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αι Χάρητος υποσχέσεις were proverbial, επί των προχείρως επαγyellouévwv tollá, Zenob. ii. 13; although elsewhere Demosthenes takes the part of Chares, F. L. 332.

đ0. åtop. Elv., " wretched mercenaries without pay."
oi 8é," and people who"-.
υπέρ. Cf. 2, 43.

ÉKEî is wanting in E, but the Scholiasts give evidence for it; it might easily fall out after ékeivos.

ộadlws, take with Yevdómevol, “lightly, recklessly,” de Cor. 126.

évbá8' Wow=are here on the spot and always ready. As one of those who did not scruple to lie when addressing the people the Scholiast mentions Cephisodotus an enemy of Chares. Ar. Rhet. iii. 10.

évčáde, in Athens; but trustworthy information could be obtained only in the neighbourhood of the army.

ov åv åkoúonte, “ on any hearsay at the time." 8 tl âv Túxşte, “at random,” whatever you may

hit

upon. τί και χρή προσδοκάν; The period όταν γάρ-προσδοκάν has the structure a, b, c, A; the whole force of the three protases is gathered up by the short apodosis (8 33 n.) in the question put in four sharply accented words: “what can one expect?

χρή, “ can.” Cf. Lys. XXviii. 2, καίτοι πως αυτοίς χρή συγγνώμην έχειν όταν οράτε. Τhuc. i. 91.

ol kal; kal following an interrogative particle gives special emphasis to the idea of interrogationnon solum quid sed etiam an aliquid expectandum sit quaerit. Cf. Herod. i. 11, réw kal Tpórw; in what way, if it be possible in any way? See Abicht's note. § 41 nothing will be done, 45 nothing is done, 46 nothing can be done.

47 ótav øueis—. This unwelcome invitation is cautiously introduced § 20, earnestly emphasized § 33, stormily repeated § 44, set in brighter colours 45 TÒ TWv Dewv, and here again maintained with terrible energy. όταν after πως stronger than εάν.

. στρατιώτας και μάρτυρας, on the one hand “soldiers and therewith witnesses,” on the other hand kal dikaotás.

των στρατηγουμένων, 8 25

υμάς τα υμέτερ' αυτών, with emphasis as υμείς at the beginning of the g, cf. 34. Parataxis of pronouns expressing ideas nearly related, cf. de Rhod. lib. 15. For greater emphasis also Demosthenes chooses the construction, accusative and infinitive. This is possible, because the two subjects may be distinguished, juels the whole people, juâs the Athenians sent to the seat of

war.

kplvetal, generally with the simple genitive, here takes the preposition for the sake of “concinnitas” with ảywvio ao bal, ' is put on his trial for his life.”

ανδραποδ. . • Kidnappers” often joined with "wrodutWv. Phil. iii. 22.

κακούργου-έστι, a common malefactor dies."

66

48 And now how do these citizens occupy themselves who sport thus with the lives of their generals? Their whole politi. cal activity moves in the circle which begins with TEPLLÓVTES (10) and ends with περιερχόμεθα. Cf. ηυξημένον-ηύξήθη. Οι. ii. 6, 7, supr. 41 note.

TTEPULÓVTES," as they lounge about."
Aakedaqovlw. Dem. F. L. 76, Aeschin. F. L. 133.

πολιτείας. The πολιτεία (“ constitution”) κατ' εξοχήν in the mouth of an Athenian is naturally the democratic. Ar. Pol. iv. 2, v. 6.

διασπάν (dependent on φασί not on πράττειν) points to the breaking up of the Boeotian and Arcadian confederacies. Dem. pro Megalop. 30, Isocr, v. 91, Grote xi. 66.

φάναι followed by ώς, only here. πεπομφέναι would cause hiatus.

Baoiléa, the King of Persia, Artaxerxes III. Ochus, from whom the Athenians were expecting another Persian war and so had their attention diverted from their real enemy, Philip. Cf. Dem. de Symmor. 11, 41, de Rhod. lib. 6, 24. Introd. 6.

'IMuploîs. The Illyrian and Paeonian chieftains in alliance with the Thracian Cersobleptes were subdued by Philip, supr. 4. He then probably erected fortresses in their territory. Introd. 6.

o 8è-lóyous. This ol oé seems to be about to introduce some fresh political conjecture like the preceding oi uév and oi ôé : but Demosthenes breaks off (compare the last elta in § 37, the last ws, F. L. 73, and the imitation of this passage in Lucian, Icarom. § 20, de imagin. 14, quomodo histor. conscr. 3) and concludes with the general statement λόγους πλάττοντες έκαστος, but startles the audience with περιερχόμεθα, not περιépxovtal, thus labelling the whole worthy assembly as political story tellers and gossip mongers, ol loyoroloûVTES, § 49.

EKAOTOS, partitive apposition, cf. 7.

49 pedúelv. Cf. Hor. Od. i. 37. 12 fortuna dulci ebria (Cleopatra). Plat. Rep. viii. 562 D.

πολλά όνειροπολεϊν. ονειροπολεί θ' ίππους, Αr. Νub. 16.

T. épnulay Tớv, “the lack of such as would”-solitudo magistratuum. Livy vi. 35.

où uévtol. “Yet I certainly do not believe).” In OTW προαιρείσθαι (intend) πράττειν ώστε τους ανοητοτάτους των the sharp τis dominant as in the garcastic τυφλός τά τ' ώτα τον τε voûv ml Oj par' el, Soph. 0. T. 371. Cf. Electr. 264. 915. Aj. 687.

oi loyotroloûvtes. Cf. 10. That is, according to the end of 8 48, all the Athenians. λογοποιήσαντες πλασάμενοι λόγους Vevoeîs. Hesych.

50 Demosthenes continues in the first person. álló, “Rather—.” Tallra," that idle gossip.” ékelvo, “this,” referring to what follows. Cf. F. L. 68,

elswuev. M. T. 161. Sensible people remain within the sphere of that which they know (eldwuev and eldéval commencing and closing thought 41 n.) and it is enough for us if we know all (ότι και-και-και-και-κάν) that has befallen us and lies before us.

The length of the clauses increases with the increasing excitement. τινά, «,

some one, as we expected, was to do for us." The Athenians hoped for something at one time from Philip, at another from "Onomarchus, or Cersobleptes, or Charidemus, never from themselves.

ÚTèp_quæv kab' fu@v. Antithesis, cf. Ol. iii. 12, supr. 5. 24, Ar. Rhet. iii, 9.

εύρηται, 80. πράξας, C. Aristog. 7, or πραχθέντα ? F. L. 241. év ujuîv, “the future depends on ourselves.” vüv. M. T. 103.

ľows. Demosthenes does not repeat this "perhaps " in the Olynthiacs.

εσόμεθα έγνωκότες. Μ. Τ. 44. Note 3. φαύλα, sc. έσται.

51 'Eyw pèy oŮv. A frequent form of transition to the epilogue in Lysias. It brings into prominence the orator's own conduct or personal conviction or an entreaty.

OŰTETE, nequeet, non solum non-sed etiam. Cf. Herod. vii. 8. 1.

äv tem. S. “I have been (and still am) convinced.” The perfect subjunctive in general relative-clauses indicates, more precisely than the aorist, the moment when the action of the apodosis begins. Goodwin takes ellóuny as almost a gnomic aorist. M. T. 131. The earlier speeches of Demosthenes were περί συμμοριών 354, υπέρ Μεγαλοπολιτών and κατά 'Αριστοκράτους 352. Introd. 11 ff.

ÚTTOO TELNáuevos. Lit. "furling sail,” i.e. “shrinking from.” See F. L. 390 (338) Shilleto n.

πεπαρρησίασμαι. The reader who has reached this point will readily assent to this statement. Demosthenes has spoken with extraordinary freedom, and without anywhere introducing Prodiorthosis or apology. This he never omits in his later speeches, when he had acquired greater knowledge of the weakness of human nature.

épovlóunu äv, vellem. The ind. with är in the expression of a wish for something which is not possible or is not the case.

συνοϊσον, sc. το τα βέλτιστα είπεϊν. This apprehension on his own account Demosthenes expresses again, Oi. i. 16, iii. 32, never afterwards.

én đSnlous K.T.N. " in spite of the uncertainty of the consequences that will result to myself from—"TÈõuws, cf. Thuc. viii. 97. érl C. dat. of the ground or basis on which one acts, etc.

από τούτων and the following ταύτα, « these proposals of mine.”

επί τω-πεπείσθαι. A form of υπερβατον (καθ' υπέρθεσιν), the article being separated from its proper word. aipoüual λέγειν επί τω πεπ. (in the conviction that) αν πράξητε ταύτα (the conditional clause subject to) συνοίσειν υμίν.

νικώη, Μ. Τ. 174. ό τι μέλλει, Μ. Τ. 126. πάσιν, ,

us all." ovvolo Elv, for the fifth time in this section (Traductio Cic. de Or. iii. 206). The word is a fitting termination for a Nóyos συμβουλευτικός, the object of which is the σύμφέρον 80 strongly emphasized by Dem. in this paragraph. The last word is generally one of good omen. Cf. Ol. i. iii. de Chers. Phil. üi, de Cor.

APPENDIX.

THE ATHENIAN POPULAR ASSEMBLY,

NEAR the northern gate of modern Athens the guide points out to strangers a great block of stone eleven feet square with a mutilated platform, which he calls tò Brua?, said to be the world-famed orators' tribune on the old Pnyx, where in the time of Demosthenes the popular assembly was wont to meet. The seats of the audience surrounded it in the form of an amphitheatre, and they had before their eyes the hill of Mars ("Apelos ráyos), and further on the sea covered with ships, and Salamis crowned with victory, while the orator looked out above his hearers towards the Acropolis with its splendid buildings. On his right was the council-chamber (Bouleutýplova), and, near it, more than one sacred temple. Four times in each of the ten Prytanies (periods of 35—36 days, in leap years of 38 or 99) the regular popular assembly met (ekkinola &ylyveto), where the regularly recurring business was despatched. Extraordinary assemblies (ékk nolai o úykdytol) on special occasions were announced by messengers sent throughout the country: the councillors serving in committee at the time (i. e. the Prytanes), and through their agency the generals, were com. petent to summon such meetings. The assembly consisted of rich manufacturers and merchants, well-to-do landowners,

1 It is now more generally maintained that this block of stone was an altar, and the semicircular area surrounding it a téuevos, of Zeus. See Philologus xix. 374, xx. 529 and 574; on the other side Dyer's Ancient Athens, p. 468 and Appendix.

2 Hegesippus de Halonn. 83. Pseudo Dem. Phil. iv. 53.
3 de Halonn. 19. de Chers. 33. Aeschin. F. L. 83 and 72.

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