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the upward-striving Demosthenes. For he was supported by the tendency of his time, which was disinclined to all moral earnestness of life, without which least of all can a democracy exist, and ever eager for new enjoyment which should cost no trouble. Ever capable of noble emotions, but incapable of lasting exertion and self-denial, the sovereign people chose to surrender itself to the guidance of vulgar leaders, and, indulging its measureless passion for holyday and show at the expense of the state's most vital resources, had sacrificed in festa] rejoicing supremacy, freedom and country. Eubulus worked in harmony with this feeling. While, as treasurer, 354–350, he improved by careful management the revenues of the state which had fallen considerably, he added to the already numerous disbursements from the Theoric fund 34 and so accustomed the people more than ever to enjoyment at the state's expense.

Thus were all the means 14 for regular and energetic warfare cut off at the time when the young Demosthenes, in the year 351 as is generally believed, delivered the first Philippic oration 35. We can find no trace of any consequences of this speech, yet we may assume that there was ground for the apprehension expressed at its close. For though Demosthenes in this speech proceeded very cautiously in dealing with the leading statesmen, however bitterly he upbraided the people, yet

35

34 infr. 18.

supr. 10. The special occasion for the speech may have been the appearance of Macedonian privateers in the Aegaean. Phil. i. 34.

Eubulus must have felt at once the decided opposi. tion in which the energetic nature of Demosthenes stood to his own administration, and the abovementioned 38 critique of his policy in the Aristocratea could not have remained unknown to him..

III.

Finance and military matters at Athens. Military

affairs of Macedonia.

15 The power of Athens at this time was not unim

portanto, but the requisites for mobilizing it, native energy and capability of self-sacrifice on the part of the citizens, fixed and sure rules of finance, no longer existed. The ordinary revenues of the state from the farning of state property, like the mines of Laurium, from the poll-tax on the Metoeci, the customs, judicial fees and fines 88, and lastly from the contributions (ouvrášels) of the allies, which about 340 must have amounted altogether to 400 talents 89, were more than sufficient for a time of peace : but war soon exhausted the treasury, and patriotic as the Athenians had been, the voluntary contributions of individuals (émdoOELS) sufficed only for the most pressing requirements; in time of war recourse was had to a direct property-tax (elo popá). It was collected by the institution of the oujpopíaı or tax-societies. The 1200 richest citizens, 120 from each Phyle, were divided into 20 Symmoriae,

36

supr. 12.

37 Phil. i. 40. iii. 70. de symmor. 13. 30.
38 de Chers. 69. Phil. iv. 45. 89 Phil. iv. 38.

each containing 60 persons : from these again were set apart every 15, the richest in each case, altogether therefore 300. These were bound, on publication of the tax-list, to make payment in advance on behalf of the other members of their Symmoria and the other citizens assigned to it. Every Symmoria had its president (vyeuwv) and manager (curator, éluentńs) “. The same arrangement was adopted about 357 for the 16 Trierarchia also, the most costly service which the well-to-do citizens had to undertake for the state4l. Every Symmoria answered, as a body and individually, for the equipment of a number of ships regulated according to requirement, so that sometimes more sometimes fewer members associated (as Ouvreleis) for each one ship. Here also the richest members above mentioned advanced

money

in

prepayment, which they recovered when the expense was redistributed among all the parties concerned. But in this way they could not only escape free of charge themselves by falsifying the accounts of money expended : they also injured the interest of the state as often as they let the Trierarchia to the lowest contractors : and yet delays were possible, as every one, who believed himself overburdened by the incidence of the tax or by being selected to serve the Trierarchia, was at liberty to avail himself of the legal remedy avtídoos: he offered exchange of properties to the person, as he alleged, unduly favoured. All disputes arising from this source belonged to the jurisdiction of the generals. On them devolved also 40 01. ii. 29.

41 de Chers. 69. 42 Phil. i. 36 and c. Phaenipp. 5.

the nomination of the Trierarchs (i.e. those who besides their contributions in money had to serve personally as captains), and all selection from the number of citizens liable to service 43, besides a round of duties, which rarely permitted the presence as leaders in the field of more than one or two of the ten generals nominated yearly. Under them ten taxiarchs commanded the infantry, two hipparchs and ten phylarchs the cavalry”. These continued in

office in time of peace, and cost the state in supplies 17 alone nearly 40 talents a year.

But the power, prosperity and security of Athens depended mainly on her fleet. The state itself had the war-ships (Tpiņpels, ships with three rows of oars) built on its wharves (vecópla *), probably twenty every year—this was a special business of the council of the 500 for the time being--and kept under shelter in the docks or sheds (vedoolkoL), of which there were 372 in Demosthenes's time in the harbours Piraeus and Munychia. Thus if a naval expedition was decreed by the people, the dock-keepers were instructed to deliver the ships and ships' furniture in their keeping to the trierarchs appointed to superintend the starting of the expedition. These saw the ships launched from their sheds into the basin of the harbour 46 and brought to the pier. Here the ships were fitted out, i.e. the wooden and hanging gear (okeún) taken on

43 All citizens between the ages of eighteen and sixty, except those who were legally exempted from military service for a time, as the βουλευται, τελώναι, χορεύται. 44 Phil. i. 26. 45 de Chers. 45.

c. Polycl. 6. de cor. trierarch, 4. de Chers. 74.

46

board. This business fell to the trierarchs as well as keeping the ships in good condition and repair during the expedition. The crew (Thuppa) of the trireme, i.e. the rowing-crew (vaūtai, about 170) and marines (émußátai, about 12), were supplied by the state by selection from those liable to serve, whether citizens or metoeci, and received pay from the state. On the other hand the trierarch enlisted and paid at his own expense the serving-crew (impedía, including steersman, cook and carpenter), and often, if the crew supplied him was deficient in number or condition or deserted, had to supply the deficiency himself. When the crew had gone through such exercises as were possible, and ballast and provision had been taken on board, the ship was ready to sail. The lowest pay given by the state amounted to two obols a day and as much more in maintenance-money (outpéo lov *2); the crew of a trireme cost therefore daily at least 1} minae, monthly 40 minae. The land-soldiers (otpaTLŪTAL) received similar payment, the citizens serving as onlitai: the cavalry received three times as much. In naval expeditions the latter were carried over in cavalry transport-ships (Tpińpels in Taywyo1*), the former in their proper transport-triremes (Tpiýpeus otpaTiTLdes). Besides these there was a proportionate number of vessels of burden (aloia), to bring the provision and various kinds of army baggage, such as artillery.

47 Phil. i. 28. Xen. An. vi. 2. 4. Tpoon comprised both μισθός and σιτηρέσιον. Ο1. 1. 27. Phil. i. 23, τρέφειν. Τhuc. vi. 93. 4.

48 Phil. i. 21. Old ships of war were used for this purpose, for the first time in the year 430. Thuc. ii. 56. 1.

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