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heartening consequences of this state of things, the writer forcibly points out. Yet under all these disadvantages, the contributions to literature by the professors are numerous and important, and their zeal for the progress of learning in the country is inextinguishable. The constitution of Greece wisely allows the University a representative in the Bovańor lower house; so that the professors are not without influence upon the legislation of the country. As I have already mentioned, Pericles Argyropoulos had just been elected, when the country was suddenly deprived of his inestimable services by his death. A professor may also be minister of state. Mr. Argyropoulos was several times called by the King to this position ; and Mr. Rangabes was lately Minister of Foreign Affairs, and a very able one. During his whole official period he was not absent from a single lecture in the University. The minister of education is the official head of the system of public instruction, and his position is one of great dignity and influence ; but the presiding officer of the academic body is the Prytanis, who is annually chosen by the professors from their own number. In these various ways something of dignity and emolument is attached to the office of Professor, in addition to the salaries, but nothing that can be trusted to as a permanent accession either way.
The University building is a handsome and convenient structure of Pentelic marble, on three sides of a quadrangle, and containing halls for lectures, spacious apartments for the library, for the Natural History collections, for the coins — of which there are more than twenty thousand, — and rooms for various offices. The later minister of education, Mr. Christopoulos, in his report for 1855 – 56, thus addresses the King : “ At half past seven o'clock, on the morning of July 2, 1839, your Majesty, though in the midst of many and weighty cares — the nation having but lately recovered its political existence, and oppressed by many wants — on a spot where till then, were found only the pastures and folds of goats and sheep, laid the foundation of the highest shrine of the Muses, which was destined to become in time the centre of illumination for the sons of the Greeks everywhere.”
Although this University has been so few years in operation, it has a library of nearly one hundred thousand volumes, procured in part by purchase, and in part by the gifts of generous friends of Greece. The valuable library of the late Professor Thiersch, has lately been added to these treasures by the judicious liberality of the government.
I think there is no country in Europe - perhaps I might include the United States — where so much is done in proportion to the wealth and population, for the education of women. Much is due to the influence of Dr. Hill; much also, to the natural inclinations and aptitudes of the nation. The Greek girls are remarkably gentle and teachable. They have a wonderful zeal and quickness in the acquisition of knowledge. Many of those who have been educated by Dr. and Mrs. Hill, are among the most accomplished and ladylike women in the world. Nothing can be more charming and attractive than the union of Hellenic beauty and grace with the refinements of
such an education. I must pass over, with a mere allusion the lower schools for girls, and the private establishments, organized since Dr. Hill set the example, and say a few words upon a school or college for the higher education of young ladies, and bearing the name of the Parthenagogeion (το Παρθεναγωγείον). I have a series of documents, furnished me by Madame Manos, lately the honored head, containing a history of the institution, and of the 'Eragia quaexnoudevrixń, or society of the friends of education, by whom the Parthenagogeion was established and is partly supported. The society was founded in 1836; and the list of its members embraces every name of note, in the literature, diplomacy, civil, military and naval service of the country, the Rangabes, the Mavrocordatos, and so on. It is carefully organized; it holds considerable property, and its income is increased by the contributions of its members, each of whom pays a certain sum annually. Since 1850, Alexander Mavrocordatos has been its President, — the hero of the Revolution, — and a few years ago the first minister of the Crown. The Queen is the special patroness of the Institution.
The leading object of the Parthenagogeion, is the education of young women to be teachers; but others are received and educated in the institution. The rules of order, the system of instruction, and the arrangement of studies are excellent. The regular course is for five years, and embraces History, Christian ethics according to the Oriental Church, ancient and modern Greek, writing, drawing, arithmetic, music, vocal and instrumental, domestic economy and practical arts; and during the last six months, those who intend to be teachers, are instructed in the methods, and trained in the practice of teaching. At the close, those who have satisfactorily passed all the examinations, receive a diploma certifying the fact of their qualification. The future teachers are supported at the expense of the society or of the government, and in return for this, they are held bound to teach for four entire years, within the kingdom of Greece, in any school to which they may be appointed; otherwise they are required to pay at the same rate with the boarding scholars; and for this securities are given, on entering the school. The charges are very moderate, amounting, for board, clothing, lodging and tuition, to less than a hundred dollars a year.
The annual examinations are attended, not only by the Committee of the Society, but by their Majesties the King and Queen, the members of the Cabinet, the Professors of the University, the most eminent among the clergy, and other distinguished persons, before whom the chairman of the Committee announces the result ; i. e., the quality of the examinations, and the number of promotions from the lower to the higher classes.
In 1853, there were two hundred and ten admissions, and the whole number of pupils was four hundred and sixty-four, of whom ninety-five were boarders. The income of the school, of every kind, for that year, was above ninety thousand drachmas, or $15,000 ; and the expenditure seventy-five thousand drachmas, or $12,500; leaving a balance of $ 2500; of course, this balance refers to the ordinary expenditure, and does not embrace such outlays as those for building, and the like.
In the year 1854, the number was somewhat diminished, probably on account of the disturbed state of Greece, and of the Greek populations of Turkey; yet I received a written statement, from the government of the Institution, informing me that the number of scholars was over four hundred and fifty; and the number of promotions, from the lower to the higher classes, was one hundred and eighty-two that very year.
To show the zeal for education, which animates the gentlemen who conduct the Parthenagogeion, I translate a few sentences from the address delivered in 1852, at the close of the Examination, in the presence of the King and Queen, and the distinguished assembly, by Professor Kontogones, the chairman of the committee. After speaking of the literary acquirment exhibited by the scholars, he adds: “ But the greatest and most beautiful result, and that in which we ought most of all to rejoice, is that we see all the young ladies educated here making progress also in the formation and improvement of character. I doubt not that this, — which is, after all, the end and aim of the strenuous efforts of the Society, - here openly proclaimed this day, will fill all our hearts with inexpressible joy ; because this is the corner stone, and the immovable foundation of the future happiness of our daughters.
“ And you, studious young ladies, to whom, in closing, I must say a word, if you desire a happy life in the future, devote yourselves to education. Edu