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scholar of St. John. Pothinus was sert it as the testimony of St. John. succeeded immediately by Irenæus, Fulgentius striking in with the same another hearer of St. Polycarp; so notion, cited it in like manner; and that if any church in Europe could from these two writers it was hencebid fair to have a genuine and per- forth communicated to others of fect copy of the first epistle of St. the Latin church, till at length it John, it was surely the ancient and was received as a genuine part of venerable church of Lyons. But the epistle. It did not, however, in the whole list of Prelates from find its way into any of the Latin Pothinus down to Eucherius, who, manuscripts for some centuries after as the reader may see in my Dis- Vigilius and Fulgentius. It is a courses on the Christian Hierarchy, mistake even to suppose, that it had was the twenty-first in succession, obtained a place in any one single and filled the see from the year of manuscript at the time that PseudoChrist four hundred and thirty-four Jerome composed his prologue to to four hundred and fifty-four, there the canonical epistles. The lanis not upon record a single Arian guage of the prologue is not, that of Bishop, nor yet a Presbyter; the the Latin copies, some contained venerable see of Lyons having never the Heavenly Witnesses but others at any time been branded either with not; or, that the orthodox had prethis or any other damnable heresy.served, but the heretics expanged It is plain, however, that Eucherius, the verse, a circumstance of which, from the citation of the eighth verse no doubt, he would bave heen only in the genuine remains of his happy to take notice; but that the works, knew nothing of the Hea. unfaithful translators in putting venly Witnesses; and, if he was down nothing except the words, the ignorant of it, we may rest assured spirit, and the water, and the blood; that all his predecessors in the same and omitting the words, the Father, chair had been equally ignorant of the Word, and the Spirit, had egreit.
giously departed from the true caI shall now proceed to state in tholic faith. He does not go so far what way I think the verse at first even as to assure the reader, that he got thrust into the Latin manu- had taken care to have the words seripts. This 1 hesitate not to correctly inserted either from the charge, originally, on the undesign. Greek or the Latin manuscripts ; ing mistakes of the two African Pre nor do I verily believe that he had lates, Vigilius Tapsensis and Ful- the presumption to do it. In this gentios Ruspensis. In the days of I am supported by what I remember these prelates the African church having onee read in the Iter Italihad suffered from the Arian faction cum of Mabillon. That learned the most violent persecutions; and monk being at Rome, and inspect. Vigilius, particularly, being anxious ing one of the most valuable public to vindicate the cause of orthodoxy, libraries, fell in with a manuscript and conscientiously believing that containing the Aets, the canonical in the copy of St. Cyprian the Epistles, and the Apocalypse, writwords Tres unum sunt were abso- ten in uncial letters, and above a lutely affirmed of the Three Persons thousand years old. In this manu. of the Godhead, ventured to allege script there was prefixed to the cathe verse in due form; and so in the nonical Epistles the prologue of Confession of Faith which he drew Pseudo-Jerome, absque auctoris noup in the name of the African mine, complaining, as usual, of the Bishops, as well as in the several absence of the Heavenly Witnesses; tracts wbich he put forth under the but behold, in the text of the episnames of Athanasius, Augustinus, tle itself the testimony was omitted. and Idacius, he scrupled not to in. And can any one suppose, that the
transcriber of this manuscript, who was most certainly baptized. The must have fourished towards the meaning, therefore, of the eighth close of the seventh century, and verse according to St. Cyprian is,whó, from the circumstance of his For there are three divine persons prefixing the prologue, must have who
bear testimony to the mission of cherished the most orthodox senti our Lord Jesus Christ ; first, as to ments of the doctrine of the Trinity, the Spirit, in that he had the testiwould have neglected to insert the mony of the Holy Ghost in the passage of the Heavenly Witnesses, miracles which he wrought; sehad it appeared in the copy from condly, as to the water, in that on which his transcript was made his being baptized with the water Surely not: it is an incredible sup- baptism of St. John, he received the position.
testimony of the Father, who by a Seeing, however, that this spuri. voice from heaven pronounced him ous passsage has resulted entirely his beloved Son; and thirdly, as to from the peculiar manner in which the blood, in that on his shedding St. Cyprian expounded the eighth his blood upon the cross, he had the verse, I shall here pause to inquire testimony of the Word, who being in what sense he must have under- united to his soul at that moment, stood 'it, so as to apply the words caused such a supernatural darkness Tres unum sunt, to the Persons of, and concussion of the earth as to the Godhead. That Tertullian was draw from the mouths of the centhe chief guide of St. Cyprian, is turion and the Roman soldiery a the assertion of St. Jerome. But, confession of his divinity: moreif we consult Tertullian, we shall over, these three divine persons, the find that, in the baptismal formula, Father, the Word, and the Holy he regards the three names of Fa- Ghost are one and the same witther, Son, and Holy Ghost, as so ness, in that they equally testify of many privy spectators or witnesses the divine mission of Christ. In of the faith of the person bap- this manner the three nouns, To tized, as well as sponsors of his πνευμα, και το υδωρ, και το αιμα, are salvation; and that, as under the not considered as being of the no. law the testimony of three persons minative, but of the accusative case; was sufficient to establish every and as severally governed by xata, word; so, under the Gospel, the understood. The three witnesses testimony of the Father, the Son, here are supposed to be the same and the Holy Ghost, at our baptism, with the three Heavenly Witnesses affords the strongest confirmation at our baptism ; and for this reason,
hopes of salvation. Now, if and no other, it is that in his appli. we turn to the fifth chapter of the cation of the words Tres unum sunt, First Epistle of St. John, we shall to the Trinity, he does not affirın there find that he is describing with them of the Father, the Word, and what evidence or testimony from the Holy Ghost, as they stand in heaven Christ entered on the course the seventh verse; but of the Father, and discharge of his ministry: for the Son, and the Holy Ghost, as like as every Christian man enters they stand in the baptismal formula. on his new vocation at his baptism, Nor have I the least fault to find so Christ entered on the fulfilment with this exposition of St. Cyprian. of his mission by a threefold bap. On the contrary, unless we are pretism, by baptism with the water, by pared with the Armenian editor to baptism with the blood or cruci- discard from the text the eighth as fixion, and by baptism with the Holy well as the seventh verse, I see no Ghost; of all which baptisms there other mode of eliciting any sense. is mention made in the gospels, and The idea of a real personification of with all which our Lord Jesus Christ the Spirit, the water, and the blood,
I totally reject, as abhorrent from are one : and there are three who the style of the writers of the New bear witness in heaven, the Father, Testament. To me the notion of the Word, and the Spirit ; and these the water and the blood bearing any three things are one in Christ Jesus. kind of actual testimony, whether in the Dublin Greek manuscript, in the heavens or on the earth, is For there are three who bear tesli. perfectly unintelligible; nor can I mony in heaven, Father, Iord, and conceive, how these two witnesses Holy Spirit ; and these three are should unite with the Spirit in pro- one: and there are three who bear ducing the sanie testimony: testimony on the earth, spirit,
I am not ignorant, indeed, that water, and blood. If we receire, with some expositors the water and &c. In the Latin vulgate,-For the blood bere spoken of are refer- there are three who bear testimony in red to the blood and water which heaven, the Father, the Word, and gushed from the side of our Saviour, the Spirit ; and these three are one : when pierced upon the cross by the and there are three who bear testi. Roman soldier. But on this sup- mony on the earth, the spirit, the position the emphasis, surely, would water and the blood; and these three have been the very reverse of what are one. In the printed Greek text, it is; and, since blood, and not — For there are three who bear tes. water, might have been expected to timony in heaven, the Father, the gush from his side, the language of Word, and the Holy Spirit; and the divine apostle should have been, these three are one : and there are that Christ came by blood and three who bear testimony on the water; uot by blood only, but by earth, the spirit, and the water, and blood and water; the directly con. the blood; and the three are for trary to which is the language of one ; or, as we read it in the Eng. the epistle. Besides, the circum- lish version, agree in one. Here, stance of the blood and water gush- then, we have no less than five difing from his side could furnish no ferent constructions of these two kind of testimony whatever, except verses ; not to mention several less that of his death.
important variations, and that, on Before saying any thing on what many occasions, we find the eighth is termed the intrinsic evidence for verse placed before the seventhi. the disputed passage, we ought Such a confusion could have arisen clearly to determine the context; as from no other possible cause than it seems most unfair to draw are the clumsy and unsuccessful attempt guments from any part of the print- to create two verses out of one ; and ed Greek copies, of which we may he must be a hardy critic indeed, be left in uncertainty whether the who, from such a deranged and chaconstruction be genuine or not. otic mass of constructions, should Now nothing, surely, can exceed the pretend from the state of the eighth immense diversities of construction verse, to fetch any intrinsic evidence observable in those two verses, as in support of the seventh. cited by their earliest authorities. But it will here be argued, that In some they are read ;-- There are the text of Griesbach concludes the three who bear witness on earth, eighth verse with us to ev slow; and water, blood, and flesh; and the that the definitive article to, before three are one in us: and there are
*), supposes some other ty, preced. three who bear witness in heaven, the ing, to which it pointedly refers. Father, the Word, and the Spirit ; To this I reply, that Griesbach, and these three are one.
In others, discharging the duties of an editor, - For there are three who bear wit. has given agreeably to the majority ness on earth, the water, the blood, of his manuscripts, as to ev; but and the flesh; and these three things that this was at all times the geneREMEMBRANCER, No. 39.
ral reading of the Greek text is ex. the purpose than what the present tremely questionable. The Latin version supplies. version, and, I might add, all the There is, I think, a high degree Latin writers, acknowledges neither of inconsistency in the espousers of the article nor the preposition. The the Heavenly Witnesses, when they Æthiopic, according to Griesbach, argue against its possible personififor I have not the version by me to cation of the earthly witnesses in the inspect it myself, has neither the ar. eighth verse, in order to bring in the ticle nor the preposition. The Cop- seventh. The external evidence for tic tongue possesses both the definite the eighth verse is so strong that it and the indefinite article, and is cannot now be rejected. But, if we very regular in the use of them; may not be permitted to personify but in the Coptic version of the the spirit, the water, and the blood, eighth verse there is a preposition, when the seventh verse is onnitted, indeed, equivalent to in; but no ar. how, I ask, shall we be any more at ticle whatever. The same may be liberty to do so when it is actually said of the Syriac version. Though thrust in? I am aware that the the Armenian tongue has no real learned Bishop of St. David's has prepositive article; yet, by virtue said, by an attraction ; but to that of the final Nu, of the use of which I may reply in one word, that the it is extremely lavish, the Greek pre- Greek tongue acknowledges no such positive article is capable of being attractions as this, nor any other fully expressed : nevertheless, in the tongue whatever, with which I am genuine Armenian text of this verse, in the least acquainted. there is neither article nor prepo There are some other arguments sition. From the consideration, brought forward, on which, with then, of the state of the eighth verse your permission, Mr. Editor, I shall in all those ancient and celebrated take an early opportunity to ani. versions, which must, at one time or madvert ; as I am anxious to leave another, have been severally made nothing unnoticed that may in any from certain Greek manuscripts ; I measure contribute to the support conclude that the genuine reading of the falsified text. of the Greek text was not always
I remain, &c. the same with that of Griesbach;
JOHN OXLEE, and, tberefore, that no stress ought
Rector of Scawton. to be laid on the existence of the Stonegrove Parsonage, prepositive article in the present Feb. 13, 1822. Greek copies. To me, however, the sense appears to be the same, whether the article be present or not; its use, as is well known, being to To the Editor of the Remembrancer. point out not only some one individual person, or particular thing of
Sir, the kind; but also the whole kind The Rector of Scawton has, in your itself, taken in its utmost latitude, last Number, ventured to pronounce without any reference whatever to the controverted verse of St. John, one individual more than to another. a foul and scandalonis interpolaCertainly the translators of our re. tion,” though he has placed the ceived version were either unable or controversy at an issue, which by unwilling to perceive, in this place, his own admissions, proves the auany definite meaning of the Greek thenticity of the verse. prepositive; and I call upon those“ if the advocates of the verse can who seem to have penetrated more point out to me any one authentic deeply than others into its mysterious and important passage of the New uses, to give us something more to Testament, which has been equally
passed over in silence by all the Centuries, I mean the twentieth Greek and Latin Fathers, I will ac- verse, “ This is the true God, and quiesce in the reasonableness of ad- eternal life.” This passaye was of miiting the whole verse into the great importance in the many consacred Canon." Your learned cor troversies respecting the Divinity of respondent assumes here what cannot Christ during the second and third be granted, that all the Greek and Centuries, and yet it was never Latin Fathers have passed over the quoted by any of the Ante-Nicene verse in silence. Even the Greek Fathers. Fathers are not without authorities If the Greek text of 1 John v. 7. in favour of the verse; and the was never quoted by any Greek Latin Fathers have several express Father, (which cannot be admitted,) citations of it. But waving this the Latin version was never objected objection to the Rector's premises, to by any Greek or Latin heretic, there is an authentic and very in- nor by the Greek Church in all her portant passage in the same chapter long.continued disputes with the with the controverted verse, which Latin Church. has been more than equally passed
T. M. over in silence by all the Greek and Feb. 14. Latin Fathers of the first three
Isaiah xxi. 7.
ites the children of Israel made them the “ And he saw a chariot with a couple dens which are in the mountains, and caves of horsemen, a chariot of asses, and a
and strong holds." chariot of camels."
1 Sam, xiï. 6. Amongst the Nagay Tartars in u When the men of Israel saw that they the Crimea, we saw a great many were in a straight, then the people did buffaloes and camels, several of the hide themselves in caves, and in thickets, latter we met drawing, in their two
and in rocks, and in high places, and in wheeled carts, a service for which I pits." should think them not so well adapt In returning to Achmetchet we ed as for bearing burdens; and al- stopped to water our horses in the though a chariot of camels is men- steppes, (or plains) where the dwelltioned by Isaiah, I do not remember ings were entirely subterranean. having beard of such a practice Not a house was to be seen; but elsewhere. Rev. R. Heber's Note there were some holes as entrances on Clarke's Travels in the Crimea, in the ground, through one of which
we descended to a cave, rendered Hebrews xi. 38.
alınost suffocating by the heat of a “ Of whom the world was not worthy, stove for dressing the victuals of its they wandered in deserts, and in moun poor owners. The walls, floor, and tains, and in dens, and in caves of the roof, were all of the natural soil. earth."
See also an account of the ca“And the hand of Midian prevailed verns of Inkerman by the same auagainst Israel, and because of the Midian- thor, p. 491 ; but these, from their