We are amused when we hear how Plato first recognized and described substantive and verb as distinct parts of speech, and at the enthusiasm with which paronomasiae, antitheta, isocola, homæoteleuta were received, but perhaps we are not the best possible judges concerning the form of speech. Soon the different parts of an oration were distinguished and patterns were constructed for proæmia and epilogues. Presently the mere faculty of beautiful expression delighted large audiences, and there was formed, in imitation of Gorgias, a peculiar species of eloquence, the speech for display or show or festival (yévos TTLδεικτικόν).

). It is not necessary here to discuss the dangers of this tendency: it is enough to state that the epideictic eloquence developed with great rapidity the innate feeling for form, and refined to a high degree of sensitiveness the already susceptible ear of the Athenian. Naturally the practical effect of this influence was felt in the two places where oral statement was a necessary requirement of Greek life, the court of justice and the popular assembly. The court 22 of justice is the proper nursery of artistic eloquence. Thus, as according to Hellenic law every man pleaded his own case orally, certain directions were put together, first in Sicily, concerning disposition and argumentation, for the parties in a suit, from which a theory of eloquence (τέχνη ρητορική) was gradually developed. Thrasymachus of Chalcedon published a collection of commonplaces as examples for exciting compassion, for causing and appeasing anger, for creating suspicion and for justification against suspicion. He was also regarded as the inventor of the

rounded period and of the so-called middle style which was more select than the language of everyday life but still far removed from the pomp and monoto nous sentence-formation of Gorgias. Another, Theodorus of Byzantium, improved the system of instruction in the disposition and the parts of the speech down to the smallest particulars. The school of Isocrates distinguished the four following parts of the speech: (α) προοιμιάσασθαι προς εύνοιαν, (και) διηγήσασθαι προς πιθανότητα, (c) αγωνίσασθαι προς απόδειξιν or TTWOTWOCO

Pai nepòs medú, the argumentatio or demonstration, (α) ανακεφαλαιώσασθαι προς ανάμνησιν or επιλογίσασθαι προς οργήν ή έλεον, the epilogue divided into an ανακεφαλαιωτικόν, and a παθητικόν μέρος. The object, which forensic eloquence (yévos SLKAvikóv) aimed at, is expressed in the notorious sentence: Tòv yttova λόγον κρείττω ποιείν « to win the victory for the weaker cause by the power of speech.” The famous oligarch Antiphon (died 411) was spoken of at Athens as the composer of a téxun, while Lysias soon ceased to give theoretical instruction: both were famous at the same time as composers of judicial speeches for others (Loyoypáfoi). Still more famous was Isocrates (died 338), both as a master in the epideictic style, to which his tavnyupikós belongs, and teacher of many statesmen and generals who guided the fortunes of Athens before and at the time of Demosthenes. As is well known, Isocrates bestowed special care on the subject of expression (16&cs), that the speech might flow on smoothly in rhythmic euphony, avoiding every harshness. Cicero says of

62 Brutus viii. $ 32.

him “primus intellexit, etiam in soluta oratione, dum versum effugeres, modum tamen et numerum quendam oportere servari.” No doubt Isocrates transferred the 23. same rules to his lessons in the third and most important kind of oratory, popular or deliberative or political eloquence (γένος δημηγορικόν or συμβουλευτικόν). We learn its nature and extent best from Aristotle's Rhetoric. This work, composed in a philosophic spirit, and the somewhat older περί ρητορικής, intended for practical use and routine, compiled probably by Anaximenes of Lampsacus, are the only τέχναι remaining from the classical times of Greece; both appeared in the best period of oratory, though not long before the death of Demosthenes. As the principal parts of Rhetoric, we find: (1) εκ τίνων αι πίσTELS COOVTau (inventio with argumentatio or confirmatio); (2) το περί την λέξιν or ερμηνίαν (elocutio); (3) πως χρη τάξαι τα μέρη του λόγου (dispositio). According to Aristotle το δικανικόν γένος is divided into κατηγορία and απολογία, it treats περί γεγενημένων and has for its object το δίκαιον ή άδικον και το επιδεικτικόν γένος is divided into έπαινος and ψόγος, it treats περί παρόντων and has in view το καλόν ή αισχρόν; το συμβουλευτικον γένος is divided into προτροπή and αποτροπή, it treats περί μελλόντων and has in view το συμφέρον ή βλαβερόν. The main point with Demosthenes is expediency but he frequently takes in as adjuncts the beautiful (honour) and the just® Aristotle thus defines the materials of symbuleutic oratory: oxédov yáp, περί ων βουλεύονται πάντες και περί & αγoρεύουσιν οι

63 Phil. iii. 16.

συμβουλεύοντες, τα μέγιστα τυγχάνει πέντε τον αριθμόν όντα ταύτα δ' έστι περί τε πόρων, και πολέμου και ειρήνης, έτι δε περί φυλακής της χώρας, και των εισαγομένων και εξαγομένων, και περί νομοθεσίας: (compare the different departments of modern ministers). He then goes into detail on each of these five points, see Rhet. I. ch. iv.


Demosthenes as an Orator.

24 Demosthenes studied rhetoric with Isaeus of Chal

cis of whom we have remaining 11 speeches written for other persons with reference to matters of inheritance, and a large fragment of a twelfth. It is accordingly not improbable that he supported the young Demosthenes in the suits he undertook against his guardians and helped him in the preparation of the speeches in those suits, a conjecture which we find in ancient writers: yet these speeches show on careful examination a peculiar individuality throughout, quite distinct from that of Isaeus. It is said that Demosthenes, soon after attaining his majority, took Isaeus into his house for several years, and Isaeus, a master of forensic rhetoric, and profoundly skilled in Athenian law, devoted this time exclusively to the instruction of his studious and gifted pupilo. In any case his teaching was more practically useful for the events of real life than that of the more distinguished

61 Pseudo-Plutarch. Vit. dec. Oratt. 839 E, 844 B. Dion. Hal. 'Io aîos, c. 3.

Isocrates. Demosthenes seems never to have heard the latter himself though he studied his writings 65: similarly he had no acquaintance, personally at least, with the philosopher Plato. His favourite work, which the legend makes him copy out eight times and learn by heart, was the history of the Peloponnesian war by Thucydides; probably the kindred spirit of the young man was charmed by the high tone of the author and the grandeur of the period he described, while the future statesman and orator was impressed by the brilliant clearness of detail, the inventive power in oratorical dialectics, and the weightiness of expression. Demosthenes had but a small fortune and yet we find 25 him paying for this expensive instruction, defraying the housekeeping of a family in good position, and discharging the costly services to the state, many of which he undertook of his own accord. He found the means by becoming a doyoypádos", that is, he wrote speeches for litigants to pronounce in court, and thus acquired reputation and property 67, and perfected by practice against opponents and before judges that debating power which made him irresistible in political oratory. The story is told of Pitt that before he had a seat in parliament he used to attend the meetings of both

65 i. e. his speeches, not a téxvn.

66 Like Antiphon in the first instance, who consequently was assailed by the comic poets; then Lysias, Isaeus, and others. The name Noyoypápos was somewhat disreputable (Aeschin. c. Tim. 94, de F. L. 180, c. Ctes. 173, Dem. F. L. 246), the thing was in great request.

67 Which he kept up davelgwv éri vaut koîs, Plutarch. Comp. Demosth. et Ciceronis, c. 3.

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