of Theophrastus, Bibiana ion it doeso a clearer light;" in acquitting him. xovla inéa. The objection almost self of which profession, he is not to exclusively affects two clauses, in be denied the praise of having perwhich the embarrassment of the formed what he undertook, with structure bears internal marks of that accuracy, clearness, and spirit, having grown out of a correction; which will be in vain sought in any and seems to have originated in an other, of the disputants, by whom effort to give greater emphasis to the question has been agitated. the sense, as it occurs in two points, As a leading objection to the where the author is employed in prologue, it is observed, that as enforcing the main object which he « Jerome revised the Latin trans. undertakes to establish. Thus, if lation at the command of Pope Dawe suppose him, with this object in masus, if he replaced the three view, to have first declared, “ut Heavenly Witnesses at this revisal, primæ sint Petri epistolæ in ordine why did he not then write his preface cæterarum, but on perceiving the to inform the world of his recovered necessity of a qualification, to have reading ?" p. 289. Had the Preadded “quia Petrus primus est in face, in which St. Jerome records numero Apostolorum;" the two pro- this request, and states his compli. positions, which are wholly unex ance with it, been read with but ceptionable when taken apart, im- moderate attention, it would have plicated the construction, on being anticipated this objection by the combined in the phrase, “ ut quia short answer, “ hæc præsens Præ. Petrus primus est numero Aposto- fatiuncula pollicetur quatuor tanlorum, primæ sint etiam ejus epis. tum Evangelia.From the correstolæ in ordine cæterarum." Again, pondence of Jerome (Vide Epp. cii. if we suppose “proprio ordini red ad Marcel, xxviii. ad Lucin. lxxxviii. didimus' to have been connected ad Augustin) “written after Damasus with " Jacobi una, Petri dua, Joban- was dead,” it appears that the first nes tres, Judæ una," but the inter- part of the work, containing merely jected phrase, “est enim prima the Gospels, had been given to the earum,” to have been added, in world, and that the indifferent reorder to enforce the main purpose ception which it had met, had of the author, who assigns the pre- determined its author to withhold cedebce to St. Jerome's Epistle ; we the remainder. may form a just idea, how the But the request made by Eusto. structure has become embarrassed, chium to Jerome, once more to in the phrase, “Est enim prima revise the Catholic Epistles and earum una Jacobi, &c."

correct them from the Greek,” is “

а Having taken so much pains to story that carries its own condemenable the oppugners of the disputed nation upon its forehead.” p. 289. prologue to understand it, I am ex As a sufficient cure for the sceptiempted from the weary task of en- cism of the objector on this point, tering with equal minuteness into it is merely necessary to prescribe the objections, by which they have the exercise of reading the Preface laboured to pervert its object and to the Psalter, where he will find meaning. In proceeding to give the request distinctly made; Paula them

every consideration which they and " Eustochium, after Pope Da. can be thought to merit, I shall take masus was dead,” requiring him them, as collected and methodised once more to revise the translaby Mr. Porson. His professed ob- tion, and correct it from the Greek," ject, in entering on so beaten a as new errors had grown up, by the topic, was " to collect what is scat- culpability of transcribers. It is tered through many works, to dis- almost needless to observe, that pose it in a better order, or set it in Eustochium, who is represented as


Y y

a young lady, at once devout, author, sufficient justification for handsome, and learned," was the prefixing Jerome's name, by the inonly surviving part of a family, fallible authority whereby be added which traced its descent from the its common appendages," the holy, Cornelii and Gracchi; and which had the god-like;" but no transcriber taken St. Jerome under their pa- would be justified, in striking it tronage, on the death of Pope Da- out, had the author bimself inserted masus, and placed him over a mo it in the original. The same conpastery, which they founded in Beth- clusion is borne out by the only lehern. But it ought to be stated, external evidence which is adduce that, with as much youth as may be able on the subject; for it happens charitably allowed to a lady of to be the case, that Rufinus, in his forty-five, and as much beauty as is “ Invectives,” transcribes, at large, bestowed on her by this wag of a some of the Prologues of Jerome. professor, she presided over a mo. But while he preserves the titles, he nastic institution, which originally omits the name of the author; had been founded, and was for twenty though precision in marking them as years governed by her mother; that quotations, seems to have required its while invested with these honours, introduction. And had not the obshe received, in various Prologues, jection admitted of this satisfactory the dedication of the several parts reply, the futility of deducing any of the Commentary on Isaiah' and conclusion from such equivocal Ezechiel; and to crown the whole, principles might be shewn, from the that the Prologue to the Catholic communication made to Augustine Epistles affords no countenance to by Jerome, on the subject of the the assertion, that she made any title of his work, “ On the eccle. such request to St. Jerome, as is as. siastical writers." From their corcribed to her by the objector. respondence, it appears, that this

Again it is specifically objected work had received, even in the life to the Prologue, that a great of the author, three different titles, majority of the MSS. omits St. one of which was imposed " by un. Jerome's pame" in the title ;--which skilful emenders.” gives evidence of its authenticity, It is further observed,

that «

some by the omissiou. If it errs in this of the MSS. call the epistles Carespect, it errs in good company; nonical in the title, and all in the as this is often observed to be the prologue, whereas Jerome would case, with the genuine Prologues; have called them Catholic.” p. 293. viz. with those prefixed to the book of The true reading of the title I thereJoshua, of Kings, of Job, of Ezra,&c. fore conclude to be the term “ CaOf the different titles prefixed to the tholic,” of which the term “ Caunquestioned Prefaces, the shorter, nonical" is merely a various reading, which omit the name, have inter which has been transferred from the nally this evidence in their favour; text to the title, in a laudable endeathat from them we most easily ac vour to fit a heading to the piece count for the varieties of the read. which was suitable to its subject. ings collectively considered : and Whether the author has so wholly criticism has prescribed no better mistaken his object, as to have written principle than this, for determining “nuncupantur canonicæ," where St. which is the best among a number Jerome would have written “ nomiof various readings. The tran nantur catholicæ," is a question scriber who found in his Bible, which can be decided, in the affirmathose short inscriptions, “the Pre- tive, only by proving the difference face to the Book of Joshua, the to esist in cases somewhat similarly Prologue to the Books of Kings, &c.” circumstanced. But the pbrases would find, in his knowledge of the which are opposed to establish the

discrepancy have really nothing simi- hand which has so skilfully translar in sense or application to warrant planted both terms into their respeca comparison. The former merely tive places. But nothing more than signifies, "are commonly called Ca a bare possibility on this head, and tholic,” the latter properly means, that of ile lowest kind, is necessary "are solemnly declared canonical;" for the subversion of the objection. the former is used by St. Jerome “ If a prologue,” it is continued, in specifying St. Peter's epistles, in "containing such important infora short sketch of bis works, where it mation, had been constantly known would have been absurd to use the and read, it must have been quoted." term “ canonical ;" the latter, by p. 296. I would gladly be informed the author of the prologue, in enu- where Jerome's prologues, or indeed merating the seven epistles, where it any prologues to the Bible, have would have been not less so, to have been quoted, unless in the contro. informed the reader, they were for. versy with Rufinus ? But to estimate mally styled “Catholic." The ob- the value of this remark the objector jection has therefore no force or has only to be heard to the end. meaning, if it does not go to the With respect to “the important inlength of asserting, that it was “ the formation” which it conveyed, on the perfection of absurdity,” or was at main point in dispute, the text of least inconsistent with St. Jerome's the Heavenly Witnesses, we are first manner to have informed Eusto- informed, that the author “is afraid cbium that “the seven epistles were to affirm that it was in the Greek solemnly declared canonical.” But MSS.” (p. 298.); we are next asthis will hardly be affirmed, as a sured that “it is apparent" from grave council, not many years pre- the prologue," that most of the viously, had been at the pains to in- Latin copies wanted 1 John v. 7." form the Christian world, that “un- (p. 303.) and a direct charge is in. canonical books áraróriota BiBacae deed brought in it, against “the were not to be read, but only the unfaithful translators who omitted Canonical ánnal póva ta' xarorixá," di- the witness of the Father, the Word, rectly inserting a Canon, which con

and the Spirit.” Is it on these tains “ the seven Catholic epistles, points, I would ask, that the proope of James, two of Peter, three logue challenged quotation, while of John, and one of Jude." As this the text might be quoted from the last piece of information has been Bible itself, without any impeachtransferred, by a literal translation, ment of its authority deduced from into the prologue, it at least justifies the Greek or the Latin? But with a suspicion that both the terms, a superior knowledge of Bede's pre"catholic" and "canonical,” which, dilections, it is enquired, “if uniby so lucky a chance, take their versally acknowledged for Jerome's, proper places in its title and text, how could Bede overlook it ?" May have passed into it from the same I again ask, if the slight which is source. And as St. Jerome has cast in it on the Western Church, in made some display of his knowledge determining “ the proper order” of on this subject, in informing us, that the epistles, against her sentence, by “the book of Tobias and the Pastor an appeal to the authority of the of Hermas are not in the Canon,” a Eastern,-if this insult, wlrich was conjecture wbich happens to be so keenly felt and resented by Marright; as be has likewise quoted the tianay and Vallarsius, was that which second epistle of Peter under the recommended it to the notice of so simple title of “a canonical epistle,” stubborn an advocate of the pre-emithough its claims to this title were nence of the former Church as the long disputed; the possibility at least venerable Bede; who was, it inay be may be admitted, that his was the added, so impartial and adequate a

judge of her pretensions, as to have « the real Jerome could never have believed, for her sake, 'in “the Re- indulged himself in so silly a paralcognitions of Clement ?''. As “ the lel” as that expressed between cos important information" ascribed to recting the Gospels, and "such a the prologue consists neither in the trifle” as arranging the Epistles, that support afforded by the Greek or “ he might have said, and ought to the Latin to the Heavenly Witnesses, have said, ita et has, Deo juvante, nor in the order ascribed to the epis, Græcæ fidei reddidimus ; which tles, where, may we beg to be in would have been a proper subject formed, is it then to be discovered? for his joy and piety.” (p. 297.) AU But to ascertain what a reception it this is worthy of its proposer, whose would have met had it presented prerogative as the pripce of verbal itself from any quarter, in the form critics, far be it from a dull divine of a quotation, we have again only to question, But as some rebels to attend to the objector. After against the authority of those literary having acknowledged, that it is ap- monarchs are obstinate enough to pealed to by the Sorbonne Correcto suppose, that the epithets chosen by rium, in the ninth century, upon the the professor are happily suited to only point on which a Latin could the task of collating letters and find a decent pretext for quoting it, syllables; and that to consume a life lie thus deduces his conclusion :. in such labours, is, at best, aspi pixpa “ this author seems to have been onedáler; we who may claim a preoverburthened with judgment, for he ference for “such a trife" as that says here some of the Greek MSS. of digesting the doctrine, by adopt. are corrupted,' as St. Jerome ob- ing a better arrangement of the serves."

epistles, are not without authority to Again, we are informed, "the justify us in so “ silly" a predilecstyle alone would determine this tion. And whatever may have been prologue not to be Jerome's," whose Jerome's partialities on this subject, “ language is always spirited and enough has been said elsewhere to perspicuous.” (p. 297.). After re evince that had he chosen the preceiving the benefit of this conjecture sent place to express them, he must of the professor, let us now take, on have imparted a secret of which the same point, the sense of the au Eustochium was long possessed, and thor. Having, at the time of writing which every reader might find in the this prologue, assured us in one preceding preface, place, that “ as he has often at Of the same stamp with the pretested he could not bear the labour ceding is the next exception to the of writing with his own hand;" and reasoning and connexion ; " that in another, that he would "endea. there is another ridiculous opposivour to write by the hand of his no tion" between the translators in taries, that nothing might be wanting rendering, and the Apostles in diin the sense, though much was want- gesting the original: nor could the ing in the language;" he thus ex. objector" believe that Jerome would presses himself to Eustochium in the bave used such language as Neque prologue to the twelfth book of the sermonum sese varietates impugna. Commentary on Isaiah, “ this short rent.” (p. 299.) The full value of preface I have dictated in confused which objections, as proving the care language, tumultuario sermone dice and perspicacity with which this protavi, that what is contained in my logue has been reviewed, in its conpapers may be disclosed, but the nection and language, may be easily full emendation left to the reader." found, on reverting to what has been

The objector proceeds after the already stated on both subjects. style, “to consider the reasoning But with some foresight of the and connection," informing us, that result to which all his labour must

come, he seems resolved in the last itself with such pretensions is anstroke to make sure of his man, and swerable to this description, without without any view to a substitute, any internal mark of Jerome's hand, levels it direct at the principle:- and wholly destitute of manuscript “ If (“ such a piece of news as is authority. Let us suppose some told in the prologue") were false, fortunate sophisticator possessed of Jerome would have affirmed it no address to surmount the former diffiless boldly, and called God to wit- culties, and by what lucky accident ness po less solemnly, than when he can the latter be conceived to be attested the miracle of his being placed in his power? Let us supwhipped by angels,” (p. 299.) Let pose he has succeeded in the comit be premised that the text on which position of the piece; and how are we are here presented with a com we to account for its general recepment, is a description of the conse tion in the copies of the author's quences of protracted abstemious. works ? How account for its admisness of the effects of a fever produced sion into the copies of the Bible ? by watching and fasting, and ending If this be considered impracticable in mental abstraction. The reader with a text which favours the par.' who is thus informed, if he happens tialities of a Church, how is it to to have heard of the habits and pro be reconciled with a piece which pensities of Professor Porson, will violates its prejudices? For that not, I believe, dispute, that all this is the disputed prologue has been atin character, and that the subject is tended with this consequence is obsuited to the derision of the scoffer vious, from its effects on Martianay, and drunkard;-who, without the ins Vallarsius, and Vitali, whom it has sinuating address, possessed the ob- converted into oppugners, while they trusive meanness of the parasite, possessed the means of vindicating which scarcely any insult could it from every objection. The reluedrive from the table, that, he failed tance wbich Cassiodorus -manifests not to disgust with his low and to enter into its doctrine respecting swinish propensities.

the arrangement of the epistles, suffiHaving gone thus minutely into ciently proves at how early a period the evidence which may be advanced the sense of the Western Church in favour of the disputed prologue, prevailed against it; and bow widely and which has been urged against it, this feeling has operated may be I have only to observe, that the so- collected from the conduct of Dio. phisticators of antiquity have per- nysius Exiguus with respect to the formed their work so rudely as to be Canons of the Council, from which, exposed to immediate detection. Of the doctrine is adopted. In bis the compilers and editors of Jerome's translation of the acts of that Counworks none have possessed the mo- cil, the sixtieth Canon, which is folderate share of skill necessary to lowed by the prologue, is wholly dispose them in a proper order. omilted : with what other object His life is detailed without any re than in deference to the Latin gard to the natural succession of Church, cannot be' imagined. Yet. events, his correspondence disposed over these prejudices the prologue without respect to the chronological has triumphed, and while the Cauon arrangement. The fabricator of a, is omitted in the collection of the . piece, professing to come from his Councils, it maintains its place in hand, inust have consequently found the Vulgate. himself destitute of the means of

I have the honour to be, &c. executing even a tolerable imitation. And everything which presents


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