« ForrigeFortsett »
Rew covenant, feel equally thc weakness beset us, and let us run with patience the aud corruption of our nature; and thongh race that is set before us * Therefore influenced by the purest and most sublime my brethren be ye stedfast, unmovcable, precepts, yet find the truth of our Savis always abounding in the work of the Lord, our's words, No man can come unto me forasmnch as ye know that your labour is except the Father which hath sent me not iu vain in the Lord t;. That where draw bim!! As the branch cannot the Spirit of the Lord is there is liberty 1.' bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the Therefore upless the whole Christian vine, no more can ye, except ye abide in scheme is contradicted, we are earnestly me, I am the vive, and ye are his branches; required by Christ, and his inspired Aposbe that abideth in me, and I in him, the tles, to exert the ability graciously given same bringetb forth much fruit; for with us by God, to attain to faith and good out me ye can do nothing t.' Thus divine works, and ' to work out our own salvaassistance is necessary even to obtain the tion with fear and trembling $. will,' to turn unto faith and calling on " Whatever militates against the exGod 1.' And even then if it were uot for press commands of Holy Writ, must be the kindness of our Heavenly Father, we offensive to God, and injurious to ourshould wander from the path we had en selves. So if man is declared to be a pas. tered, and 'relapse into our former state, sive agent in performing those works, to from ignorance and weakness, as we do which a strict adherence is necessary in not know what to pray for as we ought, order to obtain the free gift of redempbut the Spirit also helpeth our infirinities g'.' tion, he must offend the Saviour, whose
Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to blood was shed to ransom us from the think any thing as of ourselves, but our bondage of sin and death, and do injury sufficiency is of God. Hence it is evi- to his soul in denying revelation, and the dent as the Spirit helpeth our infirmities, earnest exhortations of bis God. Since and as our insufficiency is fully made up God is the creator of all things, his power to us by God, that we are sharers in the is equally manifested in making man a free work ; for assistance cannot be rendered, agent; for • 10 do a thing by another not or insufficiency made fully capable to a able to perform it without him, as much passive agent. Thus revelation and rea demonstrates the existence of the principal son mutually uphold each other, and our cause, as if he did it of himself, without any tenth article confirnis the reasoning, when intervening instrument ll.' And therefore it says, wherefore we have no power to it would be far from promoting the glory do good works, pleasant and acceptable to of God to deprive man of his freedom of God, without the grace of God, by Christ, will ; since it would be opposing the truths preventing us, that we may have a good of his Gospel, acting contrary to reason, will, and working with us when we have and raising the voice against the ways of that good will."
God to man. " The exertion of this good will, when “ If freedom of will did not exist, ' it once bestowed upon us, must not be neg- may be regarded as proved, that to think lected, or the Holy Spirit will cease to otherwise would deprive us of all motives assist us; for it is the soul of man that to action, and all sense of right and must fulfil the terms of bis redemption, wrongs. Responsibility either stands or aided by the Holy Spirit. Now if man falls with freedom : so if man did not bedid not exert the good will graciously ex lieve bimself to be a free agent, be could cited in him, he would not be performing not consider himself a responsible one. the terms of his redemption, but the Holy And be that does not believe himself re. Spirit alone, which brings contradiction sponsible, will exercise just as much conto the Christian scheme. We must give troul over his appetites, interests, and diligence and.. Be not slothful followers passions, as will keep bim without the pale of them who through faith and patience of human punishments, or not interfere inherit the promises .' And we desire with his worldly advancement. Men are that every one of you do shew the same 80 prone to evil, that they require more diligence to the full assurance of hope unto powerful excitements to practise virtue, the end ** • Let us lay aside every than the miere retlection, that it is prodocweight, and the sin which doth so easily
• Heb. xi. 1. + 1 Cor. xv. 58. * John vi. 44. + Jolin xv. 4, 5. 1 2 Cor. iji, 17. Pbil. ii. 12. Art. X. Rom. viji. 26. | 2 Cor. iii. 5. || Pearson on the Creed, vol. i. p. 184 | Heb. vi. 12. ** Heb, vi. 11.
Copleston on Free Will, p. 54.
tive of pablic and private peace. This pose. By Philograntus. Rvo. fact, the page of history, from the earliest 68 pp. 25. 6d. Murray. 1822. records, and events of more recent occur. rence, corroborate. And since a disbelief A CONSIDERABLE proportion of in the freedom of the will would render our readers may be expected to take men indifferent in their inoral conduct, it an interest in the proposed additions cannot be a doctrine that comes from to the Examinations in the UniverGod
• To inqidire either into the inanner in sity of Cambridge, and the regret which the mind is ipfnenced by the Holy which we have long felt, at being uns Spirit, or wben our natural efforts receive able to bring the subject before divine assistance, would be a waste of time them in an adaquate manner, is fully and words, the wind bloweth where it recompensed and done away by the listeth, and thon hearest the sound thereof; opportunity that has now occurred, bat canst not tell whence it cometli and The letier of Philograñtus contains wluither it goeth : 80 is every one that is bord of the Spirit ".'
an able summary of the whole argus “ 'God gives bis grace according as we ment, and is calculated at one and cao receive it.' At first its progress is the same time to conciliate and con: slow, because we often fail in oor pious vince. We hasten to extract the resolutions by infirmity, surprize, and the principal passages, merely premis. other hindrances of bumanity: but au ing for the benefit of our friends in humble and docile mind, desirous of being the country, that the Letter is uniinstructed in the way of God, will find truth enter into the heart when it is pure versally ascribed to the pen of Proand still, like a sun-beain, gently and fessor Monk, recently and most de without violence.' Soon its influence servedly preferred to the Deanery teaches us to consider of Heaven, to love of Peterborough, His object is the pleasures of the soul, and to loathe the thus stated : desires of the sensfis; it discovers that 're ligion is an unfailing source of endless “ It is not my intention to enter into pleasure, and makes us earnest in our the details of the different plans which have prayers, importunate for an increase of been recommended for attaining the desirgrace, and eager in bringing forth the fruits able objects in view. Such an investigao of the Spirit, until the service of God is tion of minute particulars would be inviperfect freedoin, and we find delight in dious towards the gentlemen who have wearing the yoke of Christ. Then reli- exerted themselves to promote our comgion hath wings, and moves on wheels of mon object, the welfare and honour of the fire,' and the incense of our prayers ascends Vuiversity: and it would, at the same anto the throne of mercy, and gives joy to time, be unavailing; since there will, I the angels of heaven; and that faith which think, be no great difficulty in obtaining at first was a narrow, slow, and obstructed acquiescence in the details, wbeu once stream, becomes a broad and hastening persons are brought to agree upon the flood, flowing onward in its course, and principles of the measure to be adopted. enabled by accumulating and continued. The differences of opinion existing among kiełp, to overcome every obstacle until it us on this subject may be reduced to three mingles with the waters of everlasting life," heads : 1 speak of, P. 97.
« 1. Those wlio wish for an additional exanlination of the staderts, to be followed by Honours, ipon a scale of merit, with all its distinctions and gradations,
“ 2. Those who contend for such an A Letter to the Right Reverend cluding all honour and distinction of the
examination merely as a sine qua non ; exJohn, Lord Bishop of Bristol, meritorious. respecting an additionat Exami “ 3. Those who wisli that no cliadge ration of Students in the Univer. whatever sliould be hazarded. sity of Cambridge, and the differ “The third class is, as far as I can ent Plans proposed for thit Pur. judge, the least numerous' of the three.
tween the other two, it has hitherto been Jobo ü. 8.
successful, and threatens to prevent tlie REMEMBRÅKCER, NO, 40,
meditated improvement altogether. I am sent Cambridge system ; inasmuch as conviuced that all parties are actuated by it would banish all rewards to the the same wish to see our academical sy deserving. The exclusion of all hotem as prosperous and as perfect as possible, though all may not have had equal and the most ignorant in one com
nours, the mixing together the ablest opportunities of viewing the subject in its different bearings. Several persone, with mon mass, would bring the whole whom I have conversed, at different times
, plan into immediate contempt, and upon these questions, have experienced a produce few, if any of the advanconsiderable change of opinion, and have tages which a better scheme may gradually become converts to the scheme insure. of distributing classical honours, upon the liberal and unrestricted plan already prace
“ The plan which was last year proposed tised in mathematics: and I am inclined to the Senate, enacts a full and ample exto hope, that a calm deliberation on the amination in classical subjects, to be folreal merits of the case, may produce the lowed by an arrangement of hoyours in same effect in others. Avowing myself, three divisions, exactly similar to those of therefore, to be a decided advocate for Wranglers, Senior Optimes, and Junior the first of the three plans, I shall proceed Optimes. By providing that uo person to examine the arguments which I have shall bave a place among the classical boheard alleged by the two other parties, in pours, who has not already obtained one favour of their owu particular views.” in the mathematical tripos, it secures the P. 5.
University against a neglect of philosophic
cal pursuits : and by combining an examinThose persons who disapprove of ation in the Greek Testament, in the any alteration whatsoever, and (this history, antiquities, and allusions of the class is justly surmised to be the Scriptures, and in the evidences, of our smallest of the three) are reminded of Religion, and by making a competent ac
quaintance with these subjøcts the indisthe following facts. A bachelor's de- pensible requisite for a degree, it ensures gree, which generally serves as a pass. that attention to them which ought to be port into the liberal professions, may encouraged by a seminary for Christian be obtained at present by a very mo
education. That the establishment of derate extent of mathematical and
this scheme will prodigiously increase the
amount of study and of intellectual acquiremoral knowledge. College examinations, however beneficial, have proved ment, can hardly be doubted by any per
son acquainted with the temper of our acaunequal to the task of supplying the demical youth, or, I may say, with the deficiency in the minimum pre- principles of buman nature itself. : By scribed by the University as abso- holding out the certainty of appropriate lutely requisite for a degree. Cam reward to every description of exertion, bridge-men are notoriously consi- in an almost exact proportion to the merit dered as inferior to Oxford-men in displayed, we shall benceforth supply an the state of preparation for Holy students, whatever be the diversity of their
unceasing motive to tlie industry of all our Orders, which they exhibit when
tastes and their capacities; and shall take under examination by the bishop. away those excuses for the neglect of colAnd at Oxford there does exist a lege studies, which too many are in the regular enquiry into the theological habit of alleging to their friends and to
themselves. The importance of the matattainments of every candidate for a
ter now alluded to, though it will be redegree.
cognized by your Lordship, and by those The second class of objectors to
who have ever been engaged in university the plan supported by Philograntus tuition, may not perhaps strike all readers are ready to sanction a classical in the same light: it will therefore not be examination ; provided, it does not amiss to explain more particularly the naextend beyond that sine quá non
ture of a difficulty which frequently occurs, without which it is disgraceful to
to disappoint the sanguine hopes enter. the University to confer
a mark of tained of the success of a youth in his aca
demical career, its approbation. To which it is
Many of our students bring'with them answered, that such a scheme would
to Cambridge a very considerable stock of be a complete subversion of the pre- classical knowledge, as well as much fond
ness for ancient literature; but they soon it frequently happens that the nature. discover that there are among their nume- of his talents tend strongly in a dif. rous contemporaries two or three or more, ferent direction. Here he perseverés, possessing so decided an advantage in this invita Minerva, in laborious efforts to as. department, that they cannot reasonably cend the higher eminences of science ; and. hope to overtake them. Fancying there has finally the mortification to see persons fore that all avenue to classical honours is with scholarship and with industry inferior closed against them, they feel their ardour to his own, invested with great honours, damped, and are continually found turn- and preferred in their society to himself. ing aside from the path of academical study This is neither an imaginary nor an overto various trifling porsuits, which are too stated case: it is one which tutors will acapt to mislead the taste, and enervate the knowledge as of frequent and of painful mind of youth. This is particularly the case occurrence; and to which, under the prewith stndents whose circumstances in life sent system, we are unavoidably exposed. place them above the necessity of obtain “ I trust that these remarks will not be ing provision by their own exertions : with constrned into a disapprobation of the exthis description of young men, the autho- isting practice of exacting from every sturity of their tutor may prevail in procuring dent a certain quantity of philosophical attention to mathematical studies during knowledge; and that I shall not be sustheir first year; bot after that period, tliey pected of a wish to countenance the childtoo frequently discard these pursuits as ish and unworthy apology for a neglect of irksome, merely because they demand such pursurits, that the person “feels no steady application; or allege some fancied Laste for them,” “ that they are dry and aversion to such reading, as the excnse for uninteresting," &c. In ascending an emia neglect of the university course, Know- nence, a little perseverance is requisite ing that they have already obtained a suf- before we can reach the attractive and inficient portion of this knowledge to ensure teresting parts of the prospect; in the a degree, and having no other channel of mean time the exercise is beneficial to the academical distinction open to their am- health and the animal spirits. In the acbition, they suffer the greater part of their quisition of almost every science, a similar remaining time to be misspent in useless degree of labour is demanded, before the occupations, or else wasted in idleness, promised point of gratification can be at. with its usual accompaniments, extrava- tained: but to the mathematics this comgance and dissipation. There is another parison may be applied most appropridescription of students upon whom the ately; since not only is the ascent steep same cause operates, less disasterously in and arduous, but the exertion which it deed, but still in a manner greatly to be demands is peculiarly invigorating to the deprecated: I mean the industrious and mental faculties; and the student, long aspiring scholars, who feel themselves com before he has reached the agreeable part pelled almost to desert those classical pur. of the science, feels its beneficial effects soits to which their genius and taste are in his strengthened powers of reasoning, best adapted, and to devote their time ex of attention, and of niemory. In fact, elusively to mathematics, a study less con- they who complain most of its irksomeness, genial, in which their progress is painful are the very persons for whom such a mental and unsatisfactory. This case likewise discipline is most required : their aversion may require some explanation. I suppose to close and abstract reasoning being a a young man actuated by laudable ambi- defect, which it is the special business of tion, with a determination to realize as education to counteract. The only just far as possible the hopes of his parents and matter of complaint is, that while we re. friends, or to acquire those emoluments commend and encourage different species which are the result of academical distinc- of study, we afford an open and liberal tion ; for bere it may be remarked, that scale of rewards only to one: and by this in the greater part of our Colleges, the means, the greater part of our students fellowships are avowedly held out as re must either be distinguished as mathemawards to those who have reached the higher ticians or as nothing. That the other stuclass of university honours. Finding, dies are important and essential to a system therefore, that there are among his con of university education, we are all agreed: temporaries, some, whose scholarship he and it cannot be denied that there are in cannot hope with bis utmost exertions the nature of young men's minds and cato surpass, he betakes himself to the only pacities very considerable differences, open field, that of mathematics; while which make a particular pursuit less eligi
ble for one, than for another, Were sta- result is not, and cannot be disputed : and dents more generally enconraged to dedi. it may be added, that the order of Janior cate their principal' attention to those Optimes, which is at present rather shonsabjects in which each is most calculated, ned, than courted, will rise in respectato excel, it is hardly possible to doubt bility, when it becomes a passport to the that a twofold result would ensue : a much highest classical distinctions. Every ope greater puinber of students would employ must perceive how important it is that all their time in the ardent pursuit of know. our lovours should be deemed respectable ledge.; and their respective acquirements objects of ambition. would become more beneficial to them. "But if I am not greatly mistaken, the selves, to their professions, and to their real apprehensions of those who dread country." P. 15.
injury to mathematical studies, apply only.
to the high Wranglers, to those who purOf the arguments that have been sne their researches, with so much energy commonly urged against this propo- and success, into the arcana of science, sal, the principal is refuted in the and who learn to what extent Analysis following terms:
may be applied to the advancement of
Philosophy. Let this fear once be re". In the first place, let us admit that moved, and the point is carried. That some persons may be induced by this ad- the proposed plan will bave an effect at ditional system to read somewhat less of all prejudicial to such students, is a posimathematics, while they devote the time, tion which I strennously resist. The arwhich would otherwise have been so em gument, indeed, were it valid, would tendployed, upon other. academical studies to prove that the two classical medals are more suited to their genius and taste. In injurious; since of the persons who have what respect is the pursuit of science preá obtained these honours, how large a projudiced thereby? What injury arises to. portion may be found among our highest the, ipdividuals themselves? What loss. Wranglers. That great attainments in the results to their college, or to the profese classical and philosophical departments sions for which they are designed? I de may be, and frequently are united, no ove clare myself utterly unable to imagine the iş ignorant: and I appeal to your. Lord least; while it is nuorally certain, that those ship, as well as to other persons who have very persons will become better informed excelled at tbe, same time in botb these than they now.are, in the most important studies, whether the. perusal-of the finest of all human studies; and it is equally writers, during a part of each day, be not clear, that many other students will, by a relief to the mind and spirits, which the same institution, be impelled to efforts prevents the fatigue, resulting from oninin literature and science, who, at present, terropted exercise in the severer discineglect both the one and the other ; and pline of science. The young man, whose the dominion of idleness and dissipation' ambition and energies are wholly directed will be proportionably, contracted. But to the acquiremeot of academicaltionours, to return to the main ground of alarm, (and to no others is this part of the sub that the study of mathematics will be in- jeçt applicable,) will feel himself. conjared-The proposed plan makes it an in- stantly, retreshed and invigorated by this dispensable condition, that the student change of pursuit; the alternation of stuwho aspires to a place in the Classical dies is as wholesonie to his mind, as that. Tripos, must have previously obtained of splid and of liglit food is to his bodily some mathematical honour; apd by this constitution. provision, it is certain that this species of “ Further to allay the apprehensions of reading will be promoted; and that, too, a defalcation in mathematical reading, I in a way peculiarly desirable : inasmuch beg leave to snggest that, under the joint as many persons of talent will be, under system, some young men will carry that the necessity of, carryiug away with them branch of study much farther than at prefrom Cambridge, a pretty fair kuowledge sent. Many will, by taste and previous of the more useful parts of mechanics, scholarship, naturally be drawn for the optics, hydrostatics, and astronomy, as most part to classical porsnits; they, on' well as the elements of the Newtonian the other hand, who owing to smaller ada Plulosopby.; too many of whom, under vantages of school education, or from our present system, would probably limit other causes, find themselves, on their ar. their scientific acquirements to the solution rival in the University, less able to cope of an adreçted quadratic, or, at most, to in this field, will continue, as now, to seeks the extraction of a bioomial surda This distinction in the more exact sciences;