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vigor and purity furnished an excellent model to subsequent Greek writers. Shortly before the Greek revolution broke out, — I think in the year 1819, — Mr. Edward Everett, who had been appointed Eliot Professor of Greek Literature in Harvard College, became acquainted with Coraës in Paris, and the acquaintance ripened into a warm personal friendship between the veteran scholar and the accomplished young Professor. Coraës furnished Mr. Everett with letters of introduction to his friends in Greece; and after Mr. Everett's return to the United States, a friendly correspondence was maintained between them until the death of the veteran scholar, at a very advanced age, an event which took place in Paris in 1833. When the war commenced in 1821, he was too old to engage in it personally, but his opinions were listened to by his countrymen with respect and veneration. His pupil, Mr. Everett, became one of the ablest and most ardent friends of Greece during her terrible struggle for independence. He was in correspondence not only with Coraës, but with some of the principal leaders in the field. By his personal influence, and by a series of articles of great eloquence and power in the North American Review, he not only brought the affairs of Greece to the attention of the American people, but excited so deep an interest in the cause, that when Dr. Howe, after several years of personal service in the Greek army, returned to this country to solicit material aid, his appeals were enthusiastically responded to, and abundant supplies of food and clothing were rapidly despatched under his direction, and thousands of the naked and starving people were rescued from destruction. It was on account of these important: services that a proposition was seriously made, toward the close of the war, to place that unfortunate country under the protection of the United States, and to raise some distinguished American statesman to supreme power, under the title of Dictator. Of course the Constitution of the United States made such a proposition inadmissible ; but could it have been entertained, there can be no doubt who would have been selected for the august task of reconstructing a Grecian State.
The works of Coraës were not limited to the Greek language. He wrote in French with the ease and polish of a native, and his publications in that language were of such high merit, that Napoleon granted him a pension, of which he consented to receive only a small part, as his style of living was a model of simplicity and frugality. Several biographies of him have been written by his countrymen. His letters have been collected and published ; and his miscellaneous writings on the ancient and modern Greek, and various other subjects, were printed between 1828 and 1835, under the general title of Άτακτα. I have already alluded to the remarkable history of the Greek language. The peculiarities which distinguish the ancient from the modern Greek probably existed in the language spoken by the body of the people in the Byzantine Empire as early as the eighth or ninth century. In the language of Literature, the writers aimed for several centuries later to preserve the ancient forms and constructions ; but in the political verses of Ptochoprodromos, a genial monk of the tenth century, the modern Greek appears to be fully developed, not as a different language from the ancient, for the great mass of the words are the same, but with a number of changes of inflection and syntax that gradually worked their way into the popular speech, some of them undoubtedly having been introduced not long after the commencement of the Christian era. The successive inroads of foreign conquerors and barbarian settlers, produced other changes and corruptions in the spoken language, so that one of the first reforms discussed by the scholars, when the spirit of nationality began to revive, was the purification of the national language. The Modern Greek may be considered as embracing all the peculiarities of the language that were gradually introduced during the Middle Ages. But of the Modern as well as of the Ancient there were many contemporary varieties spoken by the inhabitants of the Ægean Islands, the Western coast of Asia, and of the Phanari in Constantinople; by the Rayas of Thrace, Macedonia, Epirus and Thessaly, and by the populations of Central and Southern Greece, and of the Ionian Islands. The dialects of some of these islands, and of those portions of the mainland temporarily occupied by the Venetians, were more or less corrupted with the Italian. Those of Asia Minor, Thrace, Thessaly, Baotia, Attica, and the Cyclades, were corrupted with the Turkish. The dialects of Macedonia, Epirus, parts of Attica, parts of Bæotia, and parts of Peloponnesos, were corrupted with the Albanian and the Slavonic, and some words and phrases from all these foreign sources obtained a
general currency throughout Greece. This was the state of things with respect to the language that presented itself for the scholars of the country in the last half of the last century, and which seemed to them to demand a reform, in order to fit the popular speech for the high purposes of literature, and for the wants of civilized society.
In this process three courses were suggested: first, to adopt the Modern or Romaic as it then existed ; second, to restore the Ancient Greek; third, to purify the Modern from its corruptions, to retain its inflections and syntax, and to supply its deficiencies from the treasure-house of the Ancient Greek. The last of these three courses was advocated by Coraës and was favored and supported by the ablest men. Turkish, Italian, Albanian, and Slavonic words were expelled from the language, and the vocabulary has been enlarged to meet the necessities and demands of the present age, by taking pure Ancient Greek words, and by making new compounds out of old Hellenic roots. This process has gone steadily on for half a century, and the language now established in Greece, taught in the schools, written in the newspapers and literary journals, spoken in the legislative halls, the courts of justice, the pulpit, the professor's chair, and in the educated society of Athens, is pure Greek, though greatly modified, and this has been especially called the Neo-Elanvin, or New-Hellenic. The process above alluded to has not essentially changed the character of the language : even the broken dialects of the Romaic spoken by the rudest and most ignorant mountaineers were substantially Greek, and
those forms of the Romaic found in the Klephtic poems are marked by poetical beauties of no common order. The New-Hellenic, as now employed by writers and speakers, has already proved itself adequate to every form of literary composition, whether in poetry or prose. The works of Soutsos, Rangabes, Orphanides, Zambelios, Bernadakes and others, have shown that it is capable of all the varieties of rhythmical combination exhibited by any other modern language. They all employ accent, like the poetical writers in the other modern languages.
The greatest change, perhaps, is in the application of the language in adapting it to the modern cast of thought; in doing which, it has been found necessary to make out of ancient elements new words, which, though not classical, are easily understood by the classical scholar, or by using classical words with secondary or analogical meanings. This process I propose to illustrate by a few examples taken froin recent books, journals, advertisements, public notices, and from the signs of the shops in the streets of Athens.
There is still a struggle, in some cases, between the common and the classical. The traveller who steps into a shop, wishing to buy an umbrella, and asks for a oxiddalov, may be told that the shopkeeper has no such article, though he sees the very thing in the window ; and when he points it out, the seller exclaims, 'Ourtoénha ! ountorraa! If, wishing a flannel under-waistcoat, he asks classically for a únozitav, he is likely enough to hear of fanella. Asking for a cup of údwe, it will be given to him under the name of