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through the streets, some to the forum where Galba had fallen, with a morbid desire to see the exact spot, and all needed but slight provocation to come to blows with the citizens. Thus the full result of the struggle between Otho and Vitellius was reached when the latter entered Rome as emperor. The subsequent events of his short and ignoble reign rather belong to the quickly succeeding struggle with Vespasian's lieutenants, Plutarch's account of which in the life of Vitellius is unfortunately lost.

MANUSCRIPTS AND PREVIOUS EDITIONS

CONTAINING GALBA AND OTHO.

That the Lives of Galba and Otho did not belong to the series of Parallel Lives I have already given some reasons for believing; and this view is to a certain extent perhaps confirmed by the fact that in all the earliest Mss. these two Lives are found among the Moral Works, and not with the other Lives. This considerably simplifies my task in giving an account of the mss. in which they occur. I might perhaps dismiss altogether the Mss. of the Parallel Lives, but as in some of the later of these Galba and Otho are added, owing to their biographical character, it may be as well to say a few words about them, referring for a full account to the Prefaces of Sintenis and Becker. The mss. of the Lives usually follow the

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Lauren. lxix. 1, to which are prefixed the words
cxii

INTRODUCTION
order which is given in the Index Venetas, and which
is as follows:-

1. Theseus and Romulus.
2. Solon and Poplicola.
3. Themistocles and Camillus.
4. Aristides and Cato Major.
5. Cimon and Lucullus.

.
6. Pericles and Fabius Maximus.
7. Nicias and Crassus.
8. Alcibiades and Coriolanus.
9. Demosthenes and Cicero.
10. Phocion and Cato Minor.
11. Dion and Brutus.
12. Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus.
13. Eumenes and Sertorius.
14. Philopoemen and Flaminius.
15. Pelopidas and Marcellus.
16. Alexander and Caesar.
17. Demetrius and Antonius.
18. Pyrrhus and Marius.
19. Aratus and Artaxerxes.
20. Agis and Cleomenes.

Tiberius and Caius Gracchus.
21. Lycurgus and Numa.
22. Lysander and Sulla.

23. Agesilaus and Pompeius.
These twenty-three pairs were divided into three
books, the contents of which are given in the Cod.
πίνας των εν τη βίβλω ταύτη του Πλουτάρχου λόγων
παραλλήλων της πρώτης και δευτέρας και τρίτης βίβλου.
Book I. contained 1-9 : Book 11. 10-16: and Book

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III. 17-23.

Of the various MSS. a few contain all these Lives, as e.g. Paris. A, B, C, and D; while those which contain some only of the Lives will mostly be found to have either all or some of those belonging to one of the three books. Thus Cod. Baroccianus I. (in the Bodleian) and Codex Mosquensis 139 contain 1.9, i.e. Book I. : Codex Monacensis, Cod. Palat. 168 and 169 contain 10-16, i.e. Book II., while Cod. San Germanensis and Flor. lxix. 6 contain 17-23, i.e. Book III.

Now as Galba and Otho are in all editions of the Lives placed at the end, we should expect to find them, if among the Lives at all, in the MSS. containing Book III. But neither the Codex San Germanensis (x. cent.) nor Flor. lxix. 6 (xii. cent.) contain them, nor are they among the Lives in Paris. A and B.

Apart from the Mss. of the Moralia, indeed they are found, so far as I can ascertain, only in Flor. Ixix. 3, a ms. of no very early date, but which has apparently not been used by Sintenis, in Harley Ms. 5692 (late xiv. cent.) at the British Museum, together with sixteen other Lives, and some of the Moral Treatises, and in a Ms. in the Bodleian (Laud. Gr. 55) where they are found together with Tib. and Caius Gracchus, and the 'Pwpaïkà 'Atopéyuara. This Ms., which is of the xv. century, was used by Bryanus in his edition of 1724, but was not very correctly collated. I have examined it again for the present edition, and corrected some of Bryan's readings, but the Ms. is of no very great value, and throws little light on any of the corrupt passages. It agrees almost entirely with the Harley ms. In fact, as Sintenis points out, all the

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MSS. of Plutarch seem to come from one common
source, and have accordingly, as a rule, the same
mistakes and lacunae, “ita ut alius alio praestet
tantum prout diversis distant ab archetypo sive aetatis
intervallis sive curae diligentiaeque a librariis in rem
impensae gradibus."

The other mss. in which Galba and Otho are con-
tained are those of the Moralia, especially-

Par. 1671 (A), dating from the end of the xiii. century, and which contains not only the Parallel Lives, as mentioned above, but the Moralia as well, and Galba and Otho among the latter. This is the best us, and in several places enables us to correct the traditional reading. It has been collated by Sintenis, from whom I derive its readings, as given in my Apparatus Criticus.

Par. 1672 (B), a MS. of the xvi. century, with the same contents as A, but in most respects inferior. Wyttenbach is of opinion that it was copied from A, though Sintenis considers this doubtful, as in certain cases it contains better readings. This also has been collated by Sintenis.

Vat. 139 (W), a Ms. of the xiv. century, containing the Moralia only, and Galba and Otho among them. This has also been collated by Sintenis.

In addition to these, there are other diss. of the Moralia containing our two Lives, Vat. 1012, 1013, 1310, Urbinas 96, but these Sintenis describes as “communi omnium pravitate insignes.”

The mss. therefore which come into consideration in connection with Galba and Otho are

Parisinus 1671 (A), collated by Sintenis (xiii. cent.).
Parisinus 1672 (B), collated by Sintenis (xvi. cent.).
Vaticanus 139 (W), collated by Sintenis (xiv. cent.).
Bodleianus, Laud. Gr. 55 (Bod.), collated by Bryan and

by myself (xv. cent.).
Harley Ms. 5692 (H), collated by myself.

The first printed edition of Plutarch's Lives was a Latin translation of them published at Rome in 1470, entitled “Graecorum Latinorumque principum vite a Plutarcho Graece scripte: a diversis interpretibus latine edite foeliciter incipient." The book was dedicated to Cardinal Franciscus Piccolomini. It contained the Lives in an order differing from that of the Venetus Index and the mss., and arranged according to the chronology of the Roman characters, except that Alexander and Caesar are placed before Phocion and Cato Minor, while Dion and Brutus are before Demosthenes and Cicero and Demetrius and Antonius. With these exceptions, the order is the same as was followed afterwards by the Aldine edition, Galba and Otho being at the end. With regard to these two Lives, the editor says in his dedicatory letter, “Expressit Galbam atque Othonem Caesarum minimos et nescio an satis dignos qui inter Caesares numerentur. Augusti, Vespasiani, Titi, Nervae, et, ut taceam ceteros, Trajani sui, quocum conjunctissime vixit, quod nemo in comparationem veniebat, mentionem fecit nullam."

In Greek our two Lives appeared in print eight years before any of the Parallel Lives, for in 1509 appeared from the Aldine Press the editio princeps of the

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