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come dissenters from the want of church recently made to re-model some of these accommodation, new churches are rising societies, so as to reconcile them with daily ; and every year we hope they will the institutions of the Church, and we improve, both in number and in the cha- trust they will be continued and sucracter of their architecture, and exhibit ceed. fewer symptoms of our parsimony in re- Still the Church has a great work to ligion, while we are extravagant in our do. She has to animate her own mempersonal luxury. The edifice of the bers with a right spirit of attachment and Church is to the popular eye the best rep- obedience to herself. She has to restore resentative of the society itself; and too many valuable portions of her ecclesiasmuch pains can scarcely be taken to give tical system, which were too rudely swept it a solemn and worthy character. away at the Reformation. She has

For increasing the efficacy of our pa- to make good her own claims to be a rochial system, and particularly for multi- true branch of the Catholic Church, the plying our clergy, several valuable hints one appointed minister of God in this have been recently given in an essay by country, and to recover her title-deeds to Mr. Wilberforce. And a reference to these privileges by resting her claims no those early times when the Church, as at longer on what is called “rational ev. present, was struggling for existence in the idences'—that is, on the opinion of midst of an estranged population, will sup- the individual whom she addressesply many more. Her struggle was then but on external historical testimony. successful ; and at any rate, by following She has to stimulate the indifferentism her principles, we shall escape the risk of the day with a grander development of substitutirg fancies of our own for the of all her civil and spiritual functions ; guide which God has given us.

to crush its Utilitarianism with a nobler In restoring also the polity of the system of ethics ; to face the high intelChurch to efficacy, little is required from lectual Pantheism of Germany with a the State. Instead of reviving the con- profounder and more elevated philosophy; vocation, which is rather a political than to compete with its sceptical criticism ecclesiastical body, and the history of and learning ; to expose the shallowness which is full of warnings against a resto- of the literature under which the present ration of its functions, the bishops form generation has been raised, and to proalready the natural council of the Church, vide for it a new literature-new history, and they have the assistance of their new poetry, new tales of fiction, new chapters. The clergy can gather round philosophy-which may be content to them without any external assistance.- hold its proper position of subordination And they can also do voluntarily-what to the teaching of the Church, and yet will contribute more than anything to may answer all the demands of reason, bring out the true character of the Church imagination, and affection in civilized before the nation—they can of themselves man. She has to bring under her own transfer to the Church the funds and en- eye the education of the middle as well ergies now misdirected to the support of as of the lower classes, and to frame for voluntary societies. Voluntary societies them a system of instruction at once are the chief obstruction to a right view sound in principle and commensurate of the Church. We want no new combi- with the wants of the times. She has, nation of Christians for propagating the moreover, to temper and regulate the Gospel, or diffusing Christian knowledge, enthusiasm of her own younger adherents; or converting the Jews, or building to prevent them from hoping or attemptschools; no Bible societies or Temper- ing too much; and to keep them humble ance societies, or anti-cruelty to animals' and patient, without any diminution of societies, or peace and war societies. We zeal. The very extent of conversion have already a society formed for these ve- which she is bound to contemplate is ry purposes by God himself. The Chureh scarcely less than that which lay before comprehends them all; and the system the view of the early Church. of the Church, its Bishops, Priests and Already churches in other countries Deacons, with officers appointed by the are looking to ours as a centre and head ; Church, are a far better machinery to ac- and great minds, such as before this have complish its ends than all the committees been raised up in the Church, will not and secretaries that ever met on the plat- shrink from the post. And when they form of Exeter-Hall. Efforts have been see in her the strongest and most perfect existing representative of the Catholic Popery may then be cleared of the cor. Christianity of old ; when they consider ruptions of a spiritual despotism, and her national resources ; the means still Protestantism recalled from its abuse of left her of communication ; the Provi- individual speculation to the acknowdence which watched over her preser- ledgment of an external law. vation amidst the convulsions of the Re. And there is one more thing to be reformation ; the unlooked-for energy membered, which must check all harsh. which is now developing itself within her ness, rash interference, impatience, want bosom ; her position in the centre of the of charity. The dissenters with whom world, and the safe shelter which she we have to deal are few, very few of offers from both the vices of the day-them, guilty of that crime most obnoxfrom both the slavery and the licentious. ious to the mind of a churchman-heresy. ness of religion-they will think nothing They may be in error--they may have beyond her grasp. The work may seem lost sight of the Church-they may be impossible--neither history nor prophecy following their own fancies instead of the may encourage any hope of success- positive truths of God -- but they are probut she is bound, humbly, patiently, and fessing an hereditary religion, and even prudently, to contemplate the whole their self-dependence has been received range of her duties ; and those duties as a maxim from their parents. There admit nothing short of the promulgation can be no true Christianity in which this of truth over all the world, the reunion principle of an hereditary faith is not reand hearty co-operation of every branch spected -- no sound conversion which of the Catholic Church, and the reduction would set it at naught. Children are of every profession of Christianity into the not to be raised up against their parents ; bosom of one communion. And the first nor parents against their spiritual teachers. step in such a work is not the least diffi- But the teachers are first to be won over, cult. It is to imbue our own minds with and then the whole communion will folthe true principles and spirit of conver. low, without dislocating any ties of nature, sion, to look on our own errors and per- or setting an example of rebellion which fect our own system first ; then to take will soon produce its fruit, rebellion up our position as a part of the Catholic against the hand which instigated it. Church, and fortify ourselves with all its But we must not enter farther into a resources, instead of trusting to our own subject so wide and requiring such accustrength; then to fix on the good and not rate discussion, as the right principles of on the evil of opponents ; to shake off toleration. Let men look to the colonies, resolutely all vulgar prejudice and abuse, and they may there learn the toleration and see in dissent of all kinds, in popery which is now practised under a Sovereign as well as ultra-Protestantism, not merely sworn to maintain and defend the one error and fanaticism, or self-will, but also true faith and the one true church. But great truths misunderstood, high feelings assuredly we do require that some searchwrongly directed, right principles mis- ing trial be made of principles which, applied to facts, and energies which, commencing with the abandonment of properly trained, will lead by their own persecution, have ended in the indiscrimimpulse to a Catholic faith. The social inate propagation of acknowledged falseecclesiastical spirit of Romanism is a hoods. Somewhere or another we must part of true Christianity-the personal have passed the line which separates spiritual piety of Dissent is another. Let right from wrong, and to establish it each be retained, each encouraged, and again distinctly may not be easy. Conmade, as far as may be, the bond of union tingencies may be imagined, when even with ourselves. Show the Romanist that in the support of truth a government social religion must be lost without per- may be bound to do that which will seem sonal piety, and the Dissenter that per- to support error—as a man bound not to sonal piety implies attachment to a encourage vice is yet bound to save a church, and some progress has been vicious man from starvation, or as the made to reconcile them without com- payment of a debt may be obligatory on promise. Do not insist on identity of us, though we know the creditor will those forms and opinions, which are in misapply his money when he gets it. truth only forms and opinions ; but raise But between this and the spontaneous up the ancient Church as a standard of declaration that all sects and opinions in reference to both -obligatory in matters religion stand on the same footing and of faith, authoritative in all things. And deserve equal encouragement, there is a great gulf; and if anything were wanted which he was employed to set up, and to show the haze and mist which hangs sometimes to have let the types fall at over truth and reason in our days, it random from his trembling hand. would be that we have passed it imper

ERNEST' is the Chartist epic poem. It ceptibly. No warning voice has been represents the growth, the heroic strugraised; and the government is now open- gles, the triumph of Chartism. The ? Polily engaged in committing the first and tical Regeneration,' of which the author greatest of human crimes—first and great- would be the prophetic seer, is the seizure est, we know, because the first denoun- and re-distribution of all landed propertyced in the decalogue—the open propa- the pensioning off the present landed gation of errors-errors in religion, proprietors on a pittance which may just errors in respect to the nature and attri- secure them, but no more, against starvabutes and will of God--the propagation tion ;--the abolition of the Church, and of it wilfully and deliberately, and ac- the institution of a new voluntary system, companied with the profession of a true which, however, obliges every one to faith---in the hope of promoting peace pay to some form of worship ;-universal and conciliating loyalty-with Maynooth, suffrage,—and the direct administration and Irish tranquillity before their eyes of the government, it does not quite as if Canada was not revolting-or the clearly appear in what manner, by the Chartist rebellion was not planned in sovereign people. How the new AgraSocialist chapels licensed by a British rian law is to be carried into execution sovereign for a worship of atheism. seems likewise, though some provisions

are made to that effect, in no slight degree obscure : whether there is to be a general scramble,-whether the cultivators of each farm are to share it among them

in which case we may anticipate (notArt. VI.— Ernest, or Political Regenera- withstanding the elders appointed to detion (No date or Publisher's name.) cide all controversies) some little jeal

ousy, and possibly some hard words and This book--if indeed it has ever been hard blows, as to the richer fields and published, according to the strict mean the homestead-or whether the whole is ing of the term-has been withdrawn to be divided by some general commisfrom circulation. We know not whether sion, which, we think, may, in the same the author has been actuated by prudence, manner, be somewhat perplexed by conby apprehension of legal consequences, flicting claims, and, as its sub-divisions or, as we would willingly hope, by some must be rather minute, with all its repubnatural misgivings as to the soundness, lican equality, will not be very likely to the wisdom, and, above all, the real satisfy the demands upon it. Indeed it Christianity of views, which-with the seems doubtful how upon these poetical profoundest veneration, as asserted, for principles there is to be any property in the gospel of Christ-must lead to that land. It is distinctly declared that the which is most abhorrent to the spirit of produce only can belong, and must beChrist—to anarchy, plunder, massacre- long of right, to him who tills the soil. to the total extinction of mutual love be. The right of property is nevertheless astween the separate orders of the com- serted, not merely in the produce of artimunity-to universal penury, universal san and manufacturing labour, but in all misery, strife without limit, and, finally, which is necessary to make such labour to the worst and blindest tyranny, that of productive. We hear nothing, at present, brute force, or the deepest subtlety. The of the partition of cotton-mills, or magabook is printed in the cheapest form, in a zines of manufactured goods, or worksmall size, and on wretched paper, wheth- shops. About funded property there is er from the poverty of those who alone the same wary, or perhaps, significant could be induced to venture on its publi- silence. Whether to avoid these quescation, or with the original design of tions, or from other prudential motives, dissemination at a low price : it is ex- the scene of this glorious regeneration ecuted with the utmost inaccuracy, so as, of mankind is laid in Germany, and the in truth, to do little justice to the talents heroes have their euphonous names borof the author. The printer seems to rowed from German romance or history. have been ever and anon seized with But that all has a latent and but dimly trepidation at the startling doctrines concealed allusion to our own country is beyond a doubt. The grievances are the constitution, of order, of religion, such as have arisen, or have been sup- even more of property and the security posed to arise, out of English institutions. of life, know who are for and who are Ît is the existing form of English society against them. It is the object which is which constitutes the whole framework dimly seen, not that which stands in the of the action. It is the English magistrate, full light of day, which is more terrible : the English constable, and by, a very if there be no great danger, disperse the bold stretch of poetic imagination, the clouds which have magnified it to the view; English soldier, who is discomfited in if there be, follow the same course, and the insurrection: the dissenting teacher, so only will you be prepared manfully to the prodigal young nobleman who be- confront it. These are the very princicomes a patriot, the organised band of ples which have but now suddenly burst religious enthusiasts, the smugglers, and upon us in frightful action, and produced even the mad fanatics, who are the streams of blood in the streets of one of Achilles, the pious Æneas, and the Tan- our peaceful towns, by which some incred of the revolutionary epic, are, in all fatuated men have been led to sacrifice their acts, thoughts, and words,-in their lives in a wild insurrection, and everything excepting, we will aver, in more may have to answer to the violated their principles-genuine English. laws of their country on the scaffold.

But why do we notice a poem thus, by Let us know, then, how far these lawless our own statement, so extravagant in its notions prevail; by what manner of men political views, and so abhorrent from that they are held ; by what powers of intelattachment to public order, to gradual lect they are vindicated ; by what charm improvement, to Christian peace, and of eloquence or imagination they are Christian virtue and piety, which we pro- commended to the popular ear. Let the fess, and profess, we trust, with consci- people of England, the real people, know entious sincerity? Why do we give en- the choice which is set before them,-the larged currency to opinions which we social state of England as it is, or as it honestly believe to be dangerous and may become by the gradual improveeven fatal to society? What right have ment of its existing institutions—or a we to drag before the tribunal of public fierce and sanguinary convulsion, which opinion-the public opinion of those who will level to the earth every bulwark of coincide with ourselves, but indeed of all property or life, and substitute-all-seethe leading parties in the country, Whig, ing Providence can alone foretell, should and probably almost every Radical of such desolation take place, what length any note, as well as Conservative -an au- of anarchy, or what final restitution of thor who, either from caution, better order, sense, or better feeling, has retreated in- We have said that our high admiration to his sanctuary of silence and privacy? of his genius is our justification to the We will not condescend to the paltry author for thus arresting him in his replea, that large passages of his poem treat, and summoning him to appear, afhave already been quoted and comment- ter he has withdrawn his own plea, at the ed on in a periodical work ;* nor hint bar of public judgment. any suspicion (for which we have, we these strong expressions, which-howacknowledge, not the slightest grounds) ever as to the present work we may herethat the poem may still be rapidly and ex- after modify them by pointing out its tensively, though cautiously and secretly, great faults as a poem, as well as a sodisseminated in the lower strata of society, cial theory-on the general estimate of or among the initiates. Our justification his powers, and his promise of better to the public is the fearful importance of things, we are not in the least disposed the present crisis—to the author, our un to retract. He will not misunderstand feigned admiration of his genius. If our praise, as either a timid deprecation there be danger even in the narrow cir- of his hostility to our opinions, or an atculation of such works—if the composi- tempt to bring him over to our side by tion of such a poem be a menacing and the bland adulation of literary compliawful sign of the times, let us know the ment. However flattering it may be to full extent of our danger. Let there be an author to have his claims to imaginano timid suppression ; let the friends of tion, power, and poetic talent recognised

in the quarter where he would expect * See The Monthly Magazine, edited by Mr. every ear to be deaf to the sweet sound J. A. Heraud, No. CLXIII., for July, 1839. of his enchantments ; however seductive

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it may be to find the way smoothed for and dispassionately, the justice, the wishis acceptance among a higher class of dom, the Christianity of his present views. admirers than he can have ventured to Let him, as a reasoning and honest man, anticipate-he is not, we conceive, of the represent to himself both sides of the stuff to be won over by such smooth question ; the reality and extent of the overtures for pacification. If he himself, evils which he would remedy—the proon mature deliberation, does not see the bability that these evils would be entiretendency of his own opinions-if he does ly removed by his bold specific, and not not calmly, conscientiously repudiate succeeded by still worse. what we do not doubt that he has con- tion himself whether he does not allow scientiously espoused, we neither expect, his ardent spirit to be imposed upon by nor indeed do we wish, to receive a ren- words of glorious sound indeed, but of egade, so cheaply bought, or so easily which the sense is not quite the same

Our hopes of his future poetic with the sound : if his hatred, his holy eminence would be as entirely blasted, as hatred, as he conceives, of certain evils our respect for his character would be of our existing society, is not, in fact, a lowered, by such a mean apostasy. In blinder, more unreasoning, more our recognition, our free, our cheerful Christian passion-whether his love for recognition of his claims as a poet, he man's social and eternal welfare is not alhas but his right and if a friendly feel together visionary-whether, in fact, his ing, a sentiment of heartfelt interest in splendid dream of the improvement of his fame and in his happiness cannot but mankind, if it be ever realized, is so likeblend with our admiration of the many ly to burst out in full glory from the bo. noble sentiments, the gleams of kindlier som of a black and desolating thunder. and gentler affections, the touches of ten- cloud, as from the gradual and more derness, the glimpses of vigorous good equable dissemination of light. Let him sense, the earnest, though, we think, most send out his imagination, which he has erring faith ; aye, if we cannot but feel followed with such fearful acquiescence a profound sympathy with the very prin- in the reality of its reports concerning ciples of all his allusions, his imaginative the present and the future, upon a second vision of some glorious era of human free- mission. Let it by its kindling illuminadom and happiness; if we cannot but tions bring out the bright as well as the yearn to him as to a man of great and dark places of our present social system. noble gifts, of generous desires, of lofty Let it not overleap, or linger but for an intentions—we will not debase him by instantin, the perilous gulf through persuading to any sacrifice inconsistent which we must pass to arrive at his Utowith the dignity and independence of his pia. Let it dwell a while on the long character.

and horrible conflicts which must take This only will we urge, with a deep place, the years of civil war, before the and solemn earnestness, that, before he avatar of political regeneration, to which sets his popularity and his fame, his hap- he looks forward, can take place. A piness and his peace of mind, even his revolution, not in the right of suffrage, life itself, upon this hazard—(for he can- but in the whole property of a country not refuse to maintain in action what he like England, is not to be effected by the enforces with such daring energy in repulse of a county magistrate and a words; the trumpeter who sounds to few constables—or an ill-disciplined yeobattle must share in the perils of the manry-no, nor even, if we could have fray ; he cannot be so dastardly as to the slightest fears of such an event, by the push others on to beard the lion in his defeat or treachery of a few soldiers. den, while he remains in his safe and Above all, let him survey, again and again, quiet retirement without)-before he in the pillars of his new polity. The author curs the awful responsibility at a still has the good sense to see that such a higher and more inevitable tribunal, of circumstance could not take place withhaving assisted to plunge his country in out the assistance of vast numbers of havoc and bloodshed, of having been the loose, lawless, unprincipled men, of smugcause of cutting off thousands of innocent glers, of poachers, of desperate fanatics. lives-of degrading the noblest people it is certainly a splendid conception to upon earth to a race of lawless savages, suppose all these worthies bowing at once driven by ruin and universal penury to to the commanding voice of the general prey upon each other-we would but im- will ; submitting themselves to the selfplore him to weigh once more, calmly denying ordinances of justice, humanity,

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VOL. LXV.

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