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hesitated to expose himself to the nals, and the accounts which it confury of the conquerors, with the tains are highly deservingofattention. view of prevailing upon them to Turketul was the restorer or second spare his companions. But the sole founder of Croyland Abbey, and fruit of his expostulation, was his considered himself bound to colown imprisonment, with an offer lect the traditions which related to to spare his life, upon the receipt its origin. But this portion of the of three thousand pounds of silver. work is fabulous and incredible in The ransom might have been easily the extreme; and it is not until we procured, if Elphegius had exhorted arrive at the actions of Turketul or permitted his clergy to surrender himself, which were recorded by the plate and other ornaments of his successor Egelric, that we make their churches and monasteries. any near approach to sobriety of But he refused to bave recourse to truth. With a view of rendering such a system ; and warning his the possessions of the Abbey more people against the idolatry and im- secure, Turketul persuaded the morality of their conquerors, ex- Monks to surrender all their old horting them to continue in the faith estates, as well as the additional and practice of Christians, he was estates with which he had endowed stoned to death eight months after them, to the King; and to receive the sack of Canterbury, by the them back as a new grant. This generals and soldiers of the Danish fact if we could depend upon it, army. His life by Osbern is un- would give us a great insight into fortunately disfigured by the usual the state of property and of law in addition of miracles, visions, and those unsettled times. But no reprophecies-but his character is an liance can be placed upon Anglohonour both to the Church and the Saxon charters *. They were proMonks, and the nation might have duced, as will appear hereafter, escaped the disgrace and ruin into in the Norman Courts, with an which it fell, if the temporal no- abundance and a confidence which bility had followed the example of cannot be sufficiently adınired, and Elphegius.
what is more they are made to cor. The principal churches and towns respond in language, style, and shared the fate of Canterbury—and character, with the title deeds of a during the remainder of Ethelred's much later æra. Jife, and the short reign of bis son The monastic regulations of TarEdmund Ironside, the historians ketul may be received with less hesihave nothing to relate but rapine, tation than his legal subtleties. He treason and slaughter. Canute gave was appointed Abbott by King the kingdom a respite from its ca- Edgar: and Dunstan and the other lamities. His power although found. principal prelates invested him fored on conquest rather than on right, was employed for the good of the people whom he governed. His
There is an affectation in the node ecclesiastical administration espe. reader may probably be amused. The
of signing these charters, with which the cially, was firm and impartial. assent of each party to the deed is signiThe monasteries recovered rapidly fied by a different word—and when the from their recent misfortunes, and subscribers are nunerons, they appear to the division of the country into have been at a loss for variety. The parishes became general if not uni- signatures to a charter of Canute are as versal. The history of Croyland follows: The King writes confirmavi, and by Ingulphus, or rather by Turke
so also does the Archbishop of Canter
bury, the others say, affirmari, consignari, túl, Egelric and Ingulphus, is the collaudavi, constabilivi, communivi, sig: most authentic source of information nuvi, approbavi, consensi, concessi, affui, respecting this portion of our an- interfui, astili, audivi, aspexi.
mally with spiritual authority. He The authority by which they were divided his Monks into three classes, prescribed was that of Turketul the first consisting of those who had himself, a pious and exemplary man spent less than twenty-four years —devoted to the service of his God, in the Monastery, took the regular and the relief of his fellow creatures. duty of the House, the choir, and He spent the latter years of his life the refectory, and obeyed all the in devotion and charity; confessing commands of their superiors. Those that he was still an unprofitable between the twenty-fourth and for- servant; and putting his only trust tieth year of their profession formed in the mercy of Christ. He was a the second or middle class, were vigilant superintendant of the schools exempted from the more servile, connected with his monastery; reoffices, and were expected to assist warding and stimulating the diliin the most important business of gence of the scholars rather than the Monastery, both by prudent severely correcting their idleness. counsel and personal labour. The To his aged and venerable Monks third class or seniors were composed he paid that respect and attention of all between the fortieth and fifti- which his statutes required from eth years of their profession, who others; and to three of them more were merely required to assist at especially who are said to have at. mass, and were considered as milites tained the ages of 148, 142, and 115 emeriti, who had borne the heat and years, he performed all the offices labour of the day, and were now, of a son and a servant; when his especially if they sustained an un. rank and his infirmities would have blemished reputation, to be held been an excuse for different conworthy of all honour, and exposed duct. He died at the age of sixtyto no privation. The Quinquage. eight, and in the twenty-seventh narian, or Monk of fifty years stand- year of his Monastic profession; ing was entitled to a comfortable leaving Croyland Abbey in posseschamber in the Infirmary, and to the sion of great riches, reputation, and constant attendance of a younger strength ; exhorting its inhabitants monk as his companion, and of a boy to continue in srict obedience to their for his servant. He had the full rule, and warning them against the and free range of the House. The indolence and sensuality to which bad news of the Convent was not to they were exposed. be mentioned in bis presence.
If all Abbots had followed the Every body was bound to treat him example of Turketul, monkery with respect; old age was to be might have possessed greater claims assuaged by peace and quiet.' The upon our gratitude than the judgactual government of the Monastery ment of impartial history can admit was committed to the Prior; an it to enjoy. But every thing was officer who was appointed for life, suffered to depend upon the indiviexcept in cases of grave and re- dual character of the Abbott. The peated misconduct. The Precentor appointment to his office was speehad the privilege of regulating the dily usurped by the Crown. CourChoir; and not only the Prior and tiers, and men of bad character, obMonks, but even the Abbott was tained a preference which they did required to comply with bis direc- not merit. The monastic life de
tions. The Sacristan was invested generated below the usual standard i with Archidiaconal power over the of worldly decency; and respect for
whole territory (parochia) of Croy- the order was only to be preserved land. And these statutes were by fraud. It was the better sort of added to the rule of St. Benedict, Monks that John Fox compared and declared equally binding upon with men of a lower profession, but the inhabitants of the Monastery. much purer practice; and even of
them, in his usual style of quaint. cover, The estates were unquesness and satire, the Martyrologist tionably large ; but the enumeration well observes, “ The monks said of manors apd towns in charters of that whoso would take the Cross of an earlier date, but a much later penance upon him, and follow Christ birth, is no proof that such property in virtuous living, should be his dis- was actually possessed in the days ciple. But whether a Monk's cowl, of Turketul and Egelrie. „The situor a wifeless life make a sufficient ation of the monastery, and of a title to enter into other men's pos. large part of its lands, gave the sessions or no, I refer it to the judy- Morks opportunity of exhibiting ment of the godly. The troublous their diligence and skill in embankcares in marriage, the necessary ing and draining the fens, and a provision for house-keeping, the country which would have been virtuous bringing up of children, the worthless in the hands of a Thane daily helping of poverty, and bear. or a peasant, became abundantly ing of public charges, with other ma- fertile under the system of agriculnifest perturbations and cumbrances ture which a more extensive know. daily incident unto matrimony, might ledge and a larger capital enabled rather appear to godly wise men to the Monks to introduce. A great come nearer to the right cross of proportion of the land appears to penance, than the easy and loitering have been in the immediate occuidleness of monkery.” Acts and pation of the Monks; and the rents Monuments, I. p. 177.
and profits to have been received, Before we quit this portion of In- for the most part, in kind. When gulphus's bistory, he may furnish us the treasures accumulated by Turwith some account of the temporali- ketul had been exhausted by the ties of Croyland. Several of Turke- ravages of the Danes, and the retul's buildings were of stone; and they peated demands of King Ethelred, comprised the Church, the Abbott's a manor was leased out for a hunhall, and Chapel, a sleeping room, dred years, at a peppercorn rent, to and a chamber for the reception of one of the followers of Edric, the The poor. Egelric, the successor of powerful duke of Mercia. The con. Turketul erected an Infirmary, an sideration for this grant was the additional Chapel, a lodge for stran- protection and patronage of the gers, and a great number of domes- grantee, which he promised to afford tic offices. The materials were wood and did afford to the Abbey. But covered in with lead. Turketul had he died young, and King Canute beendowed the monastery with one stowed all his lands upon a survery large bell, which in honour of viving brother, who made over the the original monk of Croyland, was remainder of the lease to the Monks denominated Gauthlake. Egelric at Evesham. The term of an hunadded six more, of three different dred years had expired, when Insizes. The largest pair he named, gulphus wrote; and Evesham still Bartholomew, and Bethelmus ; the continued in possession of the es. middle sized, Turketul, and Tatwin; tate. The benefactor, whose kindthe smallest, Pegam and Begam. ness was thus abused, was Leofric, There is no mention of the ceremony Earl of Leicester-the husband of of baptizing these bells ; but they the celebrated Lady Godiva, at are described as producing a mar- whose instigation Leofric founded vellous harmony, and may probably the Monastery of Coventry, and behave been honoured by all the re- came a munificent patron of many ligious ceremonies of the age. The other Churches. How far the pracprecise extent of the Abbey lands is tice of granting leases prevailed one of those secrets in Anglo-Saxon before the Conquest, it is difficult story which it is so difficult to dis- or rather impossible to ascertain ; but we shall find it very common at of his dominions. They become a period sbortly subsequent, and of more importance, froin the promay doubt whether in reality the bability, that what are called the monasteries were more weakened or laws of Edward the Confessor, were strengthened by the system.
in reality a mere compilation from From the accession of Canute to these earlier statutes. And as Ed. the death of Edward the Confessor, ward's laws were compiled after the the number and the privileges of the Conquest for the use and instrucMonasteries were continually in- tion of our Norman masters ; a code creasing. Bury especially, owed its which has not been exposed to so splendour to the piety of the former, corrupting a process, is entitled to and Westminster to that of the much greater confidence and reslatter. King Edward had vowed to pect. Canute commences with an make a pilgrimage to the shrine of acknowledgment of what is due to St. Peter, but was released from his God, and with an injunction to freobligation by the Pope, on con. quent and protect the Church. Its dition that lie should found a Mo- violators are severely condemned, nastery in honour of the Saint. The and made liable to condign punish. real or pretended charter is still in ment. The ministers of religion are existence, and conveys more exten- declared entitled to respect and con. sive privileges to the Abbott and sideration. They are permitted to Monks of Westminster, than any of answer an accusatiou against them, which we have hitherto heard. It by denying its truth with a sacradeprives Bishops, Archbishops, mental oath; but are to be expelled Kings, and perhaps Popes of all and deposed if found guilty of a authority whatsoever over the Ab- crime. The whole clerical order is bey and those who may give them- especially admonished to lead a pare selves up to il; and endows the and blameless life. Marriage within house with very large estates. The the sixth degree of relationship is ordinary privilege of Sanctuary prohibited; as is also inarriage with which was possessed by all Churches, a godmother, a nun, a divorced is enlarged in the case of Westmins- woman; and the having more wives ter by the most unqualified lan- than one. Tithes are to be regularly guage; and if the Confessor ex- paid under pain of forfeiting eight ecuted such a monstrous deed, be tenths of the whole. A Thane posmay be pronounced guilty of that sessing a Church in his own right, imbecility which is laid to his is directed to pay one tbird of his charge. But in all probability the own tithes towards its support,-if deed is a forgery. There is no proof it possessed a burying ground_if that the religious houses of the Angle- not the whole tithe was to be paid Saxons possessed half the immuni- to the mother-church, and the ties, which were afterwards bestow. Thane’s Church to be supported out ed by the Normans. The general of the remaining nine tenths. The character of the Monks was res observance of feasts and fasts, and pectable, if not exalted, and there is especially of the Sabbath, was no reason to suppose that they were strictly enjoined. The remaining in possession of that wealth and laws are so many exhortations to magnificence which they subse- virtuous living, faith, devotion, and quently acquired and abused.
repentance; and the substance of the The laws of King Canute have whole is repeated and enforced in been alluded to already: they consist the Secular Code which follows. parily of a re-enactment of the codes If these laws do not exhibit much of King Edgar, and other princes; legislative skill, or appear suited to and partly of sundry new pro- a very refined state of society, at visions required by the altered state least they are drawn up with a reREMEMBRANCER, No. 48.
gard to religion and morals, which vides, that if any person dies out of is not always found to distinguish his parish, the funeral dues shall similar enactments.
nevertheless be paid to the MonasOne subject which is incidentally tery to which they rightly belong. noticed in these laws, deserves to And even in the year 1061, a Bull be separately and particularly con. of Pope Nicholas makes mention of sidered, namely, the division of the the county (parochid) of Linsey as whole country into parishes. Ca- wrongfully attached to the Archnute's reign has been already men. bishop of York. The words theretioned as the probable æra of this fore were used in a very indefinite occurrence. Had it happened after sense, and could not have been long the Conquest, the Norman writers known as the lawful description of would certainly have given us an ac- our modern parishes. Yet the laws count of it. Had it been a regula- of Canute distinctly recognise four tion of the Confessor, some remarks sorts of churches-primaria, medi. must have been made by the con- ocris, minor cum cæmeterio et camtemporaries of the Conqueror upon pestris sine cæmelerio. Also in bis so recent and important an altera- famous letter upon his return from tion in the law of the land. We Rome, after having stated that he infer therefore that the division had had obtained the promise of a free probably taken place before the passage for English pilgrims to the death of Canute, and at the same Apostolic See, and a diminution of time there is ample proof that it the excessive charges which had had it not been completed any con.
been made for the Archiepiscnpal siderable time before his accession. Pall, he exhorts his subjects to The constitutions of Odo, Arch- obey the laws, pay plough-money bishop of Canterbury (Wilkins I. and peter-pence; and title of the p. 213.) contain, among much other increase of animals, fruits, and curious matter, an injunction to the seeds-ad ecclesiam sub cujus paBishops to visit their parishes every rochia quisque deget. These autboyear, preaching the word of God rities are sufficiently express; and to the people. No similar order if the subject is not free from diffiwas given to the priests. These culty and doubt, they still are en. constitutions bear the date of 943; titled to considerable weight. With the
year in which the Ecclesiastical respect to the notions then enter. Laws of Hoel Dda, Prince of Wales, tained about the right and origin of are also said to have been enacted. tithes, they are declared in the laws The latter make mention of the of the Confessor to be due without seven Episcopal Houses of Demitia, any exemption, since “ this did St. without the slightest hint of a sub. Austin teach and preach, and this division into parishes. It is certain on has been granted hy the king, the the other hand, that the statutes of barons and the people.” King Edgar, (A. D. 959.) speak Another custom incidentally mendistinctly and repeatedly of pa- tioned in the laws of Canute, is rochial churches; and that some the trial by Ordeal, with which we such churches existed at that time, become more familiar during the and many years before, is a fact reign of the Confessor. The Or. which there is no disposition to dis. deal in all its branches was atpute. But Edgar's statutes bear a tended with so many religious rites most suspicious resemblance to the and ceremonies, that it cannot be subsequent laws of Canute, and it entirely separated from the eccleis probable that they were produced siastical history of our country; alat a much later period than that though the ecclesiastical as well as to which their title refers. The the civil bistorian is at a loss to excouncil of Ænham, A.D. 1009, pro- plain how so absurd and barbarous a