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migrated with the ducal library to Rome, the shoulders of Atlas. From the expres. and may now be in the Vatican. It would sion “I am not ashamed to be called a pro. be desirable to know what they were ; for fessor of this noble art,' coupled with the although Raphael was never remarkable for evidence of no inconsiderable possessions, a servile imitation of the antique, we find it may bo inferred that Giovanni yielded to that he sometimes adopted his subjects, and a strong inslination for the pursuit
, having often improved his drapery and his forms, other sufficient means of subsistence. from such examples.
The military exploits and public life of The influence of classic monuments of art the Duke Federigo are the subjects of his. has been too much overlooked, generally, in tories almost as copious as the rhymes in the early history of painting. In modern question; but some domestic details lose no. times we are accastomed to consider a direct thing from appearing in a poetical dress, imitation of sculpture as the evidence of especially as the poet seems to write better such an influence : in the infancy and gra- when he trusts least to imagination. The dual development of art, the effect was much death of the accomplished Countess Battista, less pronounced but not the less real. Those at the age of twenty-six, is among the most who, like the Germans, are in the habit of touching of his descriptions. This lady, drawing a strong line of demarcation be. whose acquirements merited the praises of tween the classic and Christian taste, are Bernardo Tasso, had pronounced an extemtoo apt to neglect the consideration of this pore Lalin address, at the age of twenty, to question, and, except in decided instances, Pope Pius II., and the princes and ambassa. like Mantegna, of the adoption of antique dors who were with him in Milan, when the forms, appear to think that Italian art was learned pontiff, with probably as much truth as independent in its infancy as it was in its as gallantry, declared that he was unable to perfection. We shall not now stay to ex reply 10 her with equal eloquence. On amine this subject further, but merely re- hearing of her dangerous illness, her hus. mark that, although Rome was ultimately band left the command of the Florentine the centre of the classic taste, almost every army, and arrived only to see her expire. Italian city preceded it in forming collec. The poet describes her embracing her lord tions of antique sculpture. The examples for the last time, her causing their infant son at Pisa from which the early sculptors of Guidubaldo to be placed in his father's arms, that city caught their first inspiration, the while the bystanders melted in tears, and school of Squarcione at Padua, the garden concludesof the Medici at Florence, and the gallery of Urbino, were all exercising their influence
• Chiuse quel santo, onesto e grave ciglio,
Kendendo l' alma al ciel divotamente, before the treasures of the Roman territory Libera e sciolta dal mondan periglio.' were exhumed, Poggio Bracciolini, who. had himself employed agents to import spe. The chronicle of Giovanni Santi is in no re, cimens of sculpture from the Levani 10 Flo. spect more important than in his occasional rence, could only count six statues in Rome allusions to the painters, sculptors, and ar. towards the middle of the fifteenth century. chitects of his time in Urbino and elsewhere
That the account above quoted relating to in Italy. These notices, corroborated by Urbino was not exaggerated, is abundantly the testimony of other historians, by the do. evident from the corroborating testimonies cuments brought to light by Pungileoni
, and of local historians, and, we may add, from still more by his own researches on the spot, the architecture of the palaces of Urbino and have enabled Passavant to give a sufficiently Gubbio, considered with reference to its full account of the artists who constantly or age. Perhaps the most interesting of the occasionally exercised their talents at Urbi, historians just alluded to is the father of no during Raphael's youth, and of others Raphael, Giovanni Santi, who, in a MS. whose works, done at earlier periods, were poem preserved in the Vatican, consisting of accessible to him in and near his native city. twenty-three books in terza rima, celebrates We cannot accompany the historian fár the martial and peaceful virtues of the Duke in these researches, and must follow his own Federigo. The chronicle is so far com. example in expressing our reluctance to plete that it ends with the death of its hero acquiesce in eulogies, where we have not in 1492 (the year before Raphael was born), had opportunities of judging for ourselves. and is dedicated to his son and successor Guidubaldo I. In the dedication Giovanni * Passavant is wrong in calling her Duchess ; Şanti speaks of having been early induced the title of Duke was conferred on Count Federigo to embrace the admirable art of painting, by Sixtus IV. in 1474. (two years after the death of the difficulty of which,' he says, ' added to Giovanni della Rovere, with Giovanna, daughter of domestic cares, would be a burden eyen for | Federigo,
Luciano Lauranna, the architect of the pa. became acquainted with Oderigi, the missal laces of Urbino and Gubbio, undoubtedly painter; to which circumstance alone, prodeserves to have his name recorded. The bably, the artist owed his immortality. style of these buildings resembles, in its To come at once to the painters whose tasteful imitation of the antique, that of Leon merit was sufficient to attract the attention, Battista Alberti, and may thus not have or influence the style of the best of their been without its influence on Raphael and successors, we find that Gentile da Fabriano his townsman Bramante. Francesco di painted occasionally at and near Urbino, as Giorgio, of Siena, to whom the design of well as at Rome and other places. A Ma. the Urbino palace is erroneously ascribed donna and Child, from his pencil, won the by Vasari, seems to have been employed in admiration of Michael Angelo himself, who, the fortifications, and in some works of orna- according to Vasari, used to say that Gentile mental sculpture, which still adorn the inte. had a hand like his name. Paolo Uccello, rior and exterior of the palace. In these celebrated for his skill in perspective and decorative works, Ambrogio Baroccio, the celebrated for the colossal equestrian figure ancestor of the painter, assisted, and merited of the English condottiere, Hawkwood, the praises of Giovanni Santi, for the taste which he painted on the walls of the catheand spirit of his architectural foliage. The dral at Florence—appears among the paintwalls of many of the apartments were paint- ers who left specimens of their talents in ed with frescoes, which have long disap- Urbino; his works, indeed, are no longer peared. Baldi, in bis • Descrizione del Pa- to be found there, but the recorded payments, lazzo ducale d'Urbino,' speaks of a room, dated 1468, are sufficient proofs. Giovanni annexed to the library, which contained por. Santi, alluding to the wonders of perspective traits of celebrated men of all ages : these done in his time, observes have perished; but one of Raphael's early
• Et si perfectamente hogi riluce, sketch-books, preserved in the academy at Che como scorge la vertù visiva Venice, contains drawings of this descrip- Perfectamente in disegnio reduce. tion, probably done from the representations
Et benchè el fin di lei l'huom sì non trova,
Pur è dela pictura membro intero in ques:ion. Even the panelling was here
E invention del nostro secul nova.' and there of a costly kind : it appears to have been the work of Maestro Giacomo, of A curious picture by Giorgio Andreoli
, Florence, who wrought in tarsia, (inlaid erroneously ascribed to Bramante, is prewood,) a mode of imitation which Vasari served in the church of Sta. Chiara. It reincludes among the arts of design, and in presents an architectural composition in per. which original and fine compositions were spective : the round building with Corinthian sometimes, perhaps we should say, thrown pilasters, which forms the chief object, ap. away. The curious specimens still existing pears to have been a favourite perspective in both the palaces alluded to may have been lesson with the artists of the time and neighthe work of this artist. The English travel. bourhood, and occurs, variously modified, in ler who paces the grand apartments, (some the works of Perugino and Raphael. A very of which, in the Gubbio edifice, are now similar design was afterwards introduced in filled with silk-looms !) recognises among the architectural decoration of a theatre at these inlaid ornaments the insignia of the Urbino, when the first regular Italian come. Order of the Garter, a distinction conferred dy, the Calandra of Cardinal Bibiena, was on more than one sovereign of Urbino, and represented there in 1513, (and not as Tira. of which the Montefeltri were justly proud. boschi supposes, in 1508.) These decora.
The history of the painters of Urbino and tions, the work of Girolamo Genga, a fellow its neighbourhood might be traced to a much scholar of Raphael with Perugino, are miearlier date, from the specimens still exist- nutely described in one of Castiglione's ing. These, for the most part, possess but I letters. little interest ; but we cannot omit the name, Pietro della Francesca, one of the most though nothing but the name remains, of the accomplished painters of his time, deserves Oderigi, mentioned by Dante, (Purg. c. 11.) more especial attention. He was the guest An appropriate inscription marks the house of Giovanni Santi, in Urbino, in 1469. His in Gubbio, where the poet for a time resided, portraits of the Duke (then Count) Federigo, and where, it is said he composed part of and 'his consort Battista Sforza, forming a his great work. It was in this place he dyptich, are now in the gallery at Florence. The rage in Italy for putting up lapidi, to com- mains at Urbino ; but in his native city,
A single specimen only of his talents re. memorate all kinds of events, has been sometimes ridiculed; but we observe, in passing, that none which all must cherish are gradually lost from the would object to see such a practice somewhat more neglect of this. Many a house in the older streets prevalent than it is in England. Associations of London well deserves such memorials.
Borgo S. Sepolchro, many of his works are rini family at Borgo S. Sepolchro. The still extant. At Arezzo, in the church of most distinguished contemporary painters of S. Francesco, Pietro painted the History Romagna and Umbria are said to have stu. of the Cross ;' and, among other subjects, died under Pietro della Francesca. Among the Vision of Constantine.' 'In this,' says these, Melozzo da Forlì and Luca Signorelli Vasari, an angel, foreshortened, descends confirm such a tradition by their works head downwards, with the sign of Victory, more than Pietro Perugino. The name of to Constantine, who sleeps in his tent, guard- Melozzo da Forlì, of whom Giovanni Santi ed by some armed figures, dimly seen, while speaks in terms of regard, is associated with the light from the angel, which is managed an epoch in the art, from his having first with great skill, illumines the tent, the figures attempted that kind of foreshortening when in armour, and the surrounding objects. Pi. figures are supposed to be seen above the etro,' he continues, "thus taught the import. eye, (di sotto in sù ;) and in this respect he ance of copying effects from nature, and is to be considered the precursor of Correg. contriving them originally-indeed, he did gio. Vasari, speaking of a work of this na. this himself so successfully, that he was the ture by him, the Ascension, formerly in means of other more modern masters follow. the church of the SS. Apostoli at Rome, ing in the same track, and attaining the great says, 'the figures of Christ and the angels excellence which we have witnessed in our seemed to pierce the roof.' This artist apown times.' The defeat of Maxentius was pears to have been employed in a villa of also among these subjects; and Vasari, after the sovereigns of Urbino. Of the celebrated praising the picturesque effect of certain por. Luca Signorelli it is unnecessary to say tions, goes on to describe the flight and sub- more than that Michael Angelo did not dismersion of Maxentius, ' where a group of dain to borrow from his original and well. horses, foreshortened, is so admirably man- studied groups at Orvieto. aged, that, considering the time when the In the prominent characteristics of these work was done, it must be admitted to be painters we may trace a more decided consurpassingly well.' He speaks also of some nection with the style of Andrea Mantegna figures skilfully designed in regard to ana-than with any Florentine example; and as tomy, so little known at the time. The some corroboration of this it may be men. remains of these frescoes, badly retouched, tioned, that Giovanni Santi places Mantegna are still to be seen at Arezzo. The sketch at the head of the painters of his time: for a portion of the Vision of Constantine
Perchè de tucti i membri de tale arte is in the Lawrence collection, and when Lo integro e chiaro corpo lui possede published by Outley, was ascribed to Gior. Più che huom de Italia o dele externe parte.' gione-a remarkable confirmation of the The poet concludes a long eulogy on the truth of Vasari's praises. Pietra della Fran
same artist, by repeating that cesca und Bramantino da Milano had painted some frescoes in the Vatican. These, Va.
• in ciò (la pittura) tien lo impero.' sari informs us, were destroyed, to make the physical elements of the art had, in way for Raphael's Deliverance of Peter,'fact
, made great progress in the bands of and the • Miracle of Bolsena.' What Pie the artists above mentioned. Perspective tro's subject was, it may now be impossible and geometry introduced a taste for archito learn; but it was probably one of those tecture; and the same love of perspective, striking effects of chiaro-scuro, of which he in its application to form, led to foreshortenseems to have given the first examples; it ing and to depth in composition : with these, appears to have occupied the place where chiaro.scuro necessarily advanced. Inthe Deliverance of Peter' now is. The costances are quoted, in wliich some, like incidence between his treatment of such sub. Luca Signorelli, approached the modern* jects, (as described by Vasari above, in the richness in colour ; but for a decided pro.
Vision of Constantine,') and the remarkable gress in this respect, and still more for ex. effect of light and shade in Raphael's. Depression, and a very marked religious feel. liverance of Peter,' is, perhaps, more than ing, we should rather look to another group accidental, and Passavant might safely have of painters in the same neighbourhood, most ventured to allude to it. Lastly, this master of ihem somewhat later in date, with Pietro was skilled, above all his contemporaries, in Perugino at their head. perspective and geometry; and Vasari goes The period when Pietro della Francesca, so far as to say, the most important inform and the artists named with him, produced ation that exists on such subjects is derived from him.' His MSS. were deposited in
* The modern manner' is Vasari's term for the the ducal library at Urbino, and some of perfection of the art in the hands of Raphael, Titian, them are now in the possession of the Ma. J and their contemporaries.
their principal works, was soon after the of the celebrated artists of his time. On middle of the fifteenth century. Several the other hand, the poet makes honourable were employed at Rome by Pope Nicholas mention of Van Eyck under the name of V., about 1455; but Signorelli and Perugi- •il gran Joannes.' A passage in which he no were painting in the Vatican much later. asserts the powers of imitation, as generally The artists in question had been the wonder developed in the fifteenth century, also seems of their age, yet many of their productions to have reference to the style of the early were swept away to make room for the Flemish masters :frescoes of Raphael, and afterwards for the
Chi serra (sara) quel che possi el chiar colore Last Judgment' of Michael Angelo. Thus,
Lucido e trasparente de un rubino in Venice, the Pietro Martire of Titian Contrafar mai, o el suo vago splendore ? supplanted the same subject at the same Chi è quel che possi el sol in sul mattino altar by Jacobello del Fiore. Signorelli
Dipingere mai, o un spechiar del' acque
Cum fronde e fior vicini allor (al lor) confino ? and Pietro Perugino were, it appears, in Qual mai si excellente al mondo nacque Rome when a fresco by the former was de. Che un bianco giglio facci, o fresca rosa stroyed, because a young man of five-and- Cum quel bel pur che a natura piacque ? twenty could far surpass it. The venerable El paragon se trova : ove ogni cosa
Vinta riman,' &c. artists might have witnessed this without a painful humiliation : they had the conscious. The peculiar characteristics of the school ness of having themselves improved on the of Umbria, represented chiefly by Pietro works of their predecessors, and of having Perugino, have been ably defined by Ru. enabled Raphael himself to reach the per- mobr; but in order to take a just view of fection it was not in the nature of things this subject, we must first refer to the earlier they should attain.
state of Italian art, and to the causes of For the works of Giovanni Santi, those its first ramifications. The ancient Christian who are curious to trace the few that re. modes of representation, the technical me. main will find ample details in Pungileoni thods of the middle ages, and the usual range and Passavant. We merely observe, that of subjects had been in a great measure set the picture, which was always supposed to aside by Giotto, whose fame and example represent the family of the artist, with the decided the tendency of the Florentine infant Raphael kneeling by his mother's school for more than a century. With a side, is unfortunately proved to be an ex feeling for richness of composition and draa volo of another person, whose portrait, with matic interest, he had rejected or modified those of his family, Giovanni has introduced. the formal but sometimes awe-inspiring
Federigo da Montefeltro's great love for types of the older painters. The subjects the arts was in no respect more conspicuous derived from the legends of modern saints, than in his being one of the first of the and especially S. Francesco d'Assisi, were Italian princes to possess a work by Van preferred by this most original artist and his Eyck, and to employ one of that celebrated followers, less perhaps from a devotional painter's scholars, Justus van Ghent, on a feeling, than from the opportunities such considerable work in Urbino. The picture scenes afforded for variety in composition, in question—a scripture subject, treated in and for the direct imitation of nature. In a somewhat fantastic manner-still exists Siena, on the other hand, and again in Ro. in the church of S. Agata, at Urbino. In magna and elsewhere, the attachment to the the back.ground the painter has introduced ancient types remained in a great measure the Duke Federigo, with two of his suite unchanged; and if modern saints were as (one being the painter's portrait), and a frequently represented, the religious feeling Venetian, Caterino Zeno, who was at that which suggested their introduction into altar. time at the court of Urbino, as ambassador pieces was paramount to any aim of art. from Persia. The picture is painted in oil; At the same time, each progressive improve. the date 1474. Other works by the same ment in imitation was by slow degrees enartist have disappeared. Passavant traces grafted on the traditional types. Among the influence of this early Flemish style in the individual talents that had a share in prosome Italian works of the same time and moting this tendency in the Umbrian school; place; but Justus appears to have kept his Taddeo and Domenico Bartoli, of Siena, secret of oil painting to himself; at all may be especially mentioned. Traces of events, the older Italian painters continued their influence, both in general treatment to work in distemper. This circumstance and in the religious feeling alluded to, are may have produced a misuuderstanding be. to be met with in Assisi. In the mechanitween the Flemish painter and Giovanni cal imitation of Giotto, which so long cha. Santi, and may account for the omission of racterised the Florentine school, no remark. the name of Justus in Giovanni's cataloguel able example of this religious spirit appeared
• till Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole, as with art:-it suggested a subdued humility
Dominican monk, afterwards beatified, pour- of demeanour, contrasting in a fascinating ed forth a quantity of works, in which the manner with a certain fervour of expression, exquisite purity and sanctity of the expres- a soul-felt, unearthly longing, the origin or sions still excite the liveliest admiration. type of which is 10 be sought in the legen. One of the most remarkable of his paintings dary visions of the saint. The following represents the coronation of the Virgin. passage in Vasari, relating to Raphael's She is surrounded by angels and saints, so figure of St. Francis in the picture of the well portrayed,' says Vasari, 'so varied in Madonna di Foligno,’ is applicable to many mien and in the airs of the heads, that one representations of the saint by earlier paint. has incredible delight in gazing on them; ers: it will hardly bear translating: -Nè nay, the spectator feels that these blessed mancò Raffaello fare il medesimo nella spirits, assuming them to appear in human figura di S. Francesco, il quale, ginocchioni shape, could not look otherwise in heaven in terra-guarda in alto la nostra Donna, than as they are here represented.' This ardendo di carità, nell'affetto della pittura, picture, which appears to have gained the la quale nel lineamento e nel colorito mostra painter the surname of Angelico,* is now in che e' si strugga di affezione, pigliando con the Louvre; it hangs in one of the rooms forto e vita dal guardo della bellezza di Lei where the drawings are placed. The upper e del Figliuolo.' portion only is in good preservation. Schorn, The characteristics above described will in his notes to Vasari, says that the late Mr. be found to present the greatest possible Ottley had a similar picture : it is probably contrast to the principle of ancient or classic an early copy; but even as such it would be art. Instead of action and form we have an interesting acquisition for the National inward life. The general distinction is well Gallery Two reputed scholars of this pointed out by Fuseli, when he observes, artist, Centile da Fabriano and Benozzo the heroism of the Christian and his inajes. Gozzoli, painted at Perugia and its neigh- ty were internal, and powerful or exquisite bourhood. In Florence itself
, however, the forms allied him no longer exclusively to example can hardly be said to have been his God.' But the nature of the art itself followed with effect; Masaccio, who had, to is unchangeable, and however modified by a certain extent, a similar feeling, died young, the influence of a spiritual religion, must and was ouilived by Fiesole himself; a long still assert its qualities, if it is to maintain a interval elapsed before Fra Bartolommeo separate character and aim, as compared appeared, and the constantly increasing with other modes of expression. This was taste for classic antiquity-a taste carried so gradually felt, and in the end the desired far by some men of letters as to induce a combination was attained in perfection by disgust for sacred subjects—was with diffi. Raphael. Angelico da Fiesole may be culty stemmed even by that painter. The considered the representative of the Chris. works of Angelico, spread early in the fiftian painters who underrated the physical teenth century throughout central Italy, are, elements of the art; and the productions of on the other hand, to be included among the some of his imitators, no longer infornied inspiring causes of the devotional tendency by his sincerity and intenseness of feeling, of the Umbrian painters. One other, and have litile to recommend them. Vasasi, by no means the least of these influences, after praising, as we have seeli, the works was the neighbourhood of Assisi, the shrine of this extraordinary painter, makes the of St. Francis himself. The church of following judicious observation :I would Assisi is the arena where the early Italian not that any one should deceive himself, painters contended for fame, and where the mistaking awkwardness and want of skill in vestiges of their works are still to be seen. works of art for a devout character, and on
The history of St. Francis, as affording sub- the other hand confounding the beautiful jects for the pencil, mainly contributed, as and true with the indelicate.' we have seen, to form the outward character The painters who were most remarkable of some Italian schools from the first. But for the qualities we have been describing, the influence of the peculiar religious spirit united with considerable power of colour, which emanated froin this centre was still were Nicolo Alunno of Foligno, Pieiro more important as regards its connection Vannucci, called Perugino, Andrea Luigi
of Assisi, and Bernardino Pinturicchio. The • Vasari, speaking of the manners of this holy first-named is the earliest of the four in personage, who refused the archbishopric of Flo- whom the impulse alluded to is remarkable, rence, says, with his usual naïveté,' he was never and although but little anterior to the rest, seen out of temper with the monks of his.convent; from the dryer style of his works, and from a most remarkable circumstance (grandissima cosa) which to me seems almost incredible.'
· having only painted in distemper, he may