age. But you may have noticed that I have some suspicions that Eadmund Ironside may have been chosen over the head of an elder brother1. But I can't prove it distinctly. Ine was chosen king in his father's lifetime, but his whole genealogy is puzzling, and his father does not seem ever to have been king. I have not lately been working at times likely to bring out such cases, but I will carefully bear it in mind.


Oeborne, Fernhurst, Haslemere, September 17, 1875.

I am on my way to Spalato and Ragusa, but I have not yet got further than the South-Saxons. I cross the sea on Monday, pay a visit in Normandy, and really start on the twentyseventh.

. . . I quite take in what you say about the non-appearance of the turned baluster shafts in the choir at Jarrow. It certainly is a difficulty in the way of its being a work of Benedict Biscop2, but surely there are greater difficulties in the way of believing it to be a work of Ealdwine". I thought we quite made out that the tower which is surely Ealdwine's was quite distinct in masonry from the choir; also while the tower, though not Norman, shows distinct signs of Norman influence, such as we should look for in a church of Ealdwine, no such signs are seen in the choir. If you like to say that the choir of Jarrow is the work of somebody between Benedict Biscop and Ealdwine, as I think you clearly made out that the upper part of the tower at Monk Wearmouth is-that is another matter. I shall have something to say about these matters in the architectural chapter of my fifth volume, and the notes thereto which I hope you will see at least by the beginning of next year.

I do wish that you would come and see us soon. There are heaps of tumps and things which I want to have expounded,


1 See Norman Conquest, i. Appendix SS, and on the general subject of succession, i. 107, 108.



A. D. 682.


I. e. of the History of the Norman Conquest, see pp. 610, 635, and Appendix YY.

5 A common name, especially in South Wales, for the mound of an ancient fortress.

and the C. B.' professes to have found a grand fortification in a field of my own, which I shall not unreservedly believe in till his notion is confirmed by somebody else.

I gave your notes to Johnny Green who was thankful for them, as he will be for any more of the same kind. He is even ready to be thankful for whatever is true in the scurrilous attack on him in Fraser, a great part of which is not true. It is really meant as an attack upon me, and my sin is that of not doing poojah to old Carlyle who, after babbling and blundering for thirty and forty years, took upon himself to write some nonsense about early kings of Norway. A few weeks back I showed up one who took on himself to write nonsense about Tewkesbury, and so he or some admirer writes in a Tewkesbury paper to say that I must have eaten much cucumber and that I know nothing about Tewkesbury or Beverstone. Now it happens that I never eat cucumber and that I know both Tewkesbury and Beverstone very well -fungi, you know, I do eat in certain company. The picture is something like one which a man at Sheffield gave of me - as chiefly devoted to playing at croquet, smoking cigars, and reading novels, of which three things, the last I do but seldom -the other two never at all.

TO MISS HELEN FREEMAN. Turin, September 28, 1875. What am I to tell you about my Viscount? First, that he would not be Viscount in England, being the old Count's younger son. Secondly, that he is a mighty pleasant fellow. Thirdly, that he talks of coming to us next July. He took me about a great deal on Saturday to the stump-there is nothing but earthworks of the original Montgomery of Roger and Mabel. In the manner of living, both at his house and his father's, I am struck with a certain simplicity. One jolly old boy in livery waits (at Livet) instead of Roundell's tall butler and his helpers. He and his wife seem to do most things; but there is a coachman, and one stumbles on one or two odd

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' Mr. J. H. Parker, then recently made C.B.

2 He had been staying with Mr. and Mrs. Roundell at Oeborne, near Midhurst, in Sussex, just before he started on his journey.

boys and girls. Simplicity of furniture struck me a good deal after Oeborne. But outside (September 29) it would seem as if a French place could not be neat. The shaven lawn is hopeless; instead of it, at Livet a tethered cow grazes near the front door. Neuville1 would really be a fine place, with an English gardener; without it, it hardly is. Hours seemed queer at first, déjeûner at 11, dinner at 6.30; but they sent me up a little breakfast at 8, and I found that the hours were really not bad if one wants to go about a good deal, and at the same time to get a little work done. By getting up early, one can get something done before 11. I told some of you that L. de Neuville (my host) has two daughters and a son-the latter about fourteen, the girls somewhat older; they were all dancing on Sunday evening, at which some people would have looked glum. But there was an old priest in the house, and they had had mass in the morning. Everything was as kind and pleasant as could be, bating the nuisance of having to talk GalWelsh all day.


Off Spalato, October 7, 1875. 'At last,' is it not a better 'at last' than when Kingsley got to some nigger-driving island? To-night we have seen Spalato by moonlight and contemplated the arcades of the court of Jovius. How long have I yearned for this it is like getting one's fellowship or seeing one's first Landesgemeinde. It is wonderful, but I must not write down again all that I have just been writing in another shape, and besides we shall come and stay several days on our way back. I think you understand our plan; we go straight on to Cattaro, just looking at the places where the steamer stops, and waiting till we come back to see them more thoroughly. Yesterday we saw Zara in this way; to-day we looked at Sebenico, where I posted a card for your mother; this evening, just at sunset, we reached Spalato; we at once got a boat, went on shore, saw what we could by moonlight and came back to the steamer for supper.

I was thinking as I stood on the bridge--here is the thing that I have been aiming at for years, and how easy it has been to do when one once began it. We are all in high spirits,

1 The residence of the Count of Neuville, father of Freeman's host.

We all agree

delighted with everything about our voyage. that it is the most comfortable steamer we ever were in. Morley and Horner have had larger experience that way than I. Horner, who is apt to be bad, has been quite well here. It is lovely sailing along the smooth sea between the coast and the islands, almost like a lake, only, very unlike Swiss or Italian lakes-barren stony hills rise out of the sea nearly all the way except where the towns are. The towns themselves are at least as good as Italian towns of the same size, and Spalato is quite a big place. I quite laugh at the notion of one's ever having had any doubts, fears, difficulties, about the journey, when all is just as good as anywhere else. I must certainly bring some of you some other year.


Steamer Australia, between Zara and Sebenico,


You were brought home to my memory yesterday in the Albergo al Cappello, at Zara. Do you remember sending me Admiral Rous' defence of cockfighting and how Themistokles fought cocks when he besieged Dalmatia? Well, they gave us at that inn some most strange form of gallinaceous food, which made us all agree that we had got to the site of the siege and that we were eating the insides of the cocks—καρδίαν ἀλεκτόρων who fought in that main. They were very nasty, but we got on better with beef-steaks, though Horner maintained that they were Turks' flesh.

October 7, 1875.

'Twas very odd to be sitting in the street at Zara, drinking maraschino in its native place. The journey is delightful, the steamer most comfortable; going along between the coast and the endless islands, it is almost like a lake. And I am well pleased with my comrades. Your nephew, my wife looked to with great confidence to be to me a forte scutum1 in case of danger. As yet we have had no dangers or even adventures, but he is a right good fellow. So is our third the Earl, who joined us at Turin. He is very pleasant and knows a great lot. We are going to Cattaro, just skimming the places as the

Mr. J. Fortescue Horner.


steamer stops, to see them more fully as we come back. Next week we go up to Cetinje. There I mean to appear as Il Cavaliere, and wear my order. I don't fancy Slaves love Greeks, but it is all part of the general Turk-hating concern. My letter to the Prince has never come, so we trust to the effect to be wrought by Morley's Earldom. N. B. The distinction of Jarl and Karl is not attended to in all parts, Earl being often read Carl.


On the Hadriatic, October 8, 1875.

The sun has somewhat set behind black (more truly green) Korkyra; her last rays (which would have gladdened Cox) have ceased to light up Issa: but the moon still lights up the sea Meleda; captains of thousands going forth to war with the heathen hounds are expounding their chances to an English Earl: yesternight we saw Spalato; in a day or two we hope to see Cetinje; think of all that. Do not think, however, that we have done Spalato, un yévoiтo1. May I do it far more than I have done it yet. Our plan is to go straight to Cattaro, getting a look at each place at which the steamer stops, and to work them more perfectly coming thence. Thus we shall see each place twice, and the first short glimpse enables us to judge of the time to be given to the fuller examination of each. We came on Spalato by sunset and left it by sunrise. The sinking sun typified Jovius in retirement; then the great bear rose over York and Trier. But the glory of the moonlight to-night makes one half turn pagan in a lunatic fashion. Fancy one's first moonlight view of Diocletian's arches, the great campanile, the temple of Jupiter. All I could say was that October 7 was a day to be set down along with the day of my scholarship, and the day of my first Landesgemeinde.



Cattaro, October 9, 1875. We have ended our delightful voyage, and are here at Cattaro, ready to start at five to-morrow for the Black Mountain - six hours ride to Cetinje-I am a wee bit afraid of it. I shall take this letter up with me to finish and post-you will not have • Diocletian.

1 Heaven forbid !'


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