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the position in regard to Plutarch's text which had previously occupied, but the aim which Rei set before himself was very imperfectly realis Indeed it is astonishing that Reiske should h criticised the method of Stephanus so strongly, w his own procedure was open by his own naive fession to the same condemnation. He made attempt to consult any mss., although the Co Monacensis, containing Book II. of the Lives, been for a considerable time at his disposal, and that he did was to collate, and that in a somew perfunctory way, the Juntine and Aldine editio with those of London and Paris. Where differer of reading occurred, he debated their comparat values in his own mind and with his friends, and this way formed the text of which so much was to expected. His edition contains the notes of Brya and du Soul, and some additional notes, mai critical, of his own. They often show considera acumen, and in the Galba and Otho several of conjectures have been admitted into the text Sintenis. Reiske's preface is well worth read from the account it gives of the earlier editions Plutarch.
In 1809 was published in Paris a most import edition of the Lives by Coraes, with modern Grnotes, mainly but not exclusively critical. In Galba and Otho several very ingenious and convin conjectures are due to this edition, as will be from my Apparatus Criticus, e.g. detwv for évavin Oth. 14, προστρόπαιοι for τρόπαια in Oth. 15,
results of his latest investigations. This has formed
my edition is based, though in a few cases I have
conjecture is allowable, or where the context clearly
In 1825-1830 H. Schaefer published his second edi-
Up to this time the text of the Lives, though it
the standard text of Plutarch's Lives since, and it is
points out the correct reading. (A list of these cases
I give below.)
Lastly, in 1855-1857 appeared the Vitae Parallelae, edited, in five volumes, by I. Bekker, with an admirable preface containing all that is known of the life of Plutarch, an account of his writings, and a detailed enumeration both of previous editions and also of the MSS. Though many of the Lives have been published separately, those of Galba and Otho have as yet found no editor either in Germany, England, or elsewhere. While I have examined and consulted every one of the editions which I have enumerated above, Coraes is the only editor whose notes, apart from those on the text, I have found of any use, and those only in four or five places. The great interest of the Lives lies in their resemblance to the Histories of Tacitus, and it is accordingly to this aspect of them that I have given the most attention.
Places in which the text of Sintenis is departed from
Galo. 1, 15. φύσεως τε γενναίας for φύσεως γενναίας.
αυτός είπεν, "Ω Γάλβα, τίνα τρόπον βουλεύεσθε.
Ascertained dates in the reigns of Galba and Otho
News of Vindex' revolt reaches Nero, March 19, 68.
Autumn of 68.
Dec. 22, 68.
Abbreviations in Apparatus Criticus
A. Cod. Parisin. 1671. Steph. Stephanus
Sol. du Soul (Solanus).
Mercenary soldiers, according to Iphicrates, should of money and pleasure. Most authorities, however, agree with Aemilius Paulus, who demanded of his ready hands, sharp swords, and implicit obedience generul. Plato, too, sees how.indispensable to a good is obedience in his men, and how obedience presupposes nature and systematic training. His words receive a confirmation in the events which followed Nero's deat) the Roman Empire resembled the scattered Gigantes o the license of its soldiers. Lycophron of Pherae was a tragedy-king, because he reigned barely ten months, less time four Roman emperors entered and left the The people, however, were avenged for their sufferings speedy deaths of their oppressors, and not least by the their arch-seducer, Nymphidius.
“Ο μεν 'Αθηναίος Ιφικράτης τον μισθοφόρον στρατιώτης και φιλόπλουτον είναι και φιλή όπως ταϊς επιθυμίαις χορηγίαν επιζητων αγωνι παραβολώτερον, οι δε πλείστοι, καθάπερ έρρα σώμα, το στρατιωτικών αξιoύσιν ιδία μηδ. χρώμενον όρμη συγκινείσθαι τη του στρατ Διό και Παύλον Αιμίλιον λέγουσι την εν Μακε
4. αιωρουμενον, Sol coni