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. 1. De Mentis Operationibus. . MENTIS operationes in universum tres sunt. 1. Simplex Apprehensio. 2. Judicium. 3. Discursus.
1. Simplex Apprehensio, est nudus rei conceptus intellectivus, similis quodammodo perceptioni sensitivæ; sicut enim imago rei est in oculo, ita idea in animo: estque Incomplexa vel Complexa.,
Simple Apprehension is the mere intellectual conception of a thing. The operation of this primary faculty of the mind is also called perception, or conception. And the result of the operation of this faculty on any particular object is denominated properly, a notion, and metaphorically, an impression, a conception or perception, an idea or form, an image or representation. These figurative terms are borrowed from sensitive perception; an analogy being supposed to exist between mental apprehension, and the effects of natural objects on the bodily senses; especially on those of feeling and siglit. This supposeci similitude however seems to
be inconsistent with correct metaphysical princi. ples. It is not easy to attach any definite sense to that mode of speaking which assumes that any kind of image or picture of material objects can be traced on an immaterial substance; or that any representation or image can be made of mere qualities or attributes, as, virtue, heat, propensity. The mind apprehends the abstract language of the mat thematician, when he assserts that x+y=a; or of the lawyer, when he puts the case, that A. B. is indebted to C. D. But it seems impossible that there can exist in these acts of apprehension any thing really analogous to the effect of sensible objects on the sight or feeling. In what manner the mind is primarily acted on appears to be an incomprehensible mystery.
Apprehensio simplex Incomplexa, est unius objecti, ut calami; vel etiam plurium, confuse, ut calami, manus, &c. Complexa, plurium, sed cum ordine quodam et respectu; ut calami in manu.
The term, Incomplex Simple Apprehension, taken in its metaphysical and most proper sense, denotes a pure, uncompounded, and consequently indivisible notion or conception; as, hardness, extension, colour, essence. Complet Simple Apprehension, metaphysically understood, denotes every combined or divisible notion; as that of Man, which may be reduced to the simpler notions of unimality, and rationality : Table, including the notions of the material, the form, the use, &c. Gratitude, which comprehends the notions of a benefactor, a recipient, benefits conferred, the remembrance of those benefits, the love, or esteem excited by them, &c.
But for the purposes of Logic, it is sufficiently accurate to call those apprehensions incomplex which
are expressed by one word, whether simple or com. pounded. Such are the notions denoted by the following examples: Time, invaluableness, treasure, revenge, kind, wildness, justice, royalty, England, throne, relation or properiy (implied in the particle of), superimposition or elevation (implied in the parcicle on), individuality (implied by the). .
Each of these words represents an incomplex simple Apprehension, in the more vague and logical sense of that term. When so combined as to create a grammatical relation or dependence, they become representatives of Complex Apprehensions : thus ; That invaluable treasure, time. That wild kind of justice called revenge. The King of England on the throne. The possession of power to suspend the prosecution of our desires.
So also, the faculty by which we comprehend the meaning of whole sentences, or of series of sentences to any extent, is Complex simple Apprehension. Under the same term are likewise included the mental powers and operations of consciousness, imagination, memory, anticipation, association, generalization, arrangement, &c.
2. Judicium, est quo mens non solum percipit duo objecta, sed, quasi pro tribunali sedens, expresse apud se pronuntiat, illa inter se convenire aut dissidere.
Est enim Judicium aliud Affirmativum, quod vocatur etiam Compositio; aliud Negativum, quod et Divisio.
Porro, tam particula Est, quæ affirrnando convenientiam exprimit, quam Non-Est, quæ negando dissidiuin, appellatur Copula ; (sicut et Grammatica Conjunctiones disjunctivas ha
bet;) atque hanc determinando differt Judieium ab Apprehensione complexâ.
E. g. Si quis dixerit Triangulum æquilaterum esse aquiangulum, possum Apprehensione simplici incomplexa intelligere quid sibi velint singula orationis hujus vocabula, complexâ vero quid tota sibi velit oratio : Quin et ipsius raturæ lumine intelligo, duo quælibet objecta vel inter se convenire, vel non convenire; et proinde alterâ copularum esse jungenda : Nondum tamen feci judicium donec copulam determinaverim, i. e. apud meipsum statuerim hæc duo objecta, Triangulum æquilaterum, et Triangulum æquiangulum, hâc copula Est, non autem alterâ Non-Est, oportere conjungi.
By the operation of Judgment the intellectual faculty compares any two objects, and decides on. their mutual agreement or disagreement.
The simple act of understanding the sense intended to be conveyed by any assertion, whether affirmative or negative, is the office of Apprehension. The acquiescence or non-acquiescence of the mind in that assertion is the exercise of Judgment.
The Substantive Verb alone, in the present tense of the indicative mood, constitutes the affirmative Copula. The same verb, qualified by the negative adverb, constitutes the negative copula, which is necessary to the expression of a negative judgment. The affirmative judgment is called Composition, because it places together and unites the two objects compared, as agreeing with each other. The negative judgment is called Division, because it, as it were, divides or separates objects from each other, as ex.