let them adhere closely to the example of matter is always important, the their Lord and Master, and of those that

manner always plain, forcible, and were immediately taught by him; and impressive; the tone and temper whether they shall be, what in the cant free from the violence and littleness language of the day is called acceptable of a sectarian spirit; and the Engthat is, popular preachers or not, they will at least enjoy the consolation of reflecting, lish reader will rejoice in the genethat they have not been accessary to the ral purity and independence of senbreaking down of the embankments with timent with which the Gospel is which Christ has surrounded and fenced preached in “ the Scots Church, his Church, and letting in a tide of indolence and corruption, that, notwithstand

Mary's Abbey, Dublin." ing all the imposing splendour of our present achievements, I confess, seems to me to be ready to overwhelm us." P. 250. Sermon XIII. The active exer.

A Defence of the Clergy of the tion of man in working out his sal

Church of England : stating vation harmonizes with the free

their Services, their Rights, and grace of God, as being the sole

their Revenues, from the earliest author of it. The misapprehensions

Ages to the present Time ; and and the temptations to indolence on

shewing the Relation in which the one hand, and to presumption they stand to the Community, on the other, which arise from * the

and to the Agriculturist. By combination and co-operation of the the Rev. Francis Thackeray, A.M. free sovereign grace of God with

8vo. 211 pp. Rivingtons. 1822. their own active voluntary exertions," are ably counteracted in this dis. No fault can be found with the princourse by examples principally ta- ciples or object of this work : parts ken from the history of the Israel- of it are suited to the circumstances ites, whose redemption from Egyp- of the day, and the author is a zeatian bondage and establishment in lous defender of the rights of the the land of Canaan were the work Church ; but we cannot say that of God, in many instances through on the whole his performance is human instrumentality. Much of able or satisfactory. the language and sentiment of this Mr. Thackeray aims too high :discourse, and the main proposition a pamphlet containing two hundred which it is designed to establish, is pages, is divided into no less than worthy of the serious consideration eleven chapters; in each of which of modern and moderate Calvinists he professes to discuss an important in England, and of all who dispute question, or defend a valuable inor deny the co-operation of the stitution. The consequence has been grace of God with the active ex. that, with one or two exceptions, 'ertions of man.

his disquisitions are perfunctory and Sermon XIV. On the privileges superficial, and his conclusions unof a life of faith. The subject is expected and premature.

The illustrated by the choice of Moses, religious ordinances of the ancients, of which the wisdom and propriety the necessity of an established reare approved, and applied with ligion, the advantages conferred on much earnestness of exhortation. the community by the established

If this series of Sermons on the Clergy, the inequality of rank and nature and effects of Repentance stipend among the Clergy, Episand Faith is not always unexcep- copacy, the mode of remuneratiog tionable or exempt from such pecu- the ministers of religion from the liarities of doctrine and phraseology first ages of Christianity, the char. as are natural to the congregation ters of the Clergy of England from to which they were addressed; the A.D. 854 to A.D. 1066, an account

of the Church from 1066 to the deed the nature and intention of this essay, Reformation, and a similar account

were I to enter into a regular investigation

of the effects produced by titbes npon the to the present time, form the contents of the first seven chapters ; ever, I bring it to a conclusion, I cannot

agriculture of the country. Before, howand it is uo impeachment of Mr. refrain from expressing my decided opinion Thackeray's abilities' to say that be that no subject has been more grossly mis. has not been able to handle such a understood, nor more perversely misrepre. variety of matters in so small a com

sented. Almost every obstacle, of howpass. On several of the subjects

ever opposite a description, almost every

variation in the price of produce, has, at much may yet be said The Church Charters for instance, which are

one time or other, been ascribed to the

operation of tithes *. That heterogeneous alluded to, but not examined or and disjointed production, 'The Annals of classified, have been discussed with Agriculture' contains many of these vague great minuteness in the old con and indefinable charges. Mistaking headtroversies respecting tithes; and an long assertion, for political courage, and abridgment of the opinions of our

hostility to one class, for friendship to the great writers upon these and similar community, it long cried out against the

hardships imposed upon the farmer by the questions would form a useful chap- payment of tithes. "It went farther, and ter in a modern treatise. The whole dared to say that the time was not distant, subject of tithes is once more before when the unanimous voice of England will the public :-their opponents come

refuse to discharge them. When that day to the conflict with all the con arrives, is there, I ask, in the names of fidence of ignorance and innovation, every thing sacred, venerable or lawful

, and it may be as well for the Clergy What nobleinan, what gentleman, what

is there any sort of property secure ? to look back upon the unanswered yeoman, shall be unassaulted by that spearguments of their good and learned cies of logic, which would deprive liim of predecessors, -not for the purpose his possessions under the plea of rendering of bringing them forward in their them more advantageous to the commu. old shape and dress, but of adapt- nity? If tithes occasion obstacles to the ing them to that less solid fashion productions of the earth, or the iucrease

of its iuhabitants, are there not many other of reading and thinking which now

causes much more powerfully affecting prevails. Something of this kind

both ? Let me illustrate my meaning by. might have been easily introduced a homely appeal to men in each gradation

the little work before us; of society. Upon the same reasoning that and substituted with advantage for tithes would be attacked, why may not the uninteresting truisms with which the nobleman of great landed possessions it now abounds. We feel this more

be told, that if his estates were parcelled

out into many minute divisions, a much strongly because the question of tithes is precisely that part of his greater quantity of corn might be raised, subject which Mr. Thackeray treats

When the price of corn was at its the best, and his pamphlet might height, the common cant mode of achave been rendered of considerable counting for it was ' tithes.” The present importance, if he had prefaced this wonderful depreciation in corn, &c. has portion of it by information connect

been referred by many farmers, to the ed with the particular subject on

same cause. This senseless jargon of the which he was about to enlarge.

antithists, reminds one of the mutinous We consider the tenth chapter will have it that his existence is the sole

citizens in Shakspeare's Coriolanus, who upon tithes as affecting agriculture,

cause of the scarcity of bread. to be the best and most useful ist, Citz. First you know, Caius Marin the Treatise; and the follow- cius is the chief enemy of the people. ing extract will suffice to exhibit the All. We know it, we know it. line of argument which Mr. Thack 1st. Citz. Let us kill him, and we'll

have corn at our own price. . Is't a ver. eray adopts, and his general method

dict? of dealing with it.

All. No more talking on't, let it be " It would exceed the linits, and in- done! Away! Away! REMEMBRANCER, No. 47.

4 S


a much greater number of human beings enclosute of waste lands, but the advanenabled to subsist? That if he would but tages arising from a very extended cultivaconsent to reduce his establishment, and tion appear to be questionable. If it can simplify hts fare, he could afford to let his with certainty be proved, that tithes have land at a very considerable abatement? The prevented the present quantity of land private country gentleman, with the same under cultivation, from receiving the neseason may be told, that if he wonld cessary improvements of tabour, wanure, but consent to substitute for wine, the and general attention ; if it also can be mutritious beverage ale, if he would but shewn that the stubborn avarice of the clothe himself in a coarser apparel, and Clergy, iv refesing a moderate compenadopt some other similar retrenchments, sation for a certain pumber of years, bas his tenants also might thrive. The yeo. been a serious impediment to the culture man might even be upbraided by his sub- of wastes; and, above all, if it can be tenant, with superfluity in his expenditure; proved that the general interests of agri. might be told that the gloss of his Sunday culture have within the last fifty years, hat was a reproach to him as a landlord, receded, I will acknowledge that a parliaand that a saving in the vehiele which mentary investigation is necessary, and ronveyed him to market, would enable that a general commutation of tithes may him to repair the cottage of his tenant, be expedient. Bat even allowing these and remit some portion of his rent. Every facts to be proved, I would still exhort my man), taken from the unsifted mass of the ecclesiastical brethren, and all who value community, must now see the atter ab- the dignity and stability of the profession, Burdity of such reasoning. They must see to pause most deliberately before they it, because the occurrences of each day tonsent to alienate and exchange rights, teach them that human society and human the most ancient, the njost universal, the nature would not admit of such a levelling most legitimate in the world. Let them, application. Why then are the claims of even then, pause before they consent to the Clergy to be made an exception? accept a degrading pensionary establishOuly because the selfish think they are ment, or lend themselves to any eompromore detached from the community than mise of character or station, hy receiving other classes, and therefore that they are à substitute, which would reduce them to 'to be assaulted with greater impunity. To be mere tillers of the earth. But the case me it has never appeared that the opera. I have sopposed, is imaginary. It is im. tion of tithes, has been any impediment to possible to look around one, in any part the interests of agriculture. It may, of England, without being convinced, that perhaps, in some cases have checked the so far from receding, the progress of agri

culture has been prodigions. That so far • It is true estates are not as beneficial from there bavitg been any remissness or to the possessor, as if there were no tithes; languor in the work of enclosure, the at$0 neither are farms as beneficial tu te- tempt has been extended with beedless nants, as if there were no rents, and no ardour to soils almost incapable of imTiglit to turn tirem out. Bot as this is no provement. That the farmers have been reason why landlords should be deprived of the race of Anlæus-giants, acquiring of their rents ; 80 neither is it a reason their strength from the elastic touch of the why the Clergy should be deprived of earth ; and then (to continue the comparitheir tithes.' Dr. Belward's Defence of son) becoming wanton with success, have the Rigiit to Tithes, on Principles of supposed that the Herculean power of the Egnity.

world was to confess their ascendancy. This reasoning is strictly applicable, and Thuat agriculture has been most powerfully a reference to history will prove its trutb. affected by recent occurrences, that the It is curious, indeed, to observe, how plough may, in consequence, partially stand Dearly the pretexts of hypocrisy and ava- still, must be allowed and lamented. But rice may resemble each other. As the is a temporary, or even a permanent inlast would now attack tithes, so the convenience to one class of men, to be the first once objected to the payment of cause of injustice to another? Another, -vents. Hume tells us that, during Crom- which for centuries, when the farmers of well's protectorate. the doctrine was the country were coasidered scarcely s pretty common, that it was unworthy of a perior to the clod they turned, or the catChristian man, to pay rent to his fellow. tle they drove, have been eminent and creatures ; and the landlords were obliged illustrious in almost every portion of the to use all the penalties of the law against globe. Those who entered apon farms those tenants whose consciences were ter or twelve years ago, may be compared acrupulons.--Hume, Note F. Vol. x. to merchants. Their veuture was a great

speculation ; it succeeded for some time, profits of cultivation. The higher orders But the causes of that success were un of laod proprietors must set the example, naturally stretched, and the collapse bay and the most rigid economy must be been most violent. They have suffered, adopted." P. 172. and their sofferings are to be lamented, So likewise are those of the merchapt, who, miscalculating the supply of any foreign or domestic market, is ruined by the incumbrance of his unsold cargoes. So The Use and Abuse of Party-feeling likewise are those of the merchant who is in Matters of Religion, considered deprived of half bis vessels by the violence in Eight Sermons preached before of the tempest. But these last are every

the University of Oxford, in the day occurrences, and no one stops to be,

Year 1822, at the Lecture founded. moan them. The poor merchant is left to repair his rates quassas,' to embark again

by the late Rev. John Bampton, in speculation, or, panperiem pati. No

M.A. Canon of Salisbury. By one can be more thoroughly convinced Richard Whately, M.4. Fellow than myself, of the importance of agricule of Oriel College. 8vo. 304 pp. tare to the welfare of all classes of the

75. 6d. Rivingtons. 1822. English community. But the conviction of that importance may carry, and close The object of this volume is so posing their individual interests identified amiable and excellent, the author's with those of the country, have plunged claims to attention so well founded into expences wholly beyond their meang and notorious, and the execution of and utterly inconsistent with their occur his labours for the most part so pation. They went on in a giddy sort of successful, that the work must be. expenditure without appearing to think a change of condition possible; and now

come the subject of very general that change bas taken place, they seem to

regard. There are few persons in consider themselves the only legitimate this age of party spirit and controobjects of public coipmiseration und versy, who do not require to be re, assistance.

minded of the danger of carrying I wist oot to say any thing harsh, I them to excess. Mr. Whately warns wish not to involve the whole class of farmers in one sweeping .condemnation, for

us against errors to which all men numbers of most prudent, most industrious,

are prone. He draws the limit with and most honourable men are amongst great skill and perspicuity, between theta; but I must say, that the farming feelings which are not always dis, scheme has been carried so far during the tinguished accurately from one anos last five and twenty years, that it appears ther; and he furnishes tests to as, to resemble, in many of its features, the certain the true character of motives notorious South Sea scheme of 100 years which are the source of so much ago. I allude merely to the self-delusion which existed, to the disappointment and good and so inuch evil, and with loss which has ensued; any farther coin respect to which the heart is often parison would be most inapplicable and ignorant of its own secrets. unjust. That the farmers will, for years, The first point, therefore, to severely feel the depression of the market which we shall attend in this review, prices of produce, is, I fear, too.certain to will be to put our readers in posbe disputed. What then is to be the rer session of Mr. Whately's sentiz medy? I know of none which will not demand a long, patient, and painful enements, as far as they can be ades durance. A degree of forbearanre to quately conveyed by an analysis of wards them, on the part of the community, his Lectures. The second will be and a great degree of exertion on their to furnish specimens of his mode of own, will, I trust, enable the present pro reasoning and writing; and the third prietors to retain their farms, and the pre- to explain the grounds upon which sent tenants to cultivate them. If not,

we venture to differ from some of however harsh the truth may sound, the lauds must necessarily be transferred to the conclusions at which he arrives, others, who can, and will, afford to accom

The first lecture contains an enmodate themselves to the expences and quiry into the principle by which

men are led to form parties; and al- tachment and regard men are disposed to though it may be doubted whether feel towards any class, body, or association this is beginning at the right end, they may belong to, in itself, and towards whether the nature of party-feel- over and above any personal regard they

the fellow-members of the same, as such, ing should not have been deduced may bave for them individually; and in a from the actual workings of party, zeal for the prosperity of the society, and rather than the workings of party for the objects it pecnliarly proposes, over drawn out from an abstract consi, and above what is felt for those objects in deration of its source, yet at all themselves, and what would be felt for events there is much ingenuity in

them by each individual, supposing him the following passages, and much singly to pursue them. It must be added,

that men have a natural tendency to symtruth in the consequence which they pathize and unite with those who coincide are supposed to establish.

with them in any point; and hence are led

to form these coinmunities or parties, as “ One of the most important of these well as to feel towards those in which they principles, and one which is not in general may be placed, that attachment and zealsufficiently attended to, is that which binds which have been just mentioned. together the members of any community, “ Those who delight in analysing the class, or party, and renders the body to complex principles of our nature, and rewhich they belong, considered as a body, ferring them to their simplest elements, a distinct object of attachment. Not in- may perhaps without much difficulty trace deed that this part of our constitution has up that of which we are now speaking, to been by any means overlooked altogether; oor natural desire of sympathy, and dispobut it is seldom, if ever, that a comprehen- sition to afford it. We take a pleasure in sive view of it has been taken: some par. meeting with persons with whose situations ticular branches of it have been noticed and sentiments we cau sympathize ; 'we are fully, while the wide extent and variety of pleased likewise with the idea of their its operation lias been disregarded : and its sympathy with'ns; from which conseqirent. evil or beneficial effects have been viewed lý we derive additional ardour also iu a separately, withont tracing them up to coitimon pursuit, and increased confidence their source, as modifications of what may in a common opiuion; and hence arises a be reckoned one common, innate principle mutual attachment between those among of the human heart.

whom this mutual sympathy exists. Whe“ Thus, the soundest among the an ther however this, or any different theory cients, while they very wisely pronounced be adopted ;'or whether the party-feeling man to be by nature a social being, im. we are speaking of is to be referred to any pelled to form communities, not by any more siviple principles of our nature, of consideration of the advantages thence ac- which it is the necessary result, or is to be cruing, but hy a sort of instinctive ten: regarded as itself one of the primary eledency, yet confined their attention almost ments, as it were, of the haman miud, is a exclusively to the political union; which question of no consequence to onr present is only one among many which man has a object; only let its existence and univertendency form. And various writers sality be admitted, and its effects referred bave made just remarks on the extrava to it, as tlreir immediate source; not to any gances of party-spirit, withont however calculations of reason upon views of expe. perceiving, or at least without pointing out, diency." P. 5. that these are only the abuses and perver “ But moreover, even in those cases sions of a principle, which, being essential where a coalition of any kind is formed to our nature, exists, in a greater or less manifestly and distinctly for the sake of degree, in all mankind; which is in itself promoting some common purpose, still the (like all our other propensities) neither zeal and the mutual attachment of the pervirtuous por vicious, but is calculated, sons concerned, is not, even tlien, to be under the control of reason, to lead to in measured-by the value, (i.e. the original portant benefits." P. 2.

value,) even in their own eyes, of the ad. " That principle then which I am now vantage proposed. Their being engaged speaking of, that party-feeling, (if I may in a common pursuit, is generally found to • be allowed to give it such a name, in de- bind them to each other, and to iucrease fault of a more precise one,) may be de- their eagerness for the object pursued, to 'scribed as a certain limitation of the gene a degree which even they themselves would ral social principle which binds together never have anticipated. What exertions the luman specics : it cousists in the at, and what sacrifices have beeu produce



« ForrigeFortsett »