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them, in his usual style of quaint. cover, The estates were unques. ness and satire, the Martyrologist tionably large ; but the enumeration well observes, “ The monks said of manors apd towns in charters of that whoso would take the Cross of an earlier date, but a much later penance upon him, and follow Christ birth, is no proof that such property in virtuous living, should be his dis was actually possessed in the days ciple. But whether a Monk's cowl, of Turketul and Egelrie. The situor a wifeless life make a sufficient ation of the monastery, and of a title to enter into other men's pos. large part of its lands, gave the sessions or no, I refer it to the judy- Morks & opportunity of exhibiting ment of the godly. The troublous their diligence and skill in embankcares in marriage, the necessary ing and draining the fens, and a provision for house-keeping, the country which would have been virtuous bringing up of children, the worthless in the hands of a Thane daily helping of poverty, and bear. or a peasant, became abundantly ing of public charges, with other ma- fertile under the system of agriculnifest perturbations and cumbrances ture which a more extensive know. daily incident unto matrimony, might ledge and a larger capital enabled rather appear to godly wise men to the Monks to introduce. A great come nearer to the right cross of proportion of the land appears to penance, than the easy and loitering have been in the immediate occuidleness of monkery.” Acts and pation of the Monks; and the rents Monuments, I. p. 177.
and profits to have been received, Before we quit this portion of In- for the most part, in kind. When gulphus's bistory, he may furnish us the treasures accumulated by Turwith some account of the temporali- ketul had been exhausted by the ties of Croyland. Several of Turke- ravages of the Danes, and the retul's buildings were of stone; and they peated demands of King Ethelred, comprised the Church, the Abbott's a manor was leased out for a hunhall, and Chapel, a sleeping room, dred years, at a peppercorn rent, to and a chamber for the reception of one of the followers of Edric, the the poor. Egelric, the successor of powerful duke of Mercia. The con. Turketul erected an Infirmary, an sideration for this grant was the additional Chapel, a lodge for stran- protection and patronage of tbe gers, and a great number of domes- grantee, which he promised to afford tic offices. The materials were wood and did afford to the Abbey. But covered in with lead. Turketul had be died young, and King Canute beendowed the monastery with one stowed all his lands upon a sur. very large bell, which in honour of viving brother, who made over the the original monk of Croyland, was remainder of the lease to the Monks denominated Gathlake. Egelric at Evesham. The term of an hunadded six more, of three different dred years had expired, when Insizes. The largest pair he named, gulphus wrote; and Evesham still Bartholomew, and Bethelmus ; the continued in possession of the es. middle sized, Turketul, and Tatwin; tate. The benefactor, whose kindthe smallest, Pegam and Begam. ness was thus abused, was Leofric, There is no mention of the ceremony Earl of Leicester-the husband of of baptizing these bells ; but they the celebrated Lady Godiva, at are described as producing a mar whose instigation Leofric founded vellous harmony, and may probably the Monastery of Coventry, and be. have been honoured by all the re came a munificent patron of many ligious ceremonies of the age. The other Churches. How far the pracprecise extent of the Abbey lands is tice of granting leases prevailed one of those secrets in Anglo-Saxon before the Conquest, it is diffieult story which it is so difficult to dis- or rather impossible to ascertain ;
but we shall find it very common at of his dominions. They become a period sbortly subsequent, and of more importance, from the promay doubt whether in reality the bability, that what are called the monasteries were more weakened or laws of Edward the Confessor, were strengthened by the system. in reality a mere compilation from
From the accession of Canute to these earlier statutes. . And as Ed. the death of Edward the Confessor, ward's laws were compiled after the the number and the privileges of the Conquest for the use and instrucMonasteries were continually in- tion of our Norman masters; a code creasing. Bury especially, owed its which has not been exposed to so splendour to the piety of the former, corrupting a process, is entitled to and Westminster to that of the much greater confidence and reslatter. King Edward had vowed to pect. Canute commences with an make a pilgrimage to the shrine of acknowledgment of what is due to St. Peter, but was released from his God, and with an injunction to freobligation by the Pope, on con, quent and protect the Church. Its dition that he should found a Mo- violators are severely condemned, nastery in honour of the Saint. The and made liable to condign punish. real or pretended charter is still in ment. The ministers of religion are existence, and conveys more exten- declared entitled to respect and con. sive privileges to the Abbott and sideration. They are permitted to Monks of Westminster, than any of answer an accusatiou against them, which we have hitherto heard. It by denying its truth with a sacradeprives Bishops, Archbishops, mental oath; but are to be expelled Kings, and perhaps Popes of all and deposed if found guilty of a authority whatsoever over the Ab- crime. The whole clerical order is bey and those who may give them- especially admonished to lead a pure selves up to it; and endows the and blameless life. Marriage within house with very large estates. The the sixth degree of relationship is ordinary privilege of Sanctuary prohibited; as is also inarriage with which was possessed by all Churches, a godmother, a nun, a divorced is enlarged in the case of Westmins- woman; and the having more wives ter by the most unqualified lane than one. Tithes are to be regularly guage; and if the Confessor ex- paid under pain of forfeiting eight ecuted such a monstrous deed, be tenths of the whole. A Thane
pose may be pronounced guilty of that sessing a Church in his own right, imbecility which is laid to his is directed to pay one tbird of his charge. But in all probability the own tithes towards its support, --if deed is a forgery. There is no proof it possessed a burying ground-if that the religious houses of the Angle- not the whole tithe was to be paid Saxons possessed half the immuni- to the mother-church, and the ties, which were afterwards bestow. Thane's Church to be supported out ed by the Normans. The general of the remaining nine tenths. The character of the Monks was res observance of feasts and fasts, and pectable, if not exalted, and there is especially of the Sabbath, was no reason to suppose that they were strictly enjoined. The remaining in possession of that wealth and laws are so many exhortations to magnificence which they subse- virtuous living, faith, devotion, and quently acquired and abused.
repentance; and the substance of the The laws of King Canute have whole is repeated and enforced in been alluded to already: they consist the Secular Code which follows. parily of a re-enactment of the codes If these laws do not exhibit much of King Edgar, and other princes; legislative skill, or appear suited to and partly of sundry new pro a very refined state of society, at visions required by the altered state least they are drawn up with a reREMEMBRANCER, No. 48.
gard to religion and morals, which vides, that if any person dies out of is not always found to distinguish his parish, the funeral dues shalt similar enactments.
nevertheless be paid to the MonasOne subject which is incidentally tery to which they rightly belong. noticed in these laws, deserves to And even in the year 1061, a Bull be separately and particularly con- of Pope Nicholas makes mention of sidered, namely, the division of the the county (parochiu) of Linsey as whole country into parishes. Ca- wrongfully attached to the Archnute's reign has been already men. bishop of York. The words theretioned as the probable ara of this fore were used in a very indefinite occurrence. Had it happened after sense, and could not have been long the Conquest, the Norman writers known as the lawful description of would certainly have given us an ac our modern parishes. Yet the laws count of it. Had it been a regula- of Canute distinctly recognise four tion of the Confessor, some remarks sorts of churches-primaria, medi. must have been made by the con- ocris, minor cum cæmeterio et camtemporaries of the Conqueror upon pestris sine cæmeterio. Also in his so recent and important an altera- famous letter upon bis return from tion in the law of the land. We Rome, after baving stated that he infer therefore that the division had had obtained the promise of a free probably taken place before the passage for English pilgrims to the death of Canute, and at the same Apostolic See, and a diminution of time there is ample proof that it the excessive charges which had had it not been completed any con.
been made for the Archiepiscopal siderable time before his accession. Pall, he exhorts his subjects to The constitutions of Odo, Arch- obey the laws, pay plough-money bishop of Canterbury (Wilkins I. and peter-pence; and tithe of the p. 213.) contain, among much other increase of animals, fruits, and curious matter, an injunction to the seeds-ad ecclesiam sub cujus paBishops to visit their parishes every rochia quisque deget. These authoyear, preaching the word of God rities are sufficiently express; and to the people. No similar order if the subject is not free from diffiwas given to the priests. These culty and doubt, they still are en. constitutions bear the date of 943; titled to considerable weight. With the year in which the Ecclesiastical respect to the notions then enterLaws of Hoel Dda, Prince of Wales, tained about the right and origin of are also said to have been enacted. tithes, they are declared in the laws The latter make mention of the of the Confessor to be due without seven Episcopal Houses of Dewitia, any exemption, since “ this did St. without the slightest hint of a sub. Austin teach and preach, and this division into parishes. It is certain on has been granted hy the king, the the other hand, that the statutes of barons avd the people,” King Edgar, (A. D. 959.) speak Another custom incidentally mendistinctly and repeatedly of pa- tioned in the laws of Canute, is rochial churches; and that some the trial by Ordeal, with which we such churches existed at that time, become more familiar during the and many years before, is a fact reign of the Confessor. The Or. which there is no disposition to dis. deal in all its branches was atpute. But Edgar's statutes bear a tended with so many religious rites most suspicious resemblance to the and ceremonies, that it cannot be subsequent laws of Canute, and it entirely separated from the eccleis probable that they were produced siastical history of our country; al. at a much later period than that though the ecclesiastical as well as to which their title refers. The the civil historian is at a loss to excouncil of Ænham, A.D. 1009, pro- plain how so absurd and barbarous a
practice could be admitted into the hand into boiling water, and drawing laws of a Christian people. The it back unhurt; how these and other custom seems unquestionably of prodigies were perforined from day Northern origin, a remnant of ma to day in the ordinary administra-' gic imparted to their English sub- tion of justice ; and before the eyes jects by the Danes. A ready belief of an intelligent people. The true was accorded to it by the superstition solution, probably is, that they never of those times, and the Popish doc- were performed at all, and that the trine of the sacrament, which was accounts of them which are banded rapidly gaining ground, may have down to us were the fictions of a been engrafted upon the old Scan- much later day. dinavian enchantments. It is not The same judgment may safely absurd to suppose that the Corsned, be pronounced upon the other great or sacred morsel, which is said to miracle of the age of the Confessor, have choked the great Earl God- viz. the cure of the king's evil by wiu, consisted of a piece of the the application of the royal hand. transubstantiated bread to which This story is not vouched for by supernatural sanctity would of contemporary writers, but was first course be ascribed. And when the broached by William of Malmsbury people believed that God was pre- at the distance of nearly two censent at the trial, conscious guilt turies. When we remember how would generally shrink from the in- long and how firmly the effect of vestigation. This hypothesis, how. touching for the evil was credited; ever, goes but a little way to and that even Collier contends with explain the phenomena, and the earnestness for the reality of the historian and the philosopher have cures, we feel less surprised at the yet to discover how the miracles of success of the Ordeal, and the walking blindly but securely over Corsned. heated plough-shares, plunging the
To the Editor of the Remembrancer. actual or probable effect of a de
parture from any rule or custom, SIR,
although it relate to mere externals, When every thing connected with which has heretofore been deemed the discipline of the Church and beneficial or expedient. It is the the character of the Clergy, is duty, therefore, I apprehend, of made a subject of severe scrutiny, every sincere well-wisher of the if not ot' unjust reflection, it may Church of England, fearlessly to become necessary to look to matters point out the ill effects which he not essential, perhaps in themselves, may observe to arise from inattenand in more indulgent times scarcely tion to whatever has been once conworthy of regard, which, however, sidered of importance by all Churchassume a greater consequence ac men, and may still be so by some, cording to existing circumstances. although the general opinion reThe prevailing habits of society, and specting it may, in the present day, the feelings which local or acci. be changed. dental causes may excite in the This persuasion must constitute minds of the Laity towards the Mi. my excuse for troubling you with nisters of the Established Religion, the following remarks: must be taken into account when I am far from supposing that a we endeavour to estimate the state of things requiring the utmost
caation, and the most exemplary the protection which it derives from conduct in those who have volunta- the British constitution. rily devoted themselves to a sacred If it be but prudent, then, to profession, is by any means unsalu- render, by every honest means, the tary: or that the great interests of Church Establishment as estimable, Christianity, or of the venerable as it ought to be, in the eyes of the branch of the Catholic Church to community; and the means which wbich we belong, are at all in dan. present themselves be not necessager from that jealous spirit which rily confined to the more important is now abroad, and which pervades points of a holy and virtuous life, not only the large body of those and an active discharge of profeswho dissent from the doctrines, and sional duties, we may be allowed disapprove of the constitution of the to look a little further and enquire Church, but is sufficiently active whether there are not sone things amongst the lay members of our own comparatively trifling, which might, communion.
if attended to, produce a favourLittle danger is to be appre. able impression on the minds of the hended from the watchful eye of an people, and at the same time have adversary, or of a tou rigid friend, a beneficial effect upon the Clergy if we be aware of the constant scru. themselves. pulous examination of our actions, Among minor matters I do not and be thus enabled to defeat the know any one which is more worthy inimical purposes of the former, and of serious consideration than the avoid giving occasion to the latter public appearance of the Clergyto withdraw his esteem and soliei- ihe dress and outward deportuient tude for our welfare. But very of the Ministers of Religion. alarming is the state opposed to It is only of very late years that this-one of apathy and disregard the Clergy have gradually, as a of public opinion, into which all body, dropt all distinguishing marks establishments are liable to fall, so of their profession. It is now only long as they continue in undoubted a few, of the higher ranks in the security, and have no cause to sus. Church, who can be distinguished pect that there is any secret hostility from members of the other classes towards them, or any silent prepa- of society; and it would appear rations for attempting their subver. that even this small proportion is sion,
diminishing. Whether this be or be Few, however, will assert that not an alteration of habits for the there is no reason whatever for better, is fairly a subject of discusalarm with respect to the security of sion. the Established Church amidst so Formerly in this country, and up many open and concealed enemies to the present day in all, or nearly as now surround it; who either de- all, other Christian countries, even sire its complete destruction, or the the most humble members of the substitution of some new-modelled Ministry have been distinguished by form of worship, together with a some peculiar badge, or mode of different confession of faith, in dress; and that not only when in place of its Liturgy and Articles. the exercise of ministerial functions, Few will deny that there is some but also in the coinmon intercourse cause for extraordinary vigilance, of private life. though they may put great trust in The Lxxiv. Canon of our Church, the intrinsic excellence of the prin- in which “ decency of apparel," is ciples upon which our Church po- enjoined to Ministers, is sutliciently lity is founded, in the character and esplicit on this head ; and, though numbers of its supporters, and in it be not contended that a literal