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made the subject of the most indecorous exposure. He was crammed into an empty claret hogshead; and, it is said, his chief complaint, on returning to his senses, or rather, on awakening from sleep! was, its emptiness ! He was afterwards (on the same evening too) conveyed up the chimney; a circumstance which somebody entitled, “ a new way of renovating a black coat.The stains communicated by such conduct, are of the deepest dye; they are the leopard's spots--the Æthiopian's darkness ! But though the person cannot be cleansed of such impurities, the church might, and ought!::: · Thursday, 14th April. --In a Latin preface to a Maltese grammar, published at Rome in 1791, I find certain morsels of biblical criticism, that are at least curious: I shall, therefore translate them. Speaking of the word RACA, the writer observes, “ interpreters vary as to the signification of this word. Some de duce it from the Greek pákws, a piece of cloth or rag. Others imagine it only an interjection expressive of anger; and others supply other explanations. But the force of this word raca is manifest in the Maltese language; for it hath

MALTESE BIBLICAL CRITICISM.

327

Rię spittle, saliva, from a disused radical verb Rad jruq, to spit, of which we preserve the enlarged word Rejja, to stain with spittle, And in this signification of spittle or saliva, I suppose the word raca to be taken. For instance, whoever shall say to his brother raca, is in danger of the council. Matt. v. 22.

That is, he who shall evince contempt of his brother, by spitting upon him, shall be in danger of the council.. .. .in 1. In like manner. MAMMON may be derived from the particle myn,--from, or out of; and MŮNÆ, which properly signifies in Maltese, whatever is laid up, viz.; corn, oil, wine, charcoal, wood, branches, and all kind of annual or monthly provisions ; in a word, every thing reposited. Hence we say, MŮNĚ TAT-TNÂM, a store of corn ; MŮNÆ TALLAŞAM, store of meat, &c. These were the riches of the ancients ; such in truth they are, and therefore were so received.“ As to the particle myn, out of, it adds greater force to the word' MÙNÆ; as though you should say, • I have something out of, or by reason of, riches'—for riches themselves : - they are to me in consequence of riches,' that is, in the

place of them. This mode of speaking is proper and common to the east. And by aid of the Maltese language, very many other words will find a comment." ::... .., • The author then goes on to notice the derivation of certain Greek words, which he maintains originated in the Phoenician language. * Thus Kaờuos, Cadmus, the man so celebrated among the Greeks. Because he first brought letters from Phoenicia into Greece he was called Cadmus, either from the Phænician Cadm, (or in Maltese with the Qop*, £adm,) that is, one who conveys or carries, from the radical verb Čadem. Hence our enlarged

addem jqaddem, to carry, to bear, to bring to any one. Or Cadmus may be derived from Cadim (with the Qor Tadım) ancient. It also signifies first, as it does in the Syriac: thus the Greeks, mindful of this renowned person, called him Cadmus—that is, ancient or first,-because he first brought letters to them. . . . .

Mvorhgiov, mystery, is rather from mys

* “Qor; epiglotticum, acutum et gutturale,

: aut

.".

,-,

ions

i isr.....

MALTESE BIBLICAL CRITICISM. 329 TUR, to lie hid, to hide, of Phænician origin, than from the Greek pów, to shut. MYSTŮR with us signifies covered, veiled, that which is hid or concealed; from jystor, to conceal, to cover, &c. which in Hebrew is no, to lie hid.

Bápßapot, barbarians, (vide 28 chap. of the Acts of the Apostles, ver. 1 and 3.) has received various interpretations. The most natural and genuine meaning in this place may, I think, be found by looking to the origin of the expression. - Barbarus is a word altogether eastern, passed to the Greeks and Latins by the course of time. Originally it signified no more than a rustic, a husbandman, or occupier of a wilderness : for it is compounded of two words, BAR, the Syriac for a son, and BARR, a plain, field, or wood. Which word (barr) remains also in the Maltese tongue. Thus we say, Samým yl barr, wood-pigeons, or wild doves, &c. But amongst the orientals it was customary in the formation of adjectives to take the word BAR, a son, with another word indicating the adjective. In this manner, to point out a rustic, or inhabitant of the country, they termed him a son of the plain, son of the country, which is the proper signification of barbarus, from barbarr, viz, a farmer or husbandman, &c. Hence is it that St. Luke, when he wished to indicate certain people rude and dwelling in fields, (the Maltese to wit, and their neighbours who inhabited the country and places near the sea, where there are shipwrecks in winter) terms them properly barbari or barbarians. And indeed, who beside could St. Paul find in the winter season in those dreary, places except sons of the country

wild people who occupied those parts for the purpose of cultivation and pasture ? Certainly they were not citizens of Medina (Medina an, ciently was a city of Malta, and this name it retains at present in the Maltese tongue, namely Mdina,) who succoured Paul after his shipwreck !--These things, amongst innumerable others, are sufficient to corroborate what we have said of the usefulness and antiquity of the Maltese tongue.”

Saturday, 16th April.—Dined at the Palace. Lady Hastings communicated a very interesting account of the mode by which silkworms are cultivated in India, and which her ladyship (with that attention to every practicable scheme of utility which peculiarly

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