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A soul sheath'd in a crystal shirine,
In sum, would'st see a man, that can
Leonardo Lessius, of whose “ Rule of Health” so much is here said and so beautifully, was a Jesuit, a distinguished polemical writer in the 16th and 17th centuries, and a great admirer of the temperate principles of Lewis Cornaro, noticed by Addison, in No. 195 of the Spectator. The title of his Book is “ Hygiasticon sen vera Ratio Valetudinis bonæ vitæ una cum sensuum, et Judicii, et memoriæ, integritate ad extremam senectutem conservanda.”
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
A Letter to his Grace, the Lord ter to his Primate professes to un
Primate of Ireland, on the man fold, and the ingenuity with which ner in which Christianity was his opinion is defended, are suffitaught by our Saviour, and his cient reasons for introducing our Apostles. By George Miller, readers to the pamphlet before us. D.D. M.R.I.A. Rector of Der We shall commence by extracting ryvoylan. 8vo. pp. 72. 2s. Ri passages which develope the learnvingtons. 1822.
ed doctor's hypothesis, and con
clude with stating our opinion of its The character and station of Dr. justice. He proposes to place the Miller, the discovery which the let- propagation of Christianity in a new
light-and it is thus that he explains men whom he habitually guided, without his views:
having separately ascertained their dispo
sition to afford him in that instance their “ If the original preachers of a Re- usual support. Human measures are ac. ligion, disclaiming the aid of power, en complished by a compromise of the good deavour to propagate their doctrine only and bad qualities of men ; and to effect by persuasion, two ways lie open to them. such a compromise, not only the honest They may choose either to address them- prejudices, but also the vanity and the selves separately to individuals, and thus selfisliness of individuals, must be treated gradually to collect a body of converts with the most scrupulous tenderness. sufficiently considerable to possess politi. “ If such be the mode, in which the cal importance and security, or they may measures of human policy are carried into explain their tenets to assembled crowds, operation, it must be evident that mischief trusting that from these collective exlioré is done in the process. If the prejudices tations, some good result would spring, of an individual are flattered for the pur. though without any anticipation of the pose of conciliating his assent, those preparticular instances in which this might judices are strengthened ; if his vanity is occur. These two methods of propa- gratified by the deference apparently gating a Religion by persuasion, namely, shewn for his opinion, be becomes vainer the proselytism of individuals and collec- than before; if his selfishness is bribed tive preaching, I design now to compare by some advantage presented to him as together, and to enquire wbich of the two the reward of his concurrence, he is renhas been employed, or whether both have dered niore corrupt. So far as any arts been conjointly employed, in the original are employed in preparing the minds of communication of the Gospel. Such a individuals, distinct from the influence of view of the subject will I hope present fair and general reasoning, in the same a new reason for admiring the provident proportion are those individuals per wisdom of that great Being, who planned verted. the redemption of mankind, while it may “ In politics, indeed, this inconvenience strengthen our conviction, that the Re- is not much regarded. The concern of the ligion which we profess, was the work, not politician is with the exterior conduct of of man, but of God.
men, rather than with their inward senti“ If a politician, acting merely accord ments : and if he can at the present rely ing to the principles of human wisdom, upon their outward co-operation, he trusts should design to form a party, he would to time and circumstances for the connaturally address himself to individuals, tinuance of their support. He may be and in the representations separately em
sensible that he is rendering those men ployed for gaiving the acquiescence of worse members of society, wliose concureach person, he would endeavour to avail rence he is soliciting; but he sees no other himself of the facility afforded by the pe method of managing the affairs of a goculiar sentiments, the personal views, ihe vernment, and coutents himself, when weaknesses, and the passions of the indivi most conscientious, with doing as little dual whom he solicited. It could never harm, as the vecessity of his situation may be the policy of such a man to propose permit. his plans to a crowd, which had not been • But however such expedients may prepared for his purpose by much previous be deemed admissible in political arrangemanagement. A number of individuals ments, they must be wholly incompatible must be severally taught to consider the with the character of genuine Religion. association as favouring their respective Genuine Religion belongs to the heart; opinions or interests, before an attempt and where that is perverted, Religion can be successfully made to produce that must be debased. If then any arts are general and promiscuous conviction, which employed in gaining proselytes, which has been sarcastically defined to be the conciliate them by acting on their private madoess of many for the gain of a few.' weaknesses, the true purpose of proselytism Even when a new measure is to be pro
defeated, for the new converts are renposed to a political assembly accustomed dered worse, in their very accession to to the sway of an individual, he would be the Religion which should render them deemed a weak and improvident minister, better. Exterior co-operation is not in who would hazard the success of his ope- this case sufficient, as in that of a political ration, and the general credit of his go- party; and if the heart is not reformed vernment, on the effect which might be in the very act, by which it is gained to a produced by proponnding his plan at religious association, that association is opice, to the collective wisdom, even of but a political party in disguise. If these
principles be jost, it may be assumed as a not of human contrivance; that, when he characteristic of a genuine Religion, that it was brought before the rulers of Judea to is originally propagated in a public man answer for his doctrine, he declared that ner, as most effectually precluding those the whole of his ministry had been public; corrnpting influences, which have been de that the very few instances, which seem scribed; and, on the contrary, that a Re at the first view to have been contradic. ligion of human contrivance will as na tory to such a system of conduct, are turally be primarily propagated by those easily shown to furnish no argument applications made separately to indivi: against it ; that the orders which Jesus duals, which are the expedients of politi- gave to his Apostles, when he sent them cal party. The former would reject those on their original mission through the expedients, by which it must be cor cities of Judea, seem, by limiting them rupted, and would trust to the provi to one fixed residence in each place, to dence of that God, from whom it had have, in a considerable degree, precluded sprung; the latter having no other sup the solicitation of individuals; that in the port than from human artifice, would ac, remarkable attempt made to proselyte the cept it in the only manner, in which it Athenians, the enterprize was abandoned, could be obtained.” P. 3.
as the public exhortations of
Paul proved unsuccessful, notwithstand. Dr. Miller, after having observed ing that some encouragement was afforded that the Mahometan faith was pro- for endeavouring to gain over individuals pagated by private applications,
to the faith ; that in the not less remarkand all the arts of a worldly polié able case of the long residence of the
Apostle in the capital of the empire, while tician, before force was called in
an extraordinary combination of circumto the assistance of imposture; stances had placed him in that interme. proceeds to shew, at considerable diate situation between publicity and prilength, that neither Jesus nor his vacy, which might not alarm the jealousy apostles had recourse to the system
of the government, and yet might permit of individual proselytism. To do
only a free and general intercourse with the doctor justice, this portion of the Apostle, his own religious prudence
seems to have hindered him from attempt. his pamphlet should be carefully
ing to form a party among his countryperused, as on the success or the
men, and from employing for the purfailure of the proposition which it pose of procuring proselytes that deputed maintains, his hypothesis must rest agency of others, which the flourishing or fall. . But we presume that the
state of the Christian Church of Rome majority of our readers, while they might have sufficiently supplied; and agree with us in admiring the acute- lastly, that in other places, among the ness which is repeatedly displayed, these the Ephesians may be added), the
Corinthians and Thessalonians, and to will not hesitate in refusing their as
Apostle had submitted to a mechanical sent to the conclusion at which Dr. drudgery for his subsistence, which must Miller arrives. The following pas have occupied so large a portion of his sage contains his own summary of time, as scarcely to leave any except that the argument by which the doctor part which was employed in his public has been persuaded that private ap- complaint of such an appropriation of it, as
ministrations, and yet did not utter any plications were seldom, if ever made
interfering with the functions of his minisfor the purpose of proselytism.
try, though he spoke of it as constituting a “ From all these observations, it apo
personal abasement.” *P. 44. pears, that the ministry of Jesus had been We cannot admit the validity of preceded by a harbinger, who employed this reasoning. Our Lord's introDo arts of conciliation, and acted in no
duction and invitation to Peter and concert with his Master ; that it was it. self commenced in the same uncompro
John, his intim with a few chosen mising spirit, by a bold and public as disciples, his more especial consumption of the Divine character ; that fidence in a still smaller number, Jesus described the propagation of bis his friendship for the family of LaReligion in parables, which implied, that zarus, his conversations with Mary bis doctrine should be preached generally to the world, and that its reception should be the work of the Divine Providence,
Acts xx. 34.
and Martha, with Nicodemus, and Dr. Miller's theory, as that of the with the woman of Samaria, his conduct of our Lord himself. The miracles in private houses, and point on which the doctor mainly at the express request of indivi- relies, is the apostle's departure duals, are circumstances which we from Athens upon the bad success cannot reconcile with Dr. Miller's of his speech on Mars' Hill. But hypothesis. His explanations of the apostle only came to Athens by some of them are alluded to in accident, and for security; and he the preceding extract, and the in was anxious before his speech, to be quisitive reader may find a fuller joined with speed by his compastatement in other parts of the nions, that they might proceed to pamphlet. But in spite of these Corinth. He only attempted the couesplanations we must still believe version of the Athenians, while ke that our Saviour's conduct does not waited for Silas and Timotheus. authorise the interpretation of it With regard to St. Paul's conduct which is now suggested.
at Rome, we know little or nothing The distinction between prose. with certainty, except that he called lyting and confirming is untenable. unto him not all the Jews, but the for it can hardly be said that a chief of the Jews; and that being single individual was a confirmed confined in his own hired house believer in the Gospel, until the he received all that came unto him. resurreetion of its Author from the In neither of which is there any dead. The apostles and disciples proof of the exclusive publicity of might acknowledge the prophetical his preaching. His mechanical emcharacter, and even the Messiah- ployment is the only circumstance ship of Jesus, without being strictly that remains ; and against this, or completely Christians. The task which is at best a very questionable of proselyting them therefore might argument, we may set off his nucontinue, and we have no doubt, merous salutations to particular inthat it did continue until their Mas. dividuals, bis declaration that he ter's death. The hardest and most had taught publicly, and from house important docrine which he came to house, the conversion of sepato teach, pamely, bis atonement for rate families, as that of the jailor the sins of mankind, was not re and others at separate times; and ceived, or even understood before even the celebrated speeches before the fact had taken place. After Felix and Agrippa, which were parthe resurrection the apostles still ticular addresses to the consciences looked for the restoration of a tem- of particular individuals. Comporal kingdom, and had much to bining all these facts, we cannot unlearn, as well as lears before doubt that St. Paul io imitation of they could be denominated believ- his Master, taught publicly or pri. ers in the dispensation of the cross. vately as circumstances might diThe foundation of their faith was rect, and only abstained from those laid by Jesus both in public and political arts, which Dr. Miller private, before he was put to rightly considers unworthy of the mideath. The confirmation of it he nisters of religion, and to which bis accomplished between his resurrec- arguments ought to have been contion and ascension, and they then fined. Putting facts out of the were ready to teach others, and as question, the moral of his theory soon as the Holy Ghost enabled can extend to such private ap. them, they proceeded to teach others plications only as are addressed to in the same manner and to the same passion, interest, or vanity, rather effect that they had been taught than reason, truth, or conscience. themselves. For St. Paul's general If it be said that all private appliconduct is as much at variance with cations have a tendeney to degene
rate into intrigue and artifice, it With an Appendix containing, may be answered that all public ap Specimens of Translations, and plications have a similar inclination Bibliographical Descriptions. By to produce a love of popularity and the Rev. Henry Cotton, D. C. L. display, to encourage what may be late Student of Christ Church, called the captivating mode of in Oxford. 8vo. pp. 190. 78. 6d. struction, and to deform the pro Oxford. 1821. fession of the Gospel by the egotism of the teachers, and the vio- The modest title and appearance of Jence of the taught. If Jesuitism
Dr. Cotton's work afford sufficient degrades those whom it undertakes indication of its real worth. Few to purify, there is also a ranting fa- publications of a similar character naticisni, which puffs up and in- contain half the useful information fames. Both descriptions of teach. which is comprised in this unassuming are liable to abuse ; by the in- ing volume, and in few cases can the triguing and the violent both have
labour of collecting and arranging been abused : and we are afraid the materials have been more irksome that preachers may now be found
or protracted. Such circumstances who are intemperate without cou
should recommend the List of the rage,
and artful without discre- Editions of the Bible to very general tion. But Dr. Miller will be the attention, and we trust that our own last to contend that public instruc. bad example, in having left it for six tion should be laid aside on ac
months upon our table, will not have count of the excrescences by which
many imitators. it is too frequently disfigured. He
Dr. Cotton represents his pampbwill be the first to say, let those ex
let to be an appendix to the latter crescences be removed, with as lit- part of Lewis's History of the Engtle injury as possible to the pa- lish Translations of the Scriptures. rent stock. And he ought to argue But in fact it is something nuch in the same way respecting private better than this. The body of the teaching. His opinion that such work may properly enough be conteaching becomes too often injurious, sidered as an appendix to Lewis; is lamentably but indisputably just. but the introduction, the notes, and In protesting against appeals to in- the various specimens of early verterest, to vanity, to prejudice, he sions entitle Dr. Cotton to a higher strikes at the most prominent, and' title than the continuator of an other destructive practice of those who man's labours. claim the first raok
The Introduction commences by friends of religion, while in reality pointing out some of the difficulties they deserve the last. In exposing with which Mr. Lewis had to consuch misconduct the learned doctor tend, and they appear amply suffi. cannot employ greater ingenuity or
cient to excuse his occasional inaczeal than the urgency of the case
curacy. Former attempts at pubrequires; but he will meet with lishing Lists of the English Editions inore success by adhering to beaten of the Bible are then describedpaths, than by the discovery or they consist of no less than five, two propagation of the novelties from of which were printed privately for which we have been compelled to the Archbishop of Canterbury in the dissent.
years 1776 and 1778, from a manu. script in Lambeth Library-one,
entitled The Lambeth List, enlarged A List of Editions of the Bible and and improved, 8c. was prefixed to
Parts thereof in English, from Crutwell's Bible, Bath, 1785; a rethe Year MÕV. to MDCCCXX, print of the second Lambeth List REMEMBRANCER, No. 48,