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give up the point rather than be? their presence than in that of stranAnd why may not you as well have gers ; lest by imprudence your the pleasure of a triumph? To the friends should cease to esteem, and former question I answer, that if your children and servants should you avoid occasions of dispute more begin to despise you." Disputes frequently than he, the reason is between married persons are dag. because you have more sense or gers to those who love them; and I temper. He is doubtless in this dare even appeal to yourself wherespect under the same obligation: ther you was ever witness to any but folly on his part makes your thing of this nature without feeling prudence the more necessary. To some degree of concern? Why the latter question I reply, that there then should you give pain to your is no triumph at all where there is friends ?To shew them truly that no victory; and -no victory where you are wiser than the man you there is no engagement. Now I do have married. Alas! you may do not advise you to fight first, and this more effectually by allowing after some time to yield or fly; but your discretion to get the better of to decline the combat entirely. And your pride; and so leaving him in I must confess I shall ever think it quiet and peaceable possession of the height of folly, for a woman to all bis mistakes. Such a conduct run the risk of quarrelling with her as this never fails to meet with the husband for no better reason than approbation of others; and is of all to gratify her vanity. Wonder not things most likely to endear you to that I speak of quarrelling; for no him. But if you pursue the conone who begins a dispute can ven- trary method
trary method you will every day ture to prophesy how it will end. give pain both to them and him; But
you may inquire secondly, whe- and human nature must be different ther I would restrain you from con from what it is, before men can retradicting in the presence of inti- ceive pain, without being offended, mate friends, or children, or ser. or be often offended, and yet convants. I answer,
yet more in tinue to love.
Sketches of the Ecclesiastical Hisc tion from four Bishops of different tory of Great Britain. Saxon nations, viz. the Bishops of No. IX.
London, Rochester, Lichfield, and
Winchester. The Saxon territory From the death of Wilfred, in the was divided into seventeen dioceses. year 709, to the desolation of the Kent contained Canterbury and whole country by the Danes, there Rochester. The whole of Essex was is little which deserves notice in subject to the Bishop of London. the external history of the Church. The East Angles were divided into Bede brings down his narrative to the dioceses of Dunwich' and Elmthe year 731, and concludes by ham. Wessex contained Winches. enumerating the dioceses into which ter and Sherborn, and Mercia was England was divided, and the names divided into the four dioceses of of the Prelates in possession : Bert- Lichfield, Lincoln, Hereford, and wald, Archbishop of Canterbury, Worcester. Sussex was committed died in the beginning of 731, and to the Bishops of Selsey. Norwas succeeded hy Tatwin, a native thumberland comprized York, Linof Mercia, who received consecra- disfarne, Hexham, and Candida
Casa. Wales and Cornwall were support of this assertion reference still in possession of the Britons, is made to the ancient chroniclers and there is no authentic history of and Church historians, and to an their internal state or circumstances. epistle from the Legates to Pope Bede says that they were partly Adrian, which has been preserved free, and partly tributary to the by the Centuriatores Magdebur. Saxons. The power of Northum- genses, and printed in the collecberland was on the point of expir- tions of Spelman and Wilkins. The ing. The Mercian Kings had ob- letter adverts to the journey, and tained a paramount sovereignty favourable reception of the legates, over all the territory south of the to the councils at which they atHumber. And Offa, who succeed- tended, the decrees which were ed shortly after (anno 757,) to their passed, and the arguments by throne, extended but did not con- which those decrees were enforced. solidate the dominions of his fa- It assures the Pope that the English thers.
Kings and Prelates had promised His reign extended to the year the most scrupulous obedience to 794, and was signalized by his vic- liis laws. But it is signed by men lories over the West Saxons and who lived at different times, and by the Welch, and by the alliance Bishops whose names and dioceses which he cultivated with the Em are alike unknown. It does not peror Charlemagne. The principal contain the most remote allusion to rcclesiastical transactions in which the new Archbishoprick of Leicesbe engaged, were the foundation of ter. It does not even name the the Abbey of St. Albans, and the places at which the councils were erection of a new Archbishoprick in held. These important particulars his Mercian territory. In the days are only to be gathered from Chroof Theodore the metropolitical au- nicles of a much later date, and it is thority of Canterbury extended over impossible to believe that these the whole Saxon Heptarchy. But Chronicles speak the truth, without after his death, Northumberland admitting that the epistle is spuri. seeins to have returned to the juris- ous. The Legates could not have diction of the Archbishop of York; omitted a circumstance of so much and Ofta, desirous of establishing importance as the creation of a new the permanent independence of his metropolitical see by the authority kingdom, resolved that the Mercians of the Pope. The advocates of should not continue subject to a that authority may make their elec. Kentish Prelate. Accordingly he tion between these conflicting witfirst confiscated the lands which the nesses; but they have no claim to Archbishop of Canterbury possessed the support of both. The recepin Mercia, and shortly afterwards tion of Legates, and the division of decreed that the authority of that provinces cannot both be prayed sce should be contined to Kent, Sus- by this inconsistent evidence; and sex, and Wessex,
Lichfield was there are marks of fabrication and raised to an Archbishoprick, and all fraud upon the whole of it, which the Prelates between the Thames may perhaps suffice to disprove and the Humber were required to both the one and the other, acknowledge its authority, King But it is not necessary to investiOffa was countenanced in this inno- gate the historical argument. Advation by Adrian, the reigning mit the whole for which the Papists Pope: and the Popish historians contend, and it only amounts to atfirm that the measure was pro- this-Offa, a tyrannical yet able posed and decided upon in a lega- Prince, had profited so well by the ime council, and did not result precept and example of Charlemagne, from any temporal authority. In that he perceived the advantage of
appealing to the Pope in a dispute gradually rising in civilization and r with Archbishops and Bishops. strength, reduced the Heptarchy to
Adrian likewise was aware of the a single kingdom, This event was • ultimate effect of his interference, evidently connected with the state
and knew that by complying with and progress of Christianity, and the King's wishes in the first in- led to material changes in thema stance, he should be able to dictate It is also a noted epoch in Engto bim in the end. The Legates, lish history, and affords a convetherefore, were sent to England for nient opportunity of adverting to the double purpose of supporting the alteration which had gradually the King's measure, and strengthen taken place between the landing of ing the Pope's authority. Jaena St. Austin in Kent, and the acces. bercht, Archbishop of Canterbury, sion of King Egbert (in the year was deprived of half his province in 800,) to the throne of England. pursuance of this very honourable Two centuries bad elapsed since and Christian scheme.
the Gospel was first preached to the The division displeased King Offa's Saxons, and it is doubtful whether clergy, and the first act of his suc the change which had ensued was a cessor restored Canterbury to its change for the better or the worse, rights, Rome was again appealed to, The converts of Austin, Paulinus, and and again consented aud confirmed: Aidan were brave but cruel savages. and a correspondence is preserved The subjects of Egbert were corrupt between Kenulph, King of Mercia, and effeminate monks, or lawless and Pope Leo, in which his holiness and disobedient soldiers. In a affirms that Adrian was not to be large proportion of this melancholy blamed for his share in the division change neither Christianity nor even of the province, as he had been as Monkery had any hand. The insured by King Offa that it was uni, ternal wars and divisions of the versally desired. He admits, how- Heptarchy are sufficient to account ever, that Adrian's confirmation for it; and thase wars had reduced was uncanonical, since it violated the nation to a state of the greatthe privileges conferred upon Can- est exhaustion, and the King was terbury by Gregory the Great. The still hated by his vanquisbed rivals epistle concludes by reminding Ke- and newly acquired vassals, when nulph that Offa had sworn to remit the Danes overrun and destroyed an annual sum of 365 marks to St. the kingdom. But Christianity Peter, and that no more victories might have been expected to coun. could be expected unless payment teraet those evils, and it is desiwas promptly made. Leo appears rable to consider why it failed to to have been somewhat too intent do so, upon his marks, and is accused in The conversion of the Saxons was plain terms by the whole body of not carried on after the apostolic or the English Bishops, of requiring primitive manner. The first object the Archbishops to come to Rome of the missionaries was to gain the for their palls, in order to extort attention of Kings and Queens, and simoniacal presents and bribes. when these were persuaded or bribTheir resistance to the claim was ed to profess themselves Christians, not immediately successful, but ulti-courtiers and subjects followed their mately the personal appearance of example in such numbers, that there the Prelates was dispensed with, was difficulty in baptizing them fast upon condition that their money enough. The great majority of the should be laid at St. Peter's tomb. converts knew just as much about
The aggrandizement of the Mer- the Gospel as the Mexicans, who cians had now reached its tern, and were christened by the followers of the men of Wessex, who had been Cortes. The Saxous heard that
Christianity would confer important temporary authorities, and nothing benefits, but little or nothing was cán more clearly exhibit the weakunderstood of their real nature; and ness of human nature than their baptism was represented as the only statements respecting the primiindispensable condition for obtain- tive Anglo-Saxon Church. Its ing them.
doctrines wear a strange mixture of This was the original stumbling- Christianity and superstition. The block, and the endeavours which seven sacraments, transubstantia. were subsequently made to surmount tion, communion under one kind, the or remove it, were rendered ineffec- worship of images, and the prohi. tual by the absence of a parochial bition of a general perusal of Scripclergy. In the first instance the ture were unknown; purgatory, clergy were necessarily confined to prayers to the Virgin, and the the cathedral or mother churches in Saints, the celibacy of the Clergy, each kingdom or diocese, and con- belief in the superuatural efficacy sisted of the Bishop and his assistants. of relics, and in the merit of good As converts and endowments in- works, were considered parts of creased, the dioceses ought to have true religion. The Penitentiary of been subdivided again and again, Bishop Egbert acquaints us with the uutil a cathedral was erected in mode of expiating all imaginable every considerable town, and the and some unimaginable crimes. He country portioned out among his recommends fasts of various lengths, priests by the direction of the Bi- and of greater or less strictness; shop. But instead of adopting this and their duration and intenplan, the Prelates were generally sity might in every instance be desirous of retaining their original diminished by receiving the holy jurisdiction, and even of extending communion, or paying a fine to the It when circumstances would permit. Church. The tithes which were granted to
But monasteries were the great the Church at a very early period, and fatal evil. In their original were not divided among a resident state they were sufficiently absurd parochial clergy, but were paid to and mischievous, and in their season the Bishop, who seldom visited the of degeneracy, which soon arrived, remoter parts of his diocese, while they became a mass of corruption ibat zeal and enthusiasm which and impurity. Wilfrid, who introshould have been sent out into the duced the Benedictine Order into mountains anď forests, was cooped England, died in the year 709. up in monasteries to prey upon And it was within thirty years of the itself and waste, and to cover the decease of this first patron of reguland in the next generation with lar monastic institutions, thát Bede sanctified receptacles of immorality wrote his epistle to Egbert. The and superstition.
letters of Boniface are dateil in 745, The principal sources from which not much later. Bede declares that this information is derived, are, in many towns and villages of Nor· addition to Bede's History, his Epis- thumberland had not been visited tle to Egbert Bishop of York, the by a Bishop for several years, Penitentiary of the sanie Egbert, though tribute was received "reguand his Dialogue on the duties of larly from them all: he says tħat a Priest; the laws of Ina, King there are monasteries without num. of Wesses; the letters of Boniface, ber, useless both to God and man; Bishop of Mentz, to Ethelbald, depriving the king of the soldiers King of Mercia, and Cuthbert, who might defend him against barArchbishop of Canterbury, and the barians, and disgracing the monas. decrees of the councils of Calcluith tic name by their luxury and vices. and Cloveshoe. These are all con. Some monasteries he also deseribes
as occupied entirely by laymen, enlightened period of the Church, who .obtained grants of land from But his picture of English manners the king, filled the house with a is melancholy. " The goodness, swarm of monks, were elected by and honour, and purity of your these wonks to the office of abbot, Church are become little better than and then bribed the Bishops to a jest. There might be some alleconnive at the irregularity of their viation of your disgrace if you could appointinent. The same system prevent those female pilgrimages to was pursued by the wives of the Rome, which commonly terminate courtiers in the foundation and go- in the ruin of the travellers; and vernment of nunneries; and the by which Lombardy, France, and ouns themselves are described in no Gaul have been filled with English very flattering terms.
courtezans. The ornamented and Boniface speaks in still stronger fanciful style of dress which has language. He was a a native of been introduced by the device of England, and anxious to keep up Satan into monasteries, is a sympan interest in the country of his tom and a cause of immorality. birth. It is to this effect that he Drunkenness is too common in your addresses one of her most powerful various dioceses, and your bishops kings. “I am informed that your not contented with intoxicating faith is pure, that in many respects themselves, promote excessive and you are obedient to the laws of intemperate drinking among others. righteousness, and that you give This practice is peculiarly Engalms to the poor and indigent. lish and Pagan; Franks and Gauls, But it is also said that you have Lombards and Greeks, have no never entered into the bands of such custom. And if we cannot " lawful wedlock, nor have accus. check it by the decrees of synods tomed yourself to lead a life of in- and the denunciations of Scripture, nocence and chastity; on the con at least it is in our power to shun trary, that you have formed impro- and to denounce the crime, and to per connexions with nuns and holy deliver our own souls from the blood women, set apart and dedicated to of the guilty.” God; that your subjects, corrupted In opposition to this decisive eviby your example, have given them- dence, it is absurd to pretend that selves up to debauchery and vice. the Saxons of the seventh century If such things continue, you must afforded a creditable specimen of expect that as the Spaniards and the effects of Christianity. The Burgundians have been overrun and Popish historians made the attempt, destroyed by foreign enemies, so and Hume and others found no difthe English, degenerating from their ficulty in proving that the atancient courage and loyalty, as well tempt has failed. The unfavouras from their ancient faith, will be- able circumstances of the case are come an easy prey to their in- too notorious to be denied: by envaders." This may be considered deavouring to disguise or to doubt as the appeal of Boniface to the them, we only induce the captious civil powers. To the ecclesiastical and sceptical inquirer to put the he speaks with equal plaioness, favourable features out of sight, and His celebrated epistle to Cuthbert, to forget that even those of an opArchbishop of Canterbury, is in posite class, are capable upon Proevery respect superior to the ordi- testant principles of an easy explanary compositions of that age. It nation. exhibits an intimate acquaintance The predictions of Bede and Bowith Scripture, and explains and niface were accurately accomplished enforces the pastoral duties in terms by the Danish invasion, and its consewhich would do credit to a more quences serve to confirm the decla. REMEMBRANCER, No. 45.