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REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
The Unambitious Views of the Church Gospel, both equally encourage in the few, of Christ : a Sermon preached at
a contempt of the many. Spiritual pride the Anniversary Meeting of the is the parent of spiritual ambition; and spiriStewards of the Sons
of the Clergy, the future hopes and prospect of mankind, in the Cathedral Church of St.
, but has always established an ascendancy Paul, on Thursday, May 17, over them in their present and political re1821. By the Rev. Thomas Ren- lations : in the objects which it pursues and nell, B.D. F.R.S. Vicar of Ken- in the influence which it exercises, its sington. 8vo. pp. 24. Riving. kingdom is of this world. P.7. tons. 18:22.
" It is upon the principle of a general
co-operation in the cause of the Gospel, This discourse contains a forcible that for the Clergy of every Christian and eloquent defence of the Church flishnient ought to be provided, as may
country such a political station and esta. Establishment and the Clergy; and best promote the interest and cherish the the reader who peruses the following growth, not of a secular, but of a spiritual paragraphs, will be able to form an kingdom. That they who preach the Gosestimate of the spirit with which pel, should live by the Gospel, is a propoMr. Rennell has executed his task.
sition in itself'so just and fair, as scarcely to
require the sentence of Revelation for its “ One evident mark of the unambitions support. But in what proportion and acviews of the Christian Dispensation, is the cording to what principles this station and union which it forms of high and low, rich this provision ought to be framed and reguand poor, learned and ignorant in one lated, must depend upon the ends to be faith, one baptism, one God and Father of answered, and the objects to be obtained. all, who is above all, and in all, and through To make the State in spiritnal matters inall. Had the kingdom of Christ been of dependent of the Church, is to strike a fatal this world, had any temporal influence been blow against that unity of religions faith, the object of his Church, its higher privi- which bowever it may be violated by the caleges at least would have been confined to price and perversity of man, is notwithstanda chosen body, whó by their initiation into ing the basis of Christ's religion, and the main certain mysteries either of doctrine or spring of social happiness. To make the practice, might have established a coutroul Church in temporal matters independent of over their weak and ignorant brethren. the State, is to grant a privilege subversive Equality of privilege and community of at once of Christian discipline and political knowledge, are the strongest barriers which order. It is not therefore to give the can be erected against the encroachments Clergy a domineering ascendancy in matof priestcraft and enthusiasm. Of all the ters beyond their province that, as in our corruptions indeed, with which the perver own country, the establishment of the sity of man has disgraced the Gospel of Church is united with the establishment of God, the leading feature appears to be a the State. What is true of the Laity and limitation of the graces and privileges of the Clergy individually, is trne also collecChristian kingdom to a selected few. By tively: the closer then the bands of mutnal this limitation, let it assume what shape it fellowship and interest are drawn, the less may, the heavenly character of the kingdom apprehension will there be of spiritual aoof Christ is gradually lost, temporal viewsbition or craft. The more intimately a and secular motives are introduced, a spirit pure and Apostolic Church is mixed up with of domination is excited, a system of per- the great mass of the State, the less will be secution is established, and under the mask the danger of any undue influence, which of the Gospel the worst passions which agi- a separate interest might cherish or create. tate the world are called into a dangerous " That the doctrines of Christianity may and a destructive action. Such is the source by unauthorised additions be converted both of Papal' usurpation and of Calvinistic into instruments of secular ambition, the presumption : for however opposite in ap- history of the Church nniversal too surely pearance these two extremes may be, the informs us; and whenever by too great an principle and the tendency of both is'ulti- exaltation on the one hand, or by too great niately the same. Both equally limit the a depression on the other, the level ground privileges and mystify the doctrines of the upon which the Clergy and the Laity ought
to stand, is disturbed, such a consequence the final doom of usurpation and tyranny. will generally follow. There is as much Ail the genuine and legitimate influence danger indeed to be apprehended from the which the Gospel and its appointed minisone extreme as from the other. Though ters can exercise over the leart of man, is the ministration of Religion be degraded an influence highly propitions to the cause below its native dignity and its social right, of civil freedom. A country without Chrisit is not thereby secured from the inroads tianity, is a country formed for profligacy, of worldly ambition or the desire of secu- and its cousequent slavery. A country lar ascendancy. If a due independency in united in the faith of one pure and common point of professional rank and emolument Church, firm in the principles of Christian be not assigned to the Clergy, temptations morality, with passions disciplined, and of the strongest nature will be beld out to laws obeyed, neither was, nor will be the raise themselves into consequence, by country, upon which the foot of tyranny means upworthy the religion of Christ. either foreigo or domestic can ever tramDeprived of those snpports which inake ple. The kingdom which is not of this the Clerical profession honourable and ef. world, is the surest safeguard and the best fective, the ministration will rapidly pass protection against the doninions of the into the hands of men, who for the promo- earth and the powers of darkness." P. 17. tion of their own ends miay be tempted to “ At no time has the Church of England corrupt its faith and to prostitute its doc- songht to aggrandize itself at the expence trines. The ignorance and the inferiority of the State, or to establish a separate and of those who preach the Gospel, is no se independent interest. Of the revenues, curity against the perversion of the Holy with which from the earliest ages of its exScriptures, or against the establishment of istence it has been epdowed, in our own a spiritual tyranny. Ambition and interest days at least, it is not afraid to render an descend very low in the scale of rank and account. No mass of income is returned attainment; and there are none perhaps so again into the country from which it springs, capable--none perhaps so desirous - of with more political advantage, none is carleading astray the great mass of the lower ried into a more beneficial and wholesome orders, as those who are but just raised circulation, than the revenues of the Estaabove their level. The doctrines of the blished Church. Of no income, though Gospel will, in such a case, either be so divided among so large a body of meu, is strained, as to favour the creation of an less expended in idle extravagance, less undue influence, or so lowered, as to bow amassed in sordid avarice, or more bestowto the prejudices, and Aatter the passions ed in the great works both of public and of the hearers. From a feeling either of private charity. In this respect at least, dependence or of interest, this latter conrse we trust that the kingdom of our English has too often been adopted, to the preju. Chorch is not of this world. dice alike of the Gospel and of its faith. “ If to leave maintained the principles of When the pastor shall follow, whither his national order and of public justice-if to fock may choose to lead the way, the order have resisted the voice of clamour and the of all religious ministration is inverted, the blandishments of popular applause—if this kingdom of Christ becomes the kingdom of be the reproach of our Church, well may worldly passion, popularity and gain." - we, in the language of the Apostle, 'glory P.12.
in our infirmilies.' To whatever obloquy “ By sustaining again, the dignity and or insult they may be exposed, the Sacred the worth of the Church and its ministry, Order, I trust, will never sacrifice the live we advance the cause of permanent, pure, of conduct which the Gospel has marked and Christian freedom. The strongest bar- out, to meet the ebbs and flows of worldly rier and the amplest security against the opinion or the suggestions of secular ininroads of arbitrary power, is the unity of terest. a primitive and Apostolic faith. It is not “ How soon indeed the Providence of by preserving, but by corrupting the reli God may call us to severer trials than gion of a nation, that despotism and ty. these, he only knoweth. It is thus that, ranny promote their sway. Eradicate from at once in severity and love, he warns both a people the fear of God, and you prepare Churches collectively and ministers indivithem for subjection before the footstool of dually, that his kingdom is not of this man ; loosen the bands of national religion, world. Instead of this august and solemn subvert the foundations of Christian mora- assembly, uniting the most exalted, both lity, teach them that they are amepable to of Church and State in one pious feeling, no will but their own, and you lead them one holy service, and one labour of love; through the fearful stages of clamour and soon perhaps the ways of Zion may licentiousness, rebellion and bloodshed, to mourns, because none come to her solemn
feasts--all her gates may be desolate pendir. To which is prefixed, a her priests may sigh, her virgins be af. Memoir of his Life, by William flicted, and she herself may be in bitter Russell, B.D. Fellow of Magdaness .
len College. 392 pp. Riving. ." Whether these and other trials it may
tons. 1821. please the Almighty in Iris wisdom to send, or in his mercy to avert, still in the poverty There are two circumstances which and destitution with which the family of many a minister of the Gospel is now visi
entitle this volume to candid and ted, is the Redeemer pleased most unc, favourable consideration; its intrinquivocally to shew, that neither his king: sic value, and the design in its pubdom, nor his reward, are of this world.” lication of assisting the family of a P. 19.
near relation of the Prelate whose These extracts present us with a works it contains. defence of the Church Establish
Doctor Hough's early life does ment peculiarly adapted to the pre- not appear to have been distin_ sent age. The mass of idle readers guished by any literary acquirewill not consent to study the volu ments; and his name might probaminous treatises of former days. bly have passed unheeded down the They hear the Church abused by its stream of time, but for the conspinumerous enemies, as often as the
cuous part which he was called to orator is at a loss for a period, or act, in defending the privileges of the scribbler is perplexed by an his society, and in resisting the ass empty corner in his newspaper. But sumed and arbitrary authority of the vindication is too generally ne the second James. glected, from a supposition that it
“ At the end of Marclı, 1687, the Pres is already complete; and that no
sidentship of Magdalen College became thing new can be advanced upon so
vacant, and was to be filled up thirteen thread. bare a subject. Mr. Rennell days after by an election, of which statui. however has shewn, that the defence table notice was issued. King James the of our Establishment, may at least Second, who, in his zeal for Popery and be put in a new shape, adapted to absolute rule, had already stretched his the comprehension and feelings of a
prerogative beyond law, and to acts of
violence in civil and ecclesiastical matters, modern congregation, and pressed
availed himself of this occasion for putting upon their understandings, solidly, to the test that passive obedience, which briefly, and unanswerably.
the university in a public declaration had We trust that this sermon will ex jast before professel. He therefore sent cite the attention which it merits, a royal mandate, through Lord Sunderand which Mr. Rennell is so well
land, President of the Council, recomentitled to command. It cannot be
mending the fellows of the college to
elect Mr. Antony Farmer, and containread without pleasure and advana
ing a dispensation of any statute or custage, and promises to be of essen
tom which stood in his way. To these tial and permanent service to the letters a temperate and loyal answer was community at large.
returned, stating, without any allusion to the king's dispensing power, the unfitness and incapability of Mr. Farmer for the
office, by reason of their statates, and Sermons and Charges, by the Right praying, either to be left to their con
science, or for the recommendation of a Red. John Hough, D.D. Presi.
more serviceable person. . The election dent of St. Mary Magdalen Cola
was postponed for two days, that a reply lege, Oxford, in the Reign of might be received, but none being maile, James II. and successively Bishop except that the king expected obedience, of Orford, Lichfield and Coven. Mr. Hough was, on the fifteenth of April, iry, and Worcester : with an Ap; usual solennities; two only of the senio
chosen and pronounced president with the
rity, with wliom the election ultimately • Lainentations i. 4.
rested, declaring virâ voce for Mr. Farmer,
one of whom was in the following reign Penn, to one of the senior fellows, executed for high treason. He was, with- representing the extremity of the ont loss of time, presented to the college risk which the college incurred unvisitor, Dr. Mears, the Bishop of Winchester, confirmed by him, and installed der this process; and intimating, afterwards in due forn in the chapel of that the violation of a single statute the college." P. viii.
might forfeit the grant of the colo
lege, and lay it open to the king's It was in vain that the society disposal. T'he college replied in an defended the choice which they had able argument to this letter, and to made, or that they argued before the king's commissioners for eccle- Windsor with the same intent of
a series of questions, sent from siastical causes, the moral and sta- producing submission to the plea. tutable disqualifications of Mr. Far
sure of the court. A final, but not mer. The election was annulled,
more effectual attempt to stop these and another royal mandate was issued,
requiring the election of Dr. arbitrary proceedings, was made, in Parker, a creature of the court, and tween Penn and a deputation from
a conference held at Windsor, bean open professor of Popery: The the college, headed by Dr. Hough, society resisted the order with equal in which he exhibited“ in an emifirmness and decision, reiterating nent degree his ardent zeal towards the inviolability of their oaths and the reformed Church of England, statutes, and affirming the actual his integrity and sense of duty.". It possession of Dr. Hough.
was now resolved to visit the college “ The interview indeed between the by a royal commission, consisting king and the fellows, who had been sam
of Cartwright, Bishop of Chester, moned to meet him at Christ Church, the Chief Justice Wriglit, and Barou Deanery of wliel was held by Dr. Parker, Jenner, and a citation was issued together with the Bishoprick of Oxford, for the appearance of the " preserved to shew in stronger colours the
tended” president and fellows. This virtuous zeal and high sense of duty, which restrained the one from an act of della commission “ brought into full play berate perjory, and the intemperate and that intrepidity, courage, prudence, tyrannical spirit of the other which would
which has endeared the oblige them to it. A petition, couclied in memory of Dr. Hough to the latest the unosc frumble and loyal terms, was posterity:" tendered to bis majesty by the fellows, un their knees, which he would noi accept, “ The affair was opened by a speech accompanying his refusal with the most from the Bisbop of Chester, the design of gross Uhreats and unjustifiable language.” which was by promises of royal favour P. xi,
and threats of punishment hereafter, as
well as here, to induce compliance, But William Penn, the Quaker, who the three doctrines which he urged, that from his character and abilities had unconditional and unlimited obedience at this time acquired considerable was a tenet of the Church of England, influence with the sectaries, the that colleges and other corporations were esteem of all wen, and the coufis the creatures of the crown, and that it was
insolence to bring forward local statutes dence of the king, was present at this interview, at the conclusion of in contempt of the king, by whose autho
rity they were made, prove of themselves which he attempted to persuade the the spirit
the spirit by which he was animated. fellows to a compliance with the “ The greater part of both days was royal will; and also wrote to the occupied in an exainination chiefly of Dr. king, that such mandates were a
Hongl, in a variety of points arising ont force ou conscience. The king was
of the past transactions, the tone of whose
answers was thronghout temperate but unmoved, and proceeded against
ipflexible; nor could the arbitrary and the college by a writ of Quo War- overbearing conduct of the commissioners ranto ; when an anonymous letter
prevent hin from dectaring, that they was addressed, as is supposed by would submit to their visitabion po fartier
than was consistent with the laws of the any ecclesiastical preferment, and land and the statutes of the college,' and interdicting the ordination of such that' by the grace of God he never would admit of any alteration from the statutes and, finally, by the expulsion of
as had not been already ordained ; wbatsoever." “ The substance of his reply to the re
fourteen demies, for refusing to apiterated charges of contempt and disloy- pear at the summons of the new alty, rested, as far as concerned the so- president. Thus closed these arbi. ciety, on the perpetual obligation of their trary and unlawful measures, of oaths, from which no power could loose which the record should excite new them, and of their statutes, to which obec attachment to the benefits of a dience was due and indispensable, except Protestant constitution, of limited in things which, such as the saying of mass, were in themselves unlawful. His personal rule and equal law. refusal to obey the former decree, was
The death of Parker soon af. grounded on the fact of his having been forded to the king an opportunity condemned, without hearing or summons, of retracing his steps ; in which he to part with a freehold, of which nothing chose to insist, and nominated as could dispossess him but an act of law or a college state. At the conclusion of
his successor Bonaventura Giffard, the whole, the keys of the lodgings were
a secular priest, and doctor of the .demanded of him, which he peremptorily Sorbonne. The Revolution was aprefused to surrender, denying the visitato. proaching, and in the first moment rial power claimed by the commissioners, of alarm, Dr. Hough and his fellowand doubting that of the king himself. sufferers were restored to all their After three solemn but vain admonitions to him to depart peaceably, the sentence and the question was decided “
privileges, rights, and immunities;
as of amotion was executed; not, however, without a manly and dignified protest to the visitatorial interference with against the iniquity of all the proceedings, a private college, having a special
appeal to the king in his courts visitor, being a branch of royal of justice.'
prerogative." “ The whole deportment, indeed, of Dr. Hough was now elevated to Dr. Hough, thronglout this important the Bishopric of Oxford, and aftercontest, was worthy of admiration. It was not a factious spirit, or a lawless de- wards translated, first to the see of sire of insubordination, which gave birth to
Lichfield and Coventry, and ulti. his opposition to the king's pleasure. His mately to that of Worcester; hav, whole language and demeanour was that iny on the death of Tenison declined of a man well trained in the best principles the metropolitan chair, in a modest of allegiance to his sovereign, submission to the laws, and a dutiful regard to the bis public duties were discharged
sense of his own qualifications. All constituted authorities. Yet he spoke and acted as a freeman of England, whose
with credit and assiduity; with berights were established by law, and are nignity and urbanity; with pru. secured against any encroachments on dence and temper; he lived in hosprivate property by barriers, which no pitality and charity, and exhibited power on earth may break down with his distinguished liberality in the impunity." P. xix.
repair of the president's lodgings, The removal of Dr. Hough was and a gift of 10001, to the new followed by the immediate instal building fund of the society: in ment of Parker's proxy by the com- adorning and rebuilding the palace missioners, and the forcible entry at Eccleshall, and in annexing a of the president's lodgings; by the living to the Deanery of Lichfield; expulsion of one, and the suspension and in rebuilding the greater part of of another of the senior fellows; the palace at Worcester, and reand, subsequently, by the depriva- pairing Hartlebury Castle. His tion of all, except two, of the fel- quiet life in his diocese has left but lows; by a proclamation from the few materials to the biographer of ecclesiastical court, rendering Dr. this great and good man. It is Hough and the fellows incapable of known that he was punctual in his REMEMBRANCER, No. 44.