occasion; and the most important stroyed, because it appeared to its
and difficult affairs were regulated followers to be coeval with the
by the auguries, or rather the cheats earth on which they trud. But a large
of their Priests. Such was the bar. proportion of the English must have
barous and wicked religion which looked upon the Saxon idolatry as
was reared upon the ruins of the an unjust usurpation, as well as a
Cross. The Britons forsook the cruel falsehood and forgery; and
God whom they had promised to this circumstance will explain the
obey; and their property was plun- facility with which Austin afterwards
dered, and their houses burned over proceeded in the conversion of the
their heads, their children driven Saxon kingdoms.
into captivity or exile, their altars The present Sketch would be im-
overthrown, and their faith pro. perfect, if no notice were taken of

the Scotch and Irish Saints who In the wretched picture of deso. flourished during the period under lation which this scene presents, consideration. But the narrative there is one bright spot. Christi. would be disfigured by all the fables anity was entirely extin- of Monkery, if it affected to furnish guished. A few sincere believers more than the names and countries as we have seen in the case of Gildas, of the respective worthies. There retired into the desert, and preserved can be no doubt that Scotland and the sacred flame. The preacher was Ireland received the Gospel in this still able to rebuke, to exhort, and age, for it was found there shortly to console; and to shew his small after in considerable prosperity and and trembling flock, that the calami- purity. And historians are agreed ties of their country had been brought in admitting the claims of St. Pa. on by sin. Heathen moralists or trick to the title of the Irish Aposinstructors must have been silent tle, and of Palladius to that of the under such calamities. Christian Scotch. It is possible also that teachers pointed to the Law which St. Columba may have lived before had been received and despised, and the arrival of Austin, and have shewed that God was not unjust in founded the celebrated monastery taking vengeance of guilt.

of lona or Columb-kill. The parIt is probable also that the cru- ticular actions and merits of these elty of the Saxon conquerors, and and many other Saints have not yet the novelty of their idolatrous rites ceased to furnish matter for national must have prevented the Britons rivalry, and antiquarian skill; but from becoming strongly attached to they neither are, nor ever will be, the Paganism. The religion of the subjects of legitimate History. Druids was not easily to be de

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The following vindication of the

memory of Bishop SEABURY from the aspersions of Mr. Sharpe's biographer, we understand to be from the pen of the venerable Bishop of Pennsylvania. It was published in the Christian Journal

soon after the appearance of Mr, Hoare's book in America ; and from the well known accuracy of the writer, we doubt not it gives a correct representation of the facts relating to Bishop Seabury's application in London, which seem not to have been rightly apprehended by Mr. Sharpe and his biographer.

the subject of his mission. This To the Editor of the Christian might be made to appear from sunJournal.

dry letters of his private correspon. Philadelphia, Nov. 18, 1820. dence, and by credible testimony of GENTLEMEN,

conversations held by him after his THERE has lately reached this return. But the view shall be city, “Memoirs of the Life of Gran- limited to his letters to the clergy ville Sharpe, Esq." published in the of Connecticut, published in the present year, by a gentleman of the Churchman's Magazine, in the year name of Prince Hoare. His book 1806. will draw the attention of the Ame. It appears, that soon after his ar. rican public, on account of the esti. rival be first waited on the Bishop mation in which the character of of London, Dr. Lowth; probably, Mr. Sharpe has been held among us. because the Bishops of London had The veneration paid to bis memory been diocesans of America. This will be increased, by the hitherto Bishop“ mentioned the state oaths unknown extent of his labours in the in the ordination offices as impedicause of suffering humanity. In ments; but supposed, that the short, the able work of Mr. Hoare king's dispensation would be a sufwill transnit the name of Mr. Sharpe ficient warrant for the Archbishops to posterity, as one of the most to proceed on." Thus writes Dr. efficient and meritorious characters Seabury, and then adds—" But of the present eventful age.

upon conversing with his Grace of It is therefore lamented by your Canterbury, I found bis opinion rapresent correspondent, that on the ther different from the Bishop of 213th page of the said book, there London. He received me politely, should appear an unfavourable and approved of the measure, saw the erroneous representation of the cha. necessity of it, and would do all he racter of the late Bishop Seabury, could to carry it into execution. But professed to be taken from the ma- he must proceed openly, and with nuscripts of Mr. Sharpe. It is as candour. His majesty's dispensafollows:

tion, he feared, would not be suffiDr. Seabury, on coming to Eng- cient to justify the omission of oaths land, called on the Archbishop of imposed by act of Parliament. He Canterbury for consecration, to the would consult the other Bishops ; great surprize of the Archbishop, he would advise with those

persons, who was apprehensive that it might on whose judgment he thought he give great offence to the Americans, could depend. He was glad to hear with whom we bad just then made the opinion of the Bishop of Lonpeace; and therefore, his Grace (the don, and wished to know the sentivery worthy and learned Dr. Moore) ments of the Archbishop of York. wished to be allowed some time to He foresaw great difficulties, but consider of his request: upon which, hoped they were none of them insurDr. Seabury very abruptly left the mountable.” room, saying, if your Grace will not It was highly indecorous, if Dr. grant me consecration, I know where Seabury, after such a reception, abto obtain it; and immediately set ruptly left the room, first having off for Aberdeen.”

threatened the Archbishop with an Dr. Seabury arrived in London on application to Scotland, and immethe 7th of July, 1783, and did not diately proceeding to carry the set off for Aberdeen until a short threat into effect. time before his consecration, on the But, on recourse to his letter of 14th of November, 1784. In the the 16th of August, 1783, the folinterval he had considerable inter- lowing facts appear. Dr. Seabury course with the English prelacy, on repaired to York, on a visit to the

Archbishop of that province, to situation in the very case of Dr. Seawhom the application from Connec. bury, as appears on the 212th page ticut had been addressed, in con of the biography. The mind of Mr. sequence of the decease of Arche Sharpe being in this state, it is no bishop Cornwallis; the promotion of injury to his memory to suppose, Dr. Moore to the primacy not being that he may have misapprehended known in America. There ensued the narrative of the interview in a correspondence between the two question, even if it came to him archbishops. Difficulties occurred: from bis Grace of Canterbury. This, among which, as appears from Mr. however, does not appear in the exHoare's book, (p. 231), was the op- tract from the manuscript, but is position of the Lord Chancellor; added by Mr. Hoare. wbose opinion, as he was Speaker It ought not to be deemed indeliof the House of Lords, would of cate to the latter gentleman, to supcourse have great weight. Dr. Sea. pose that he may have misapprebury, seeing no end of the negocia- hended in this instance; it having tion, after a stay of more than a certainly happened to him in anoyear, repaired to Scotland.

ther; where he says (page 230) conThe result of these facts is the cerning the two bishops, consecrated conviction, that there must have on the 4th of February, 1787, that been a misunderstanding in the mind they had been introduced to the of that excellent man, Mr. Sharpe. Archbishop by Mr. Sharpe. It apIt does not appear, that the business pears from a late work entitled of Dr. Seabury was known to him, Memoirs of

the Episcopal until after it was over. He entertain- Church,” and written by one of ed seutiments unfavourable to the these bishops, that they were introScottish Episcopacy. Now,although duced by his excellency Johu there was no ground on which the Adams, Esq. then Minister at the Episcopal Church in America, se Court of Great Britain. vered as it had become from Eng On the opposite page to that the land, could reject a succession from last referred to, there is an error, this source ; allowance should be which ought to be here corrected. It made for the scruples of a loyal Eng- seems to have been reported from lishman, in relation to a college of this side of the Atlantic, and believ. Bishops still dependent for the exer. ed on the other, that the Episcopal cise of their function on a Pretender Convention, assembled in Philadelto the British crown: for this was phia in 1785, consisted of “ Presby. considered by Mr. Sharpe* as their terians and other dissenters.” There

was not an individual of that body, * It was erroneously conceived, by Mr. who was any other than a member Granville Sharpe, that the Scottish Epis- of the Episcopal Church. copal Clergy, after the revolution of 1688,

The discharge of a debt to priwere dependent, for the exercise of their function, on a pretender to the British Crown. This, however, was vot the fact, introduction of Foreign influence, in the for, as is accurately stated by Bishop Jolin episcopal concerns of Scotland; but they Skinner, in his NARRATIVE—The Bi were resisted and soon effectually overshaps "continued to perform the spiritual ruled by the bishops and clergy. See functions of their episcopal character, to Skinner's Eccles. Hist. of Scotland. Mr. ordain ministers for the vacant congrega- Granville Sharpe was a keen WBIG, tions of their own persuasion, and, as they though of episcopal principles; and he was saw it necessary, to CONSECRATE such per known to be hardly in charity with, or at sons as they thought most proper for con least to have no affection for, the episcotinuing the succession of their own order, pal Tories of Scotland, and he was bence without asking permission, either from led to believe of them what was not in fact the exiled, or from the reigning Prince." true, Attempts, indeed, had been made, for the

G. G.


Fate character, sometimes seems due to the Editor of the Remembrancer. to historic truth.

So far as regards the operations of Mr. Sharpe in favour of American From the very first appearance of Episcopacy, the first fact within the the Remembrancer, I have been knowledge of those who moved in a constant reader, and am now the business in this country, was his happy to join your correspondent letter to a Baptist minister (Dr. Man- “ Clericus” in acknowledging “your ning,) handed about among the readiness to admit any thing into members of the Convention of 1785, your useful Miscellany that is of but not submitted to that body. The essential interest to the Clergy.” Per. nest, was extracts of letters of Mr. mit me to add also, that, under the Sharpe to the Archbishop of Can- terms “ interests of the Clergy,” I terbury, communicated to Dr. Frank- have no doubt but you comprehend lio, and by him sent, in 1786, to the the interests of Curates, as well as author of the “Memoirs of the Epis- those of Incumbents. copal Church.” The two Bishops, Under this persuasion I venture who were soon after consecrated in to hope, you will allow me, through England, uniformly testified to the the medium of the Remembrancer kind reception of them by Mr. to lay before Clericus, a Curate's Sharpe, and to bis zeal iu their busi- views of that part of the act 57 ness. These things fall short of Geo. III. " For consolidating and what is contained in the biography: amending the laws relating to spifor there it is stated, that a book ritual persons, &c.” which appears published by him in 1777, gave a so oppressive to an Incumbent. beginning to designs in favour of I shall not dispute the accuracy, Episcopacy, and this, with the aid with which Clericus has painted the of the people called Quakers; that melancholy situation of incumbents, the same book had convinced a large (though I think that if meant for a body of dissenters as well as church- general representation, it is too men in the United States, of the pro- highly coloured :) but I do contend, priety of establishing Episcopacy that if relief, and assistance is reamong themselves ; and that even quired, for those, “ who have borne during the war, a motion had been the heat and burden of the day,” it mnade in Congress for the purpose, ought not to be procured by a deand was postponed, merely because duction from the pittance of those, a time of peace would be the most who are bearing " the heat and proper. There must have been some burden of the day," and are perhaps such accounts transmitted, but the the most diligent, and efficient lamatters were unknown to those, bourers “ in the vineyard.” I canwho had an agency in organizing not see the equity or the humanity the Episcopal Church.

of that appeal to the Bishops for They were equally strangers to relief, which points to the hardthe alterations in the Liturgy pro- earned stipend of a Curate, as the jected in 1689, under a commission source from which it is to be drawn. from the crown, by a body of emi- Is Clericus prepared, to maintain, nent divines, one of whom was the that £100, or £150, is too great a excellent grandfather of Mr. Sharpe, reward for the services of a Čurate? soon after Archbishop York. or that too large a sum for his They could not but know of the necessities? commission, and of the disappoint Has not the Curate's education ment of the object of it. But they been as expensive as his Rector's? had not access, as Mr. Sharpe sup- Has not he the same quantum of posed, (page 229) to the projected labour to perform while he is in alterations.

health? Is he not under the same REMEMBRANCER, No. 39.


liability to be disabled by sickness ricus, have incapacitated the poor without any provision for such an Curate from bearing any longer emergency, and without any means “ the heat and burden of the day" of laying by money to form a fund where, alas, is he to take refuge ? of his own ? Has he not a certain The Rector provides nothing for his appearance to keep up? Is he not retirement, when he is past his labour. actually performing the duties of the He may pive, languish, and sicken living? Is it then just, that the in penury, contempt, and obscuRector, who does nothing, should rity; may end a life of usefulness call upon the legislature, to allevi- and toil, by a death rendered more ate his distress by taking from his bitter from a broken spirit, a heartCurate that little which he so fairly rending struggle with miseries, for earns ?

which poverty denies relief, and of If the case of the Iocumbent be which decent pride forbids disclo80 deplorable, where the above- sure ! mentioned act is in operation, let Clericus must be sensible, that Clericus consider the situation of such must be the fate of a Curate the Curate where it is not in opera- in such a case as mine. He must tion. Clericus brings forward his be sensible, that mine is not an exown case to illustrate his observa. treme case, that there are many tions, permit me in like manner to Curates, whose salary is less than state mine. Our cases are so far mine. Does he then seriously urge parallel, as I have another (though the legislature to provide for nonvery scanty) source of income, for resident incumbents by diminishing which I have equal reason to be the additional stipend, which they thankful.

have so justly decreed to the sufferI am curate to a parish of which ing and laborious Curate? If they the Rector is non-resident, and of did withdraw that addition I again which the population amounts to ask Clericus what would be the situbetween two and three thousand ation of the Curate. He will not souls. I have served this curacy surely contend, that the stipend I (and I trust zealously, and consci- receive is adequate to either my serentiously,) during nine years, for a vices or my necessities? And what salary of 60l. per annum, and a grounds has he to assume that the house without surplice fees, or any generality of incumbents, would, other advantage whatsoever. without the interference of the legis

Now supposing I happened not lature, be more bountiful than mine? to be possessed of any other source He has no character for illiberality of income (as certainly is the case in his general dealings, even this with nunibers of my brother Cu- statement is not intended as rates,) I ask Clericus what would vent to feelings of anger, or disconbe my situation? I have a wife tent on my part. I have always and four young children. Is 601. a served him cheerfully as a Curate, just remuneration for my services, and been attached to him as or for the expences of my educa- friend. Mine is the language, not tion? Is it sufficient to maintain a of complaint, but of justification. decent appearance ?

Is it more

I wish to vindicate the legislature, than sufficient for the bare suste. and the Bishops, from what appears nance of such family? Does it to me, an unjust censure.

I wish to afford a possibility of laying aside shew, that they were called upon a single shilling for the day of sick- by every principle of equity, humaness, or distress? When“

age,” nity, and sound policy, to make a then, or “ infirmity," or " chronic better provision for the Curates, disease," or any other of those ne and not to leave the quantum of cessary causes enumerated by Cle- theịr reward to be determined by


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