point of view of pure scholarship something to be said for it, I think with reason. At any rate my own method with a sixth form has always been to make an historical work a peg on which by way of comment and illustration to hang as much historical teaching as possible. It is on this plan that I have proceeded in my notes, which, so far as they do not deal with the literary question of the relation between Plutarch and Tacitus, mainly are concerned with the elucidation of historical and constitutional points. For granmatical difficulties, where they occur, I merely give reference to Madvig's Greek Syntax; while to the lexicographical kuowledge of Plutarch, which forms 80 valuable a part of Dr. Holden's editions, I make

no claim.

The various monographs, German periodicals, and other books which have been of use to me are referred to in their proper place. It only remains for me to express my thanks to Mr. W.W. Fowler, Sub-rector of Lincoln College, Oxford, a well-known and distinguished Plutarchean scholar, for his kindness in reading over the proofs of the Introduction, and to Mr. S. R. Brooke, of Grantham School

, for doing the same kind office to the notes. Whatever errors and blemishes may still remain, they are considerably fewer than they would have been but for this assistance.

The text adopted is mainly that of Sintenis, with a few exceptions given on page cxxiii.



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Plutarch and Tacitus,

Suetonins and Dio Cassius,

The reigns of Galba and Otho,

Mss, and previous editions,

Varintions from Sintenis' Text,

Ascertainesl Dates,


Galba's Life,


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To Galbib,

To Otho,





The authenticity of the Lives of Galba and though it has not absolutely escaped the atta German criticism, has never been very

seriou pugned, and it is not necessary to enter in question here any further than to mention two of the most obvious reasons which se justify the accepted view that they were writ Plutarch. (1) They are mentioned in the Cat of Lamprias (see below, p. 91). This Catalo doubtless not exactly what it professes to b contains certain works which are confessed Plutarchoan, but that portion of it which me these Lives together with those of several Caesars deserves perhaps some special cred cause it also names a Life of Scipio Africanus, though no longer extant, is testified to by P Gracch. c. 10. (2) Though not, as we shall so biographies in the same sense as tho Parallel they nevertheless are similar in style to the they are introduced by certain moral reflecti very much the same way as, e.g., are the L Pericles, Agis, Pelopidas, Aratus, Demos


Sertorius, etc.: they are interspersed quite after Plutarch's manner with quotations from poets (conf. Galb

. 16, 22, and 27, 31), and in several places they show that imperfect knowledge of Latin which we know from Plutarch himself that he possessed. « ημείς δε οψε ποτε και πόρρω της ηλικίας ήρξάμεθα ρωμαϊκούς γράμμασιν εντυγχάνειν.... εν δε Ρώμη και ταις περί την Ιταλίαν διατριβαϊς ού σχολής ούσης γυμνάζεσθαι περί την ρωμαϊκήν διάλεκτον υπό χρειών TOMATIKUR" Demosth. c. 2. (3) The writer of these Lives was a friend of Mestrius Florus, and had travelled in Italy with him (Oth. 14), and that Mestrius Florus was known to Plutarch we learn from his Moral Writings, in several of which he appears as an interlocutor, while that Plutarch visited Italy several times and once during Vespasian's reign we also know from himself (de Soller. Anim. 19, and conf. de Curios. 15). We shall thereforo take it for granted that Plutarch is the author of our two Lives.

Another question however immediately suggests itself on reading these Lives, which is not so easily disposed of, and into which, especially as the subject seems never to have been treated in any English hook, it will be necessary to enter with some detail. The reigns of Galba and Otho, of which Plutarch here writes the history, are, as is well known, also narrated by a more brilliant historian than Plutarch, and one who is also much more familiar to most students. They in fact form the subject of the first and half of the second book of the Histories of Tacitus. Few instances have come down to us from classical

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