with Mr. Calcraft (formerly the devoted ) bar of that House to answer for their disofollower of his rival, Mr. Fox), and employ. bedience. This gave, it may be supposed, ing him in the busiest exertions and in- / great offence; for the city really funcied trigues to embarrass the ministry; we find itself above all control ;-sut Lord Chatham him, for that same object, urging, one day, thought otherwise : The city, respectable his own friend and follower, Lord Camden, as it is, deems of itself as I do not, if they not to resign, and next day using every art imagine themselves exempt from question.' of entreaty and flattery to persuade Lord (vol. iv. p. 24 ) The great ruler of the Granby to resign. We find him holding storm could, when he pleased, allay as well confidential conferences with his lare bêle as excite. The city submitted at oncenoire, the old Duke of Newcastle. We find him dissatisfied at the slow progress of • Pulveris exiguijactu compressa quiescuntfaction in the city, when other people thought the city absolutely faction-mad.' We find though it must be confessed that the idea of him obstinately persisting in making mo. settling the legality of press-warrants and tions in the House of Lords, which Lord the duties of magistrates by calling the latter Rockingham and the Duke of Richmond, to the bar of the House of Lords was a keen as they were, dissuaded ; which even high-prerogative road that, if any other man Lord Temple declined to countenance; and than Lord Chatham had ventured upon it, Lord Camden refused to support: in short, would have caused a much greater, and we find him far in advance of an opposition certainly much juster outcry than any of which comprised the wild violence of Barré, the proceedings in the case of Wilkes. and the more reasoned vehemence of But all these affairs, which were in fact Burke.

nothing but the squabbles of faction, were The Earl of Chatham to John Calcraft, Esq.

now thrown into the shade by a question of Hayes, Friday Night, July 28, 1770. real and vital importance—the dispute with Dear Sir, I was in town on Wednesday last, our American Colonies, whose discontents, saw Lord Rockingham, and learnt nothing more a'ter smouldering with occasional bursts of than what I knew before ; namely, that the Mar: flame, ever since the Stamp Act, now broke quis is an honest and honourable man, but that " moderation, moderation !" is the burthen of the out in a general, and, as ii lurned out, unsong among the body. For myself, I am resolved quenchable confiagration. It would occupy to be in earnest for the public, and shall be a scare- our whole number to give even a summary crow of violence to the gentle warblers of the grove, i of the proceedings of Lord Chatham in this the moderale Whigs and temperate statesmen.' vol. iii. p. 469.

great affair; in which, though he was, as on

all exciting occasions, frequently .carried And all this against men whom he had him-away into contradictions, inconsistencies and self placed in office, and against measures even faction, yet on the whole his motives of which the seeds had been sown during were honest-his councils wise, and the his own administration, and of which we abilities with which he developed them may at least say, that, had he done his duty cranscendently admirable. It is in this part by the king and his colleagues, they would of his history that this great man seems to never have arisen to the lamentable urgency us to be greatest. A life of tortuous policy and importance which they had now attained. is not likely at its close to resolve itself into

In the midst of these domestic troubles a course of straightforward simplicity—that arose the case of the Falkland Islands; and was not to be expected from a veteran tactihere again Lord Chatham, with more con- cian like Lord Chatham. But his personal sistency but with even greater imprudence, circumstances, as well as the real magni. would have added to all our growing diffi. tude of the public interest at stake, appear culties a foreign war in a petty squabble on to have given more candour and sincerity, a doubtful right, and for a worthless object. and consequently more force and effect to

This affair, however, gave rise to an inci. his exertions on the American question, dent more honourable to Lord Chatham. than, in our judgment at least, are visible in Press warrants had been issued. Some any former period of his life. It is here city magistrates, in the general spirit of re- that we recognise the longest views of his sistance to all authority which the Wilkite sagacity, as well as the loftiest flights of his proceedings had generated, refused to back genius and his eloquence. them. Lord Chatham's martial spirit But let us not be misunderstood. We do would not brook this; he openly discoun. not believe that if he had continued minister tenanced the objection-advised the lord the calamity would have been avertedmayor against it, and even went so far as to because it was his ministry that made the talk, in a vivid oration in the House of Lords, most important step towards the mischief; • of bringing the refractory aldermen to the we do not believe that, if he had been re

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called to power after the discontents had ex-f opposite opinions, and the same confidant ploded, he could have arranged the differ- grandeur in maintaining them, which we ences--because to the last, the very last, he have remarked all through Lord Chatham's stickled for an imperial and legislative sov. life, attended him to its close. For several ereignty, which the colonists would and years his whole energies had been exerted could have no more submitted to than to taxa- in defence of the American cause, in all its tion. In fact, as we have before said, we vicissitudes and aspects ; und at last, when see no solid reason for Lord Chatham's dis. that cause was on the eve of its final tri. tinction between general legislation and that umph, he came dying to the House of Lords portion of legislation which includes taxa- to utter his last breath in a solemn protest iion: indeed, on the contrary, there might against American independence, to which seem more reason why the mother country he, perhaps, of all mankind, except Washshould tax the colony io bear a share of the ington alone, had the most contributed. cost of the general defence of the empire, Before we arrive at the last solemn scene, than why she should legislate on civil and there are two circumstances personally re. administrative matters which concerned the lating to Lord Chatham, and illustrative of colonists alone. The truth was, the Colo- his character, which must be noticed. In nies had outgrown their tutelary institutions one of the debates on the conduct of the war, -the boy had become a man, and had an Lord Suffolk had said, in reply to an objecinstinctive desire to assume the toga virilis : tion which had been made to the employthe first occasion that offered happened to ment of the Indians, that we were justified be, as it generally is in the analogous cases in using all the means which God and naof private life, a question of money and ture had put into our hands. In reply to Lord Chatham, whose sense of the justice of this, Lord Chatham burst out into one of his the American case was clearer than his finest strains :view of the real question at issue, and who · I am astonished !" exclaimed he, 'shocked, to probably also hoped to preserve his popu. hear such principles confessed—to hear them larity on both sides of the Atlantic-hit upon avowed in this House, or in this country :-princi. the mezzo termine of conceding to America Christian! My Lords, I did not intend to have enthe disputed point of taxation, while he vin- cruached again upon your attention ; but I cannot dicated for England a vague, a barren, and repress my indignation-I feel myself impelled by what must have been, at best, a nominal every duty. My Lords, we are called upon as

members of this House, as men, as Christian men, sovereignty. It is impossible to judge, and therefore it throne, polluting the ear of majesty. That God

to protest against such notions standing near the were idle to speculate on what the result and nature put into our hands!" I know not might have been of different premises ; but what ideas that lord may entertain of God and although we believe that, if Lord Chaiham nature ; but I know that such abominable princi. had been in the place of Lord North, the ples are equally abhorrent to religion and humanity.

What! to attribute the sacred sanction of God and final issue would have been the same, there nature to the massacres of the Indian scalping. seems every reason to suppose that if Lord knife—to the cannibal savage torturing, murder. Chatham's counsels had prevailed, the dis. ing, roasting, and eating ; literally, my Lords, eat

. ruption might have been effected 'with less ing the mangled victims of his barbarous batlles !

Such horrible notions shock every precept of re. of immediate calamity, and less of subse- ligion, divine or natural, and every generous feeling quent animosity.

of humanity. And, my Lords, they shock every We need not-for they are familiar to sentiment of honour; they shock me as a lover of everybody-and indeed we could not reca

honourable war, and a detester of murderous bar

barity. pitulate all the solemn warnings, all the wise,

• These abominable principles, and this more eloquent, and enthusiastic appeals which, in abominable avowal of them, demand the most de. the course of that long struggle, he address. cisive indignation. I call upon that right reverend ed alternately to the hopes and fears, the bench, those holy ministers of the gospel, and pious feelings and interests of the mother country. holy work, and vindicate the religion of their God;

pastors of our church; I conjure them to join in the Never had his parliamentary exertions been I appeal to the wisdom and the law of this learned more active, more assiduous, or more ap- bench to defend and support the justice of their plauded; and in proportion as they dismay country: I call upon the bishops to interpose the ed and distracted our councils at home, they judges to interpose the purity of their ermine, 10

unsullied sanctity of their lawn; upon the learned excited courage, confidence, and ambition in save us from this pollution : I call upon the honour the hearts of the Americans.

of your Lordships, to reverence the dignity of your We confess that we are unable to recon- ancestors, and to maintain your own: I call upon cile the practical effect of Lord Chatham's the spirit and humanity of my country, to vindicate speeches with his theory of British suve. constitution. From the ta pestry that adorns these

the national character : I invoke the genius of the reignty, but the same facility in adopting walls, the immortal ancestor of this noble lord

frowns with indignation at the disgrace vf his, and Lord Chatham, and so conveyed it to the country." In vain he led your victorious fleets latter. Lord Chatham dictated a civil and against the boasted armada of Spain ; in vain he defended and established the honour, the liberties, conciliatory reply, but stated that nothing the religion, the Protestant religion, of this country but new councils and councillorsa real against the arbitrary cruelties of popery and the in- change and not a palliation-could prevent quisition, if these more than popish cruelties and the public ruin.' This answer (as Dr. Adturn forth into our settlements, among our ancient dington reported) was coldly received by connections, friends, and relations, the merciless Sir James Wright, because the words real cannibal, thirsting for the blood of man, woman, chunge' seemed to point to the exclusion of and child ! to send forth the infidel sa vage-against Lord Bute from the new arrangements. Up. whom ? against your Protestant brethren; to lay on this Lord Chatham, in an angry and waste their country, to desolate their dwellings, and extirpate their race and name, with these hor. contemptuous note, directed Dr. Addington rible hell hounds of savage war!-hell.hounds, 1 to break off all intercourse. In the meansay, of savage war! Spain armed herself with while, Lord Chatham's first answer reached blood-hounds to extirpate the wretched natives of Lord Bute, who desired Sir James Wright America; and we improve on the inhuman exam. ple even of Spanish cruelty; we turn loose these to state, that observing by the expression savage hell-hounds against our brethren and coun " real change,” that Lord Chatham seemed trymen in America, of the same language, laws, to imagine Lord Bule had some influence liberties, and religion: endeared to us by every lie in the administration, he wished Lord Chatthat should sanctify humanity: • My Lords, this awful subject, so important to

ham to be informed that ill health and faour honour, our constitution, and our religion, de- mily distresses had accustomed him to a mands the most solemn and effectúal inquiry. And perfectly relired life, to which he hoped to I again call upon your Lordships, and the united adhere as long as he lived ; that his long decisively, and to stamp upon it an indelible sligma absence from all sort of public business, and of the public abhorrence. And I again implore the many years which had intervened since those holy prelates of our religion, to do away these he saw the King, prevented his koowing iniquities from among us. Let them perform a more of public affairs than he gathered from lustration ; let them purify this House and this general conversation and the newspapers. country from this sin.

• Mỹ Lords, I am old and weak, and at present This total ignorance, notwithstanding his unable to say more ; but my feelings and indigna- zeal for the country, love for the King, and tion were too strong to have said less. I could not very high opinion of Lord Chatham, put it have slept this night in my bed, nor reposed my out of his power to be of the least use in head on my pillow, without giving this vent to my this dangerous emergency, but that from his eternal abhorrence of such preposterous and enormous principles.'-vol. iv. pp. 458, 459.

heart he wished Lord Chatham every ima.

ginable success in the restoration of the Splendid oratory; but it was relorted

public welfare." Lord Chatham-and his friend Lord Amherst

This affair gave rise, after Lord Chalwas obliged reluctantly to confess—that the ham's death, to a controversy whether he or Indians had been employed in the Canadian Lord Bute had commenced this negociation. war in Mr. Pitt's own administration. Lord The truth seems to be, that the go-beChatham attempted to make some distinc tweens had been over zealous, and had mis. tion between the cases, which, however, did construed Lord Bute's private wishes into a not altogether protect him from the recoil political overture. The only importance of his own eloquence.

ihe matter now has is the unequivocal de The other circumstance was of a more nial by Lord Bute of that secret influence private nature. Early in 1778 Lord Bute which Lord Chatham so obstinately, and seems to have expressed among his private after this explanation so illiberally, per. friends a strong sense of the public danger, sisted in imputing. and an opinion that the wisest course to be It has been surmised that the nice distinc. pursued was the calling Lord Chatham to tion on which Lord Chatham encouraged the head of the government. This opinion American resistance and opposed American was repeated by Sir James Wright (a friend independence was acceptable in the closet; of Lord Bute's) to Dr. Addington, Lord and there cannot be, we think, much doubt Chatham's physician. Dr. Addington un. that if he had lived a few weeks longer, derstood it as a direct overture for some he would have been invited to undertake the thing like a coalition between Lord Bute work of reconciliation on these principles.

We ourselves consider the distinction as in * Above thirty years before Lord Chesterfield itself visionary, and we are satisfied that even made a similar allusion in a speech on the then the great abilities and commanding infu. war: 'he turned with a most rhetorical transition to the tapestry, and said with a sigh, that he feared that ence of Lord Chatham would have found there were no historical looms at work now.'-Walany such accommodation impracticable. But pole to Montague, 13th July, 1745. Lett. ii. 48. Heaven spared him the anxiety of the at.


tempt, and, as we believe, the mortification | Duke of Richmond rose to explain. While of a failure.

he was speaking, Lord Chatham listened to We are now arrived at the closing scene him with attention and composure, and, of this illustrious life. On the 7th April, when his grace had ended, rose to reply ; 1778, the Duke of Richmond, hitherto the but his strength failed him, and he fell ally and supporter of all Lord Chatham's backwards in convulsions. He was imme. American policy, moved an address to the diately supported by the peers around him, Crown, recapitulating in detail the expenses, and by his younger sons who happened to losses, and misconduct of the war, entreating be present as spectators. He was conhis Majesty to dismiss his ministers, and to veyed first to the house of Mr. Sargent in withdraw his forces, by sea and land, from Downing Street, and thence to Hayes, the revolted provinces. There was hardly where he lingered for three days, and Mona topic in this motion which Lord Chatham day the 11th of May terminated a glorious had not himself repeatedly urged; and it life by a death, it may be said, in the service was, no doubt, so framed with a view to se. of his country, and on the very field of cure his concurrence ; but he saw that it batlle. involved, though not in direct terms, the ac- That same evening-on the motion of knowledgment of American independence; Colonel Barré, formerly the bitterest of his and on the motion's being communicated 10 enemies, but lately become a close allyhim the day before it was to be made, he the House of Commons voted him a public apprised the Duke, 'with unspeakable con- funeral and a monument in Westminster cern, that the difference between them, on Abbey, a tribute in which men of all par. the point of the independence and sove- tics generously and cordially joined ;—70 yàp reignty of America, was so very wide, that yipus dori bavòvrwv. he despaired of bringing about any reason: able issue. He was still ill, but hoped to be

We have so fully expressed, as we pro. in lown to.morrow.' On that morrow he ceeded, our opinions on the several points of appeared in the House of Lords for the last Lord Chatham's policy and the varying featime:

tures of his character, that we have little

more to add. • Lord Chatham came into the House of Lords, That he was the most powerful orator that leaning upon two friends, wrapped up in flannel, ever illustrated and ruled the senate of this pale and emaciated. Within his large wig little more was to be seen than his aquiline nose, and his empire-that for nearly half a century, he penetrating eye. He looked like a dying man ; yet was not merely the arbiter of the destinies never was seen a figure of more dignity; he ap- of his own country, but the foremost man peared like a being of a superior species. He rose in all the world'—that he had an unparal. from his seat with slowness and difficulty, leaning leled grandeur and afluence of intellectual his two friends. He took one hand from his crutch powers, softened and brightened by all the and raised it, casting his eyes towards heaven, and minor accomplishments—that his ambition said, " I thank God that I have been enabled to was noble-his views instinctively elevated come here this day-to perform my duty, and to - his patriotism all but excessive—that in speak on a subject which has so deeply impressed all the domestic relations of life he was exmy mind. I am old and infirm-have one foot, more than one foot, in the grave-I am risen from emplary and amiable—a fine scholar, a fi. my bed, to stand up in the cause of my country- nished gentleman, a sincere Christian-one perhaps never again to speak in this House.” The whom his private friends and servants loved reverence—the attention-the stillness of the House was most affecting: if anyone had dropped as a good man, and all the world admired as a handkerchief, the noise would have been heard. a great one—these are the praises which his At first he spoke in a very low and feeble tone ; contemporaries awarded, and which postebut as he grew warm, bis voice rose, and was as rity has, with little diminution, confirmed. harmonious as ever ; oratorical and affecting, perhaps more than at any former period; both from

But, on the other hand, there were serious his own situation, and from the importance of the defects which decreased his splendour, im. subject on which he spoke. . ..

paired his authority, and rendered his great He rejoiced that he was yet alive to give his abilities rather glorious to himself than, for as the acknowledgment of the independency of any practical purposes

, beneficial to his America ; and declared he would much rather be country. These defects, though of course in his grave than see the lustre of the British throne well known to the political circles in which tarnished, the dignity of the empire disgraced, the he moved, and deplored and censured by glory of the nation sunk to such a degree as it the sober few, were so much in the fashion must be

, when the dependency of America on the of the times, and were so glossed over by his sovereignty of Great Britain was given up.'

own wonderful powers, as to-excite compaAfter speaking for some time with great ratively little contemporaneous observation enthusiasm he sat down exhausted, and the l—but since his life has become history, and

been elucidated by contemporaneous letters y pomp and splendour. This isolation could and memoirs, they have appeared every day not fail to produce singularity and selfishness, more and more flagrant: and the present and to foster a dictatorial habit of mind very publication-an honest publication we will ill fitted for a minister under our constitution. say–has brought them out in still bolder We have already mentioned with regret his prominence.

indiscreet and offensive language towards In the first place, it would not be easy to George II , which had, we believe, the effect specify any positive advantage (except, per. -more injurious to the interests of the haps, the possession—valeat quantum-of country than even to his own—of keeping Canada) which the country has inherited him out of efficient office at a time when he from Lord Chatham. The


exist. could have served the stute with distinction, ence of so great a man is, no doubt, a and his own mind might been trained to hab. national glory, and therefore a national good; its of practical business, włfich he never afterand his indirect influence may have been wards attained. And we cannot, in truth and highly useful. Can we calculate the extent candour, designate his conduct towards to which his lectures, so to call them, may George III. otherwise than as alike ungratehave educated and improved the public mind ful and unconstitutional --unjust in its spirit, in both the science and the art of govern- mischievous in its effect, and pernicious in its ment? How many statesmen may his ex. consequences. ample have formed ? How many improve He lived, too, at a time when public princi. ments may his precepts have produced ? How ple, as we now understand the ierm, was at many errors and evils may his authority a very low ebb amongst public men : and his have repressed ? But of direct, permanent, practice brought it still lower. He thought practical ameliorations of our social and too steadily of his own individual interests, political condition, few of our statesmen— and in pursuit of them was strangely versatile even those who had not a thousandth part of both as to persons and principles. We do his abilities—have, we believe, left such not, as the world in general does, reckon con. scanty traces.

sistency as one of the first virtues of public Though so sagacious and so accomplished men. "Sagacity to detect, and candour to a mind could not be insensible to, and did in avow one's own errors, we rate much higher; fact highly appreciate, the value of mental besides, all is not inconsistency that at first cultivation, social improvements, commercial sight seems so—circumstances change, and enterprise, and all the fair and fruitful arts of to be consistent in principle a statesman may peace, yet he did little for them. His genius be forced to inconsistencies in practice. and his voice— qno non præstantior alter- But the inconsistencies, or at least the majorÆreciere viros, Martemque accendere ity of them, which are alleged against Lord cantu' were stilt for War'-a fearful lot-Chatham, are not of this class. There is not, tery, in which one or two brilliant prizes are we believe, to be named any one of his vadearly purchased by the misery of individu- rious adversaries who did not successively als and the calamity of nations. We believe become his political associate—nor any one the world is by this time pretty well disposed of his various associates who was not, on to subscribe to Sir Samuel Rumilly's opinion some other turn of the wheel, his decided ad. that the glories, as they are called, of Lord versary. There is not, we believe, to be Chatham's administration, produced no solid found any one considerable measure which advantage to his country' (Mem. II. 402): he ever advocated that he did not at some other --and how short a space of his career was time oppose ; nor any that he ever opposed that epoch of doubtful glory!

which he did not at some other period advo. As to his personal qualities, it must be ad. cate. Conscious of his vast superiority to mitted that his temper, naturally reserved and all the politicians who surrounded bim, he haughty, was, as he advanced in life, sour. probably had sincerely persuaded himself ed by disease and disappointment. It is not that his being in place was a sine quâ non good for man to be alone in political, any to the prosperity of the country, and he more than in social life ; but, he endeavour- seems to have acted all through lile as if he ed to release himself from the obligations of thought that all means were just and honourpolitical connection-affected to stand alone, able which could lead to so desirable an end. and 10 guide himself by his individual, lights, There was some truth in that self-faitering feelings and interests—he grew, at first, im- iden. Endowed as he was with irrepressible patient of contradiction, and afterwards, of ambition and irresistible talents, he must advice, and even of assistance-he used to inevitably have either ruled or disordered shut himself up in the impenetrable solitude the state ; but the misfortune was, that an of an eastern despot, from which he emerged overweening self-contidence disinclined, and occasionally to dazzle the world with his la haughty and capricious temper disabled

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