe system, the endowments for ing the plunder of the bishoprics by religion took the form of religious houses Elizabeth,* the resumption of first fruits of various kinds. The only possible pre- and tenths, the exchange of impropriatence for claiming any of these as gifts from tions, and all the other acts of pillage which the State is the fact of a royal founda- have settled on the church'a perpetuity tion. But even these are proved by the of poverty. In short, with very few exterms of the charter* to have been per- ceptions, whenever the State has made sonal acts of the king, pro salute animæ its appearance in the matter of ecclesiassuæ.' They proceeded from private tical revenues, it has been as a robber. funds, for the king held no public purse. It was so in the reign of Henry IV.,f unSome of them were only nominally found der Henry V., under Henry VIII., and ed by the sovereign; and most of these the other Tudor princes, with the 'excepwere endowed by transfer of property tion of Mary. Archbishop Bancroft's from other suppressed establishments, as plan for providing a maintenance for the in the case of the Templars, and alien clergy, notwithstanding the exigencies of priories and chantries, in the reigns of the case, they rejected with scorn. And Edward I., Edward II., Edward III., Hen- wherever exceptions exist to the general ry V., Henry VIII., and Edward VI. Yet inclination for pillage, they are found in even these were as nothing compared the person of the monarch. It was the with acts of private devotion.
monarch that supported Arundel and There were at the conquest nearly 100 Chichele against the House of Commons; well-endowed abbeys,t none of which the monarch who saved the few colleges emanated from a public purse ; and the that at the Reformation escaped the genefollowing table, collected from Tanner's ral wreck; James I., who proposed to Preface to his Notitia, may give some found Chelsea College for the especial idea of the proportion in the following maintenance of the English church, and reigns :
Queen Anne, to whom we owe the only
provision for the improvement of small By privato Individuals.
By the King, William I.
And there are principles on which our William II.
ancestors acted, when as individuals they Henry. I.
devoted their wealth to God, which we Stephen
may well adopt.
Instead of vague Henry II.
- 165 Richard I.
schemes of benevolence evaporating in John
guinea subscriptions to some fashionable Henry III. 211
society, they seem to have concentred Edward I.
their donations to some one spot, geneEdward II.
3 Edward III. 74
rally to their own homes; or to some Richard II.
grand institution, which by its magnitude Henry IV.
was enabled to propagate and rear up Henry V.
others. They knew, as we do, that petty Henry VI.
31 Edward IV. 15
sums separately can effect nothing, but Henry VII.
when collected can do much. But the Henry VIII. previous to the
corporations in whose hands they investplunder .
0 ed their donations, notwithstanding occaAnd then followed that kind of inter. sional abuses, were far more capable of ference with the property of the Church, benefit of the Church, than the transient
employing them in grand schemes for the which is far more congenial to a Parliament than any augmentation of its funds. unlocalized societies of this day, with In 1533, 380 religious houses were seized and made over to the crown. In 1539, lin Wallon's 'Life of Honker
Collier, p. 2. b. vii. p. 669. Whitgift's Speech the great abbeys were compelled to sur
39 29 143 138
7 3 13 6 8 0 4 5 1
+ Walsing. Hist. Angl. p. 371.
# Burnet, Reform. vol. i. p. 11." * See the Charters Collected, by Prynne.
$ Collier, p. 2. b. viii. p. 697. † Monast. Angl. vol. i. p. 9.
|| Stat, at Large, 7 James I. c. 9. 11
their annual committees and itinerant will never follow when greatness and secretaries, and the meretricious oratory manliness do not lead the
way: of the platform and ball-room. If small Unhappily, indeed, the late interference sums are to be appropriated to Church of the State with the property of the purposes without any peculiar claim on Church, and the principles on which it them, the bishop and chapter of the dio- has been defended, have done much to cese are the fit body to receive and apply dry up the spring from which its resources them. But there can rarely be cases ought to flow; and individuals will have where a man's own home, or parish, or little encouragement to provide for the district, is not labouring under some wants of their own neighbourhood, when spiritual want; and if one thing is more the funds may immediately be seized by striking than another in the munificence a third party for general purposes, or to of past times in the Church, it is the lay any grand plan of their own, when grandeur of the plan on which they pro- the next moment it may be reduced to ceeded to supply even these with small the same low level with everything around means at their disposal. They seem to it—their personal benefactions and intenhave thought it better to perfect the tions be obliterated-and their gifts, inChurch system thoroughly in one place, stead of remaining as a grand reservoir though many others were feft wholly des- of future benevolence, be wasted and filtitute, than to do a little everywhere and tered away through the sieve of a Comnothing fully. One strong man in perfect mission. health is worth twenty without hands and In spite of all such discouragements, feet ; and they were undoubtedly right. however, the duty of the churchman reThey worked also in faith-that is, in mains clear. Nothing that has been done confidence that means would, through can at all absolve him from his obligation. some channel or another, be supplied for And if individual members of the Church, a good work, if the work were boldly who are seriously bent on serving her, commenced. They laid the foundations would let their pecuniary support take of cathedrals which it took generations the good old form, and apportion it out to finish ; they planned vast societies of for its several purposes according to priwhich they could do little more than sow mitive practice; and if they would make the seed. And there was no pettiness in their offerings at the altar, at that place their views. When men want trust in and time where the Church contemplates others, they can neither plan nor execute receiving them-although there were very any great thing. Littleness and mean- few at first to commence the work, a great ness are the appointed curse for this blas- step would be gained. The example phemy against our nature; and littleness would soon spread, and far more widely and meanness are stamped on nearly all than we are inclined to imagine. Some. the acts of the present day. We think it thing would be done to atone for the prograndeur to conceive a scheme for rais- fusion of wealth which is now wasted in ing a body of clergy to a bare decency of this country on folly and vice, or almost subsistence-boldness, to preserve the worshipped as a god. A few, at least, ruins of things, which popular clamour would understand the right tenure of prowould obliterate even to their very me- perty, and their obligations to Him from mory-absolute rashness and folly, to whom they hold it. And a true Christian state the wants of the church boldly, and charity, quiet, unassuming, regular, and demand from the crown and legislature self-denying, would gradually supersede what a Christian legislature could not all the parade and misdirected unsuccessdare to refuse. Even a pittance, which ful bustle of modern benevolence- tavern can scarcely do more than give a morsel dinners, fancy fairs, theatrical sermons, of bread a-piece to the parties between platform oratory, cathedral operas for the whom it is to be shared, is thought a widows of the clergy, and balls for the prize so vast, as to justify, and even to education of the poor on the principles of require, spoliation, destruction, viola- the Established Church, and all the other tion of oaths, annihilation of the princi- schemes by which human vanity and luxple of inheritance, the sacrifice of the uriousness are to be cheated unconscioustitle-deeds of church property, and all the ly of their alms. other preludes to a vast and final revolu- Looking to the improvement both in tion. In all this there is nothing great, knowledge and feeling, which is now nothing manly; and the liberality of men visible within the Church itself, no one
need despair of obtaining ultimately a own creation, which will soon turn upon supply for its home wants, however large. the author of their being--are shooting It is one great part of the spirit of the up under our eyes, and developing, even day to distrust" everything ; -we want in their infancy, a maturity of crime, and confidence-confidence in ourselves — a calculating selfishness, which makes confidence in the omnipotence of truth—even crime more formidable. They have confidence in the arm of Providence, wealth, commerce, arts, intellect, everyand, not least, we want confidence in each thing which can enable them to cast their other. Men speak and act for the nation shadows on the old empires of Europe, as if the virtues of the nation were extinct and even to turn the balance of the world.. -as if the paroxysms from which it is re- But we have given them no religion. All covering has calcined all its old remem- sects have been fused together in their brances, and paralysed its noblest affec- formation. The government, to meet the tions. But the British people are not yet popular will, has abdicated its own reli. lost ; there are movements making which gious functions, And we may see in seem to presage a return to life ; and its them, as in a glass, the reflection of our leaders may still appeal not only to its own coming fate ; with these differen
religion-its loyalty—its veneration forces, indeed, that we have thrown away, law-its indignation at wrong-its sober while they never possessed a Church judgment upon men, and on their acts, and that when the storm falls upon us, it but on its reviving profuseness of benevo- must fall with tenfold fury, and find us lence; and, by appealing to, they will without any shelter. cherish and extend them. Even the colo There, are, indeed, many difficulties nies, which present the most difficult arising from our present position, which case, might be provided for without any render very accurate and discriminating infringement of principle, if tithes were views necessary to trace clearly the line established and enforced as a fundamental of duty. But still it may be traced. condition on grants of land, and were se For instance, while all the people were cured to the clergy of the Church, on united in the body of the Church, the State principles which could not properly shock assumed for granted their communion the conscience of any payer, because the with her. It took advantage of the acts charge would be laid on the estate, not of the Church to answer purposes of its on himself personally. Something of this own, as in the registering births, marriakind was indeed attempted, by setting ges, and deaths. To prevent the clergy apart the clergy reserves. But the same from abusing their spiritual power, it gave neglect of divine institutions, which has the laity a right to demand their church led to the commutation of tithes in this privileges, except where there were legalcountry, preferred in the colonies to sup- ly proved exceptions, as in the adminisport the clergy by land, instead of a tenth tration of the Communion. And it even portion of the annual produce. And it enforced upon its subjects some acts, has now been found that such a system is which as churchmen they were bound to impracticable—that it does not develope perform, such as attendance on divine itself with the religious wants of the popu- worship. We are not discussing the prolation--that it is precariously dependent priety of these measures, but they were on qualities of worldly wisdom in the founded on a fact, which has now dwinclergy, which they are not likely to pos- dled into a fiction. The circle of the sess—that it opposes a bar to the free State no longer coincides with that of progress of improvement, excites avarice, the Church; and to continue to act as if and is easily plundered—and thus we it did can only involve insult to the have learned that He who formed his Church, and pain to conscientious disChurch, knew better than man how to senters, while it exposes the most sacred provide for its subsistence.
offices of religion to the charge of hypoBut the whole question of our colonial crisy and falsehood. Great delicacy is policy in matters of religion is full of anx- necessary in conforming our old laws to ious and melancholy reflections; and Mr. our altered position ; 'and one great misGladstone's information is not calculated take has been committed, as in the New to place their prospects or our own res. Marriage Act—that of endeavouring to reponsibilities in a more favourable light.-tain religion while the Church is abandonWe have emptied the sewers of our pop- ed. If marriage is not to be necessarily con. ulation on two vast continents. Two gi- secrated by the ministers appointed by gantic empires-the Frankensteins of our God, a churchman can only regard it in the
light of a civil contract. Others may in-council from Protestants only.* Thus vent ceremonies and ministers of their Roman Catholic peers sat originally in own; but not being authorised by God the English parliament after the Reforthey cannot be pleasing him ; and we have mation, until the 30th of Charles II. ; and God's own word declaring against them. the successive bills of exclusion from ofBut religion without a church is the max: fice, from coming near the court, or even im of the day. To-morrow, on the same near the metropolis, were introduced, not principles, it will be religion without as carrying out a principle, but as necesChristianity ; and the next day it will sary precautions against popery and forcome to its close, of religion without a eign influence. Danger, indeed, must alGod. If this falsehood is strenuously ex- ways exist in admitting to power persons cluded—if the conscience of the Church, of erroneous religious principles. And as well as that of dissenters, is relieved this is to be well weighed. But this, and by no longer insisting on her treating not an abstract duty, like that which would those who are without her pale as if they prevent our associating with an excommuwere within it—and the dissenter is allow. nicated person, is the measure of exclusion. ed to follow his own will without the State It may, therefore, be balanced by other either approving or obstructing it, ex- dangers, and fairly become a question of cept by the silent admonition and protest expediency, without compromising the of its own open adherence to the Church- conscience of the legislator. And much no one can complain. And however mel. the same may be said of the establishment ancholy the thought that the estrangement of different religions within the same in religion exists, it will be possible to realm. There is no violation of the nalive through it, without a daily collision, tional conscience in finding a sect in posand without any compromise of church session of property and privileges, and not principles on the part of the legislature. uselessly endeavouring to disturb it by exFor the Church-membership of the State ternal force. does not consist in all the people being We have now touched on the principal churchmen, any more than the holiness questions connected with the relations of and truth of the Church consists in all her the Church and the State ; and if the view members being perfect. If the governor thrown out is true, the conclusion will at governs as a member of the Church it is least be satisfactory to conscientious leenough. The whole body, by the ac- gislators, who are embarrassed by their atknowledged system of God's dealings, tachment to the Church and the pressure are included in the head, and the nation is of Dissent. It is, that the State can do,
and ought to do, but little, except in reUpon the same principle, there is no in- pairing injuries which it has itself inflicttrinsic violation of right principles in em- ed; that the Church must help herself. ploying men of erroneous religious opi- Without her own efforts, not all the pownions even in the highest offices of the ers of despotism could preserve her as an State, provided a majority of Churchmen establishment. With them, and with a is secured, and no danger exists to the blessing upon them, she may still win cause of truth. The measure of this dan- back the people, and restore herself to her ger, not any abstract principle—still less rightful influence. Her laity must supply the notion of punishment which dissen- funds; her bishops a right scheme of dis: ters are so fond of assuming, that they tribution; her clergy, severally and permay rail against persecution-is the rule sonally, make her presence and value felt of exclusion. And so it has practically throughout every parish in the country. been. Theodosius, who excluded here. Those who have fallen from her commutics from high state offices, compelled nion by an ill-regulated piety must be re. them to serve in the army. Arcadius called by greater earnestness, by more excluded them from the household it but frequent devotion, and the restoration of this was only done when recent plots had primitive zeal and elevation in her offices. been discovered. So Elizabeth compos. Those who have erred in ignorance of her ed her first counsel both of Protestants claims must be taught them without any and Papists; but selected her cabinet longer suppressing them from false deli
cacy, and these claims must be especial.
ly enforced on the attention of the clergy * Codex, Theod., xli. ; Tit. v. xliii.
themselves. For others, who have be† Socrates, lib. i. c. 7; see also Codex, Theod, xvi. ; Tit. vi. 42; Bingham, Eccl. Antiq., b. xri, c, Camden's Elizabeth, p. 18; Colliers Eccles. ij. $ 5.
-Parl, ü. h. vi.