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from them in religious matters, should attentively consider the contemptible and odious picture here delineated, with the most entire justice, of the whole race of persecutors, and of their characters, principles, motives, and conduct: that they may learn to hate and dread such an anti-christian practice, and shun the most remote approaches to it. On the other hand, they who are exposed to persecution, or in danger of it, should study the character and conduct of FAITHFUL, that they may learn to suffer in a christian spirit, and to adora the gospel in the fiery trial.--The following lines are here introduced as before

• Brave FAITHFUL! bravely done in word and deed!
Judge, witnesses, and jury have, instead
Of overcoming thee, but shown their rage,
When they are dead, thou'lt live from age to age."

112..1. As for... When the believer has done his work, the wrath of man may be permitted to expedite his removal to his heavenly inheritance, beyond which all the malice and power of earth and hell are utterly unavailing against him. Thus the apostles were preserved during Saul's persecution, and PETER was rescued from the hands of HEROD. The Lord has various methods of protecting and liberating his servants : sometimes he intimidates their persecutors; the paroxysm of their fury abates; or they are disheartened by ill success in their efforts to extirpate the hated sect; the principals and instruments are left to quarrel among them. selyes; the cruelties they exercise so disgust the people, that they dare not proceed; political interests engage even un. godly princes to promote toleration, and chain up the demon persecution; or the Lord raises up one of his own servants to authority, that he may be a protector of his church, and disappoint the devices of his enemies.

..15. There was.... The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church:' for sufferings properly endured form the most

convincing and useful kind of preaching.–The name of CHRISTIAN's new companion denotes the opinion, which established believers form at first of such as begin to profess the gospel in an intelligent manner. . The nature of an allegory rendered it impracticable to introduce the new convert, as beginning his pilgrimage from the same place, or going through the same scenes, as CHRISTIAN had done: neither could FaiThrUL, for the same reason, be represented as passing the river afterwards mentioned. But the brotherly covenant, in which HOPEFUL joined himself with his companion, must be supposed to imply the substance of all that had been spoken of, as necessary to his final acceptance.

..28. Whose namé... The character of BY-END$, and the group that attended him, forms a clear detection and merited condemnation of a large company of false professors, which is not at all inferior in importance to the preceding severe satire on open persecutors. When " rest is given to the “ church,” hypocrites often multiply more than real christians.--The name of this pretender to religion, and those of his town and connections, do not merely describe his original character and situation, (as CHRISTIAN was at first called GRACELESS of the city of DESTRUCTION) but they denote the nature of his religious profession. Believers look back on their former principles and behaviour with shame and abhorrence; but hypocrites, when reproved for evident sins, excuse them, because CHRIST came to save the lost, and shows mercy to the chief of sinners. CHRISTIAN would readily have granted that ' no good lived' at his native city; he had, therefore, renounced it with all his old connections: but By-ENDS hoped better of FAIR-SPEECH, and gloried in his honourable relations there. Yet he was ashamed of his name: for men are unwilling to allow that they seek worldly advantages by their religion, and nothing more. The names, afterwards selected, are most emphatically descriptive of that whole species, who, with multiplied variations, suppose " that gain is godliness;" as will manifestly appear to any

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reader, who attentively considers them. The polite simulation and dissimulation, which some most courtly writers have inculcated, as the summit of good breeding, the perfection of a finished education, and the grand requisite for obtaining worldly distinctions; if introduced into religion, and adopted by professors or preachers of the gospel, in connection with fashionable accomplishments and an agreeable address, constitute the most versatile, refined, and insinuating species of hypocrisy that can be imagined: and a man of talents, of any occupation or profession, may render it very subservient to his interest; by ensuring the patronage or custom of those to whom he attaches himself, without giving much umbrage to the world, which may despise such a character, but will not deem him worthy of hatred. He may assume any of the names here provided for the purpose, as may best suit his line in life; and may shape his course, in subserviency to his grand concern, with considerable latitude ; provided he has prudence enough to keep clear of scandalous vices: he will not be long in learning the beneficial art of using two tongues with one mouth, or of looking one way and rowing another : and perhaps he may improve his fortune by an honourable alliance with some branch of the ancient family of the FEIGNINGS. . The grand difference betwixt this whole tribe, and the body of true christians, consists merely in these two things :--the latter seek salvation by their religion; the former profess it, in order to obtain, in the most advantageous manner, friends, patrons, customers, or applause: those follow the Lord habitually, whatever tribulations arise because of the word; but these conceal or deny their profession, when, instead of gaining by it, they are exposed to reproach or persecution.

1 14..17. Sir, you...The downright people of the world know how to serve MAMMON by neglecting and despising God and religion: the disciples of CHRIST can serve God by renouncing the world and its friendship: but time-servers talk as if they had found out the secret of uniting these two

discordant interests, and thus of knowing something more than all the world. This is the most prominent feature in this group of portraits, which in other respects exhibits to the spectator various dissimilarities, and contains the faces of persons belonging to every division of professed christians in the world.

..22. This is not... When hypocrites are charged with their double-dealing and obvious crimes, they commonly set it down to the account of persecution, and class themselves. with that blessed company, of whom “all manner of evil is “ spoken falsely, for the name of CHRIST:” as if there were no difference between suffering as a christian, and being exposed as a scandal to the name of christianity! Thus they endeavour to quiet their minds, and keep up their credit; deeming themselves at the same time very prudent and fortua rate, in shifting about so as to avoid the cross, and secure their temporal interests. The apostle says concerning these men, “ from such turn away;" and the decided manner in which CHRISTIAN ,warns By-ENDS, and renounces his company, though perhaps too plain to be either approved or imitated in this courtly candid age, is certainly warranted and required by the holy scriptures.

116..20. They and we... It might have been supposed that the persons here introduced were settled inhabitants of the town of VANITY, or the city of DESTRUCTION: but indeed they profess themselves pilgrims, and are desirous, during the present sun-shine, to associate with such; provided they will allow them, without censure, to hold the world, love money, and save all, whatever become of faith and holiness, or of honesty, piety, truth, and charity! Coveta ousness, whether it consist in rapaciously trying to get money, (to hoard, or to lavish, to purchase consequence, power, or pleasure, or to support magnificence and the pride of life ;) or parsimony in the ordinary proportion of expenditure ; or tenacity, when duty requires a man to part with it, is a vice not so easily defined as many others.

At the same time it enables a man, in various ways, to reward those who can be induced to connive at it, and to render it dangerous to oppose him; so that it is not wonderful that it generally finds more quarter, even among religious persons, than other vices which are not marked with so black a brand in the holy scriptures. Too many professors even “ bless the " covetous, whom God abhorreth," and speak to them as if they were doubtless true christians; because of their steadi. ness in the profession of a doctrinal system, and a mode of worship, attended by morality, where money is not concerned and scandal might be incurred, and a narrow disproportionate contribution from their abundance, to support the interest of a society or a party. Thus the " vile person is called liberal, " and the churl is said to be bountiful;" and the idolatry of worshipping money has seldom been execrated equally with that of those, “ whose god is their belly;" unless when it has been so enormous as to become a kind of insanity. The most frugal support of religious worship, with the most disinterested pastors and managers, is attended with an expence, that the poor of the flock are utterly unable to defray. By this opening, HOLD-THE-WORLD and MONEY-LOVE frequently obtain admission among pilgrims, and acquire undue influence in their concerns. And when the effect of remaining selfishness in the hearts of true believers, insinua. ting itself under the specious plea of prudence and necessity, and the ill consequences of unsound professors associating with them, are considered; with the censure that must fall upon a few obscure individuals who attempt to stem such a torrent; it will appear evident that the rich, and they who are growing rich, have more need of self-examination and jealousy over their own hearts than any other persons; because they will be less plainly warned and reproved, in public and private, than any of their inferiors.

..28. Over much... This expression of SOLOMON was pro. bably intended to caution us against excessive zeal for some detached parts of religion to the neglect of others, or against

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