the position in regard to Plutarch's text which had previously occupied, but the aim which Rei set before himself was very imperfectly realis Indeed it is astonishing that Reiske should h criticised the method of Stephanus so strongly, w his own procedure was open by his own naive fession to the same condemnation. He made attempt to consult any mss., although the Co Monacensis, containing Book II. of the Lives, been for a considerable time at his disposal, and that he did was to collate, and that in a somew perfunctory way, the Juntine and Aldine editio with those of London and Paris. Where differer of reading occurred, he debated their comparat values in his own mind and with his friends, and this way formed the text of which so much was to expected. His edition contains the notes of Brya and du Soul, and some additional notes, mai critical, of his own. They often show considera acumen, and in the Galba and Otho several of conjectures have been admitted into the text Sintenis. Reiske's preface is well worth read from the account it gives of the earlier editions Plutarch.

In 1809 was published in Paris a most import edition of the Lives by Coraes, with modern Grnotes, mainly but not exclusively critical. In Galba and Otho several very ingenious and convin conjectures are due to this edition, as will be from my Apparatus Criticus, e.g. detwv for évavin Oth. 14, προστρόπαιοι for τρόπαια in Oth. 15,

results of his latest investigations. This has formed

my edition is based, though in a few cases I have
departed from it where the MSS. give no help and

conjecture is allowable, or where the context clearly

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In 1825-1830 H. Schaefer published his second edi-
tion, with notes, in six volumes, adding nothing very
essential to his predecessors.

Up to this time the text of the Lives, though it
had been improved by the conjectures of these various
editors, had never been submitted to any thorough or
scientific recension, and this work was undertaken by
C. Sintenis in his edition of the Lives, in five volumes,
published 1839-1846. He not only based his text
entirely upon an examination of the mss. and the
earliest editions, but for the first time he weighed the
value of the various mss., and proceeded altogether by
the systematic and careful methods of modern textual
criticism, giving a full Apparatus Criticus at the
bottom of each page of the text. This edition purged
the Lives from most of their corruptions, and at any
rate remedied the uncertainties caused by Stephanus,
and placed the text on a firm and certain footing.
But at the time of the publication of this edition,
Sintenis had not had the opportunity of consulting
all the Parisian Codices, and accordingly another
edition, in five small volumes, was published from
the Teubner Press in 1852-1854, embodying the

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the standard text of Plutarch's Lives since, and it is
on a later issue of this edition (1887) that the text of

points out the correct reading. (A list of these cases

I give below.)

Lastly, in 1855-1857 appeared the Vitae Parallelae, edited, in five volumes, by I. Bekker, with an admirable preface containing all that is known of the life of Plutarch, an account of his writings, and a detailed enumeration both of previous editions and also of the MSS. Though many of the Lives have been published separately, those of Galba and Otho have as yet found no editor either in Germany, England, or elsewhere. While I have examined and consulted every one of the editions which I have enumerated above, Coraes is the only editor whose notes, apart from those on the text, I have found of any use, and those only in four or five places. The great interest of the Lives lies in their resemblance to the Histories of Tacitus, and it is accordingly to this aspect of them that I have given the most attention.

Places in which the text of Sintenis is departed from

Galo. 1, 15. φύσεως τε γενναίας for φύσεως γενναίας.
Galo. 4, 29. Αυτός, είπεν, ώ Γάλβα, τίνα τρόπον βουλεύη for

αυτός είπεν, "Ω Γάλβα, τίνα τρόπον βουλεύεσθε.
Galo. 5, 24. κάλλιον for (και λίαν).
Galb. 7, 16. mollà... Tŵr I have enclosed in brackets.
Galb. 9, ad fin. (kal mapeikel) I have omitted.
Galb. 13, 32. 'Αλλ' οι πολλοί for 'Αλλά πολλοί,
Gal». 15, 12. Τρεβωνίου for Τριβωνιανού.
Gal. 18, 16. των μεν for το μεν.
Galb. 19, 1. Qüütellly for Togellivu.
Galb. 28, 10. (kal OÜürellou] I have omitted.
Οελ. 5, 34. πρόσω ποιήσασθαι for προσποιήσασθαι.
Οικ. 15, 39. ότι πολλάκις for πολλάκις, ότι.
Οικ. 18, 6. Δαίμοσι for Δηλώσει.

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April 5.

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Ascertained dates in the reigns of Galba and Otho

News of Vindex' revolt reaches Nero, March 19, 68.
Galba's proclamation in Spain,
Death of Nero,

Arrival of Galba in Italy,

Autumn of 68.
The marines formed into a legion,

Dec. 22, 68.
Oath to Galba refused by German legions, Jan. 1, 69.
Proclamation of Vitellius, ·

Jan. 3.
Adoption of Piso,

Jan. 10.
Murder of Galba and proclamation of Otho, Jan. 15.
Consulship assumed by Otho,

Jan. 26.
Otho appointed Pontifex Maximus, March 9.
Otho's departure from Rome,

March 14.
Battle of Bedriacum, -
Death of Otho, :
*Dies imperii' of Vitellius,






April 15.
April 16.
April 19.


Abbreviations in Apparatus Criticus

A. Cod. Parisin. 1671. Steph. Stephanus
B. Cod. Parisin. 1672.

Bry. Bryan.
Bod. Cod. Laud. Gr. 55.

Reisk. Reiske.
W. Palat. 109.

Schaef. Schaefer.
H. Harley Ms. 5692.

Sint. Sintenis.
i. Juntine ed. (1517).

Xyl Xylander.
A Aldine ed. (1519).

Sol. du Soul (Solanus).

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Mercenary soldiers, according to Iphicrates, should of money and pleasure. Most authorities, however, agree with Aemilius Paulus, who demanded of his ready hands, sharp swords, and implicit obedience generul. Plato, too, sees how.indispensable to a good is obedience in his men, and how obedience presupposes nature and systematic training. His words receive a confirmation in the events which followed Nero's deat) the Roman Empire resembled the scattered Gigantes o the license of its soldiers. Lycophron of Pherae was a tragedy-king, because he reigned barely ten months, less time four Roman emperors entered and left the The people, however, were avenged for their sufferings speedy deaths of their oppressors, and not least by the their arch-seducer, Nymphidius.

“Ο μεν 'Αθηναίος Ιφικράτης τον μισθοφόρον στρατιώτης και φιλόπλουτον είναι και φιλή όπως ταϊς επιθυμίαις χορηγίαν επιζητων αγωνι παραβολώτερον, οι δε πλείστοι, καθάπερ έρρα σώμα, το στρατιωτικών αξιoύσιν ιδία μηδ. χρώμενον όρμη συγκινείσθαι τη του στρατ Διό και Παύλον Αιμίλιον λέγουσι την εν Μακε

4. αιωρουμενον, Sol coni


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