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vetustissimum quemque militum nomine Neroniani comitatus contubernales appell cere, quosdam requirere et pecunia aut gra

ouveláybave, assisted.' Conf. Hdt. v: ο Μεγακλέoς τoίσιν εκ Σαρδίων Λυδούσι ...

23-24. Td 82 Töv Oülvlov, kt.A. In advancement came from the emperor hir lax system the emperor's favourites mig (lependently, though still in his name.

24. "Ikehov. See on cap. 7, and conf “ venalia cuncta, praepotentes liberti,” etc

25. 'ARIATIKOV. This is probably : Plutarch's part.

Asiaticus was a slave disgraceful history is told by Suetonius, Vil after several alternations of fondness an manumitted Asiaticus when he was appc Lower Germany. When he was made em exercitu ut libertum suum Asiaticum donaret, inhonestam adulationem compesci ingenii, quod palam abnuerat, inter secreta honoravitque Asiaticum anulis, foedum ma artibus ambitiosum,” and ii. 95, “ Jibertus Polyclitos Patrobios et vetera odiorum n Probably Plutarch inserted the name of mistake for that of Cornelius Laco, since w Hist. i. 13 and Suet. Galb. 14, that Vinius, divided the real power between them, and w reigns followed one another so quickly it wa the reigning favourite. Conf. Tac, (loc. cit Fabios, Icelos, Asiaticos."

26. Οσάκις δε τον Γάλβαν είστία, κ.τ.λ. same account in almost the same words, Otho as having acted indirectly through Maevius Pudens. Conf. Tac. Hist. i. 24, militum animis velut faces addiderat Ma proximis Tigellini. Is mobilissimum quen pecuniae indigum et in novas cupiditates ; ciendo eo paulatim progressus est ut per s quotiens Galba apud Othonem epularetur, agenti viritim centenos nummos divideret."

27. την παραφυλάττουσαν αει σπείραν : cubias agentem. One cohort was always « palace. Conf. Tac. Ann. xii. 69,"egredit quae more militiae excubiis adest," and seo

Plutarch's part. Asiaticus was a slave of Titelia 5

Lower Germany. When he was made emperor "postale exercitu ut libertum suum Asiaticum equestri dette

donaret, inhonestam adulationem compescit: dein molti

divided the real power between them, and where the difama

ciendo eo paulatim progressus est at per speciem cuvini

vetustissimum qaemque militam nomine recan ve manera
Neroniani comitatus contubernales appelando

; dis pa
cere, quosdam requirere et pecunia sat gratis irraz'
ovrcháußars

, 'assisted.' Conf. Hdk ri 15
Μεγακλέος τον ά Σαράν Λυδάσει... συνελέρμοσε τεύω

23-34. re & For Oilnov, 6,7h. In all cause mos
advancement came from the emperor hingeli

, bet materi
lux system the emperor's favourites might act about it
dlependently, though still in his name

.
34. Taclor. See on cap. 7, and conf. Tue Wiki
"venalia cuncta, praepotentes liberti, "et.

25, 'Amarikóv. This is probably an izanar,
disgraceful history is told by Suetonius, Vitulo 12. Fitica
after several alternations of fondness and cruelt

, ist manumitted Asiaticus when he was

aureos excu.

oncipa is always the equivalent on Inscriptions for cohors. See also Acts of the Apostles, 10. 1, “éxatovtápxns ek otelpris της καλουμένης Ιταλικής.”

Alkase, 'he bribed.' Sekálav, like decuriare, seems to mean to divide into companies (lit. of 10) for purposes of bribery. (Conf. Cic. pro Sest. 15, cum vicatim homines conscriberentur, decuriarentur.”

27-28. Xpurowy ékágtu Slavéuw. The aureus was equiv. alent to 25 denarii or drachmae and 100 sesterces. See Dio Cass. 55. 12, “χρυσούν γαρ δή και εγώ το νόμισμα το τας πέντε και είκοσι δραχμάς δυνάμενον κατά το επιχώριον ονομάζω.” So Suetonius in telling the story (Oth, 4) says, banti cohorti viritim dividebat," i.e. the "centenos numnos of Tacitus.

28. οίς τιμάν αυτόν έδόκει, κ.τ.λ., “by which means ho was to all appearance honouring the emperor, though really undermining his power and seducing the loyalty of the troops,' i.e. to all outward appearance Otho was giving a largess merely to honour the emperor (“ velut publicam largitionem, Tac. loc. cit.), though the troops understood it perfectly well as a bribe. Tacitus adds that he increased this already excessive 'sportula,' “secretioribus apud singulos praemiis, adeo animosus corruptor ut Cocceio Proculo speculatori de parte finium cum vicino ambigenti universum vicini agrum sua pecunia emptum dono dederit.”

KataToditevóuevos. Conf. Demosth. Fals. Leg. 315, “Boúλομαι τοίνυν επανελθεϊν όν τρόπον υμάς κατεπολιτεύσατο Φίλιππος rpoolaßw roúrous tous Oeois exO poús," and Plut. vit. Pomp. 51.

appointed forumuri

CHAPTER XXI.

ingenii
, quod palam abnuerat

, inter secreta ap virë kapurin
honoravitque Asiaticum apulis

, foedun mavepian et mai artibus ambitiosum," and ii. 35, "libertus Vitelli Asistere Polyclitos Patrobios et vetera odiorum nomina segnalat

" Probably Plutarch inserted the name of Asiaticas her to mistake for that of Cornelius Laco, since we know ingen Tea Hist. i. 13 and Suet. Galb. 14, that'V'inius

, Laco

, and less
reigns followed one another so quickly it was easy to creation
the reigning favourite. Cont. Tac. loc. cik) " ister Traias
Fabios, Icelos, Asiaticos."
36. 'Ooáxis & roy Tanßar cioría

, aipal

. Tacitus grises the same account in almost the same words

, but he represent Otho as baving acted indirectly through the scene Maevius Pudená Conf. Tac. Hist

. i. 24, ** Flagrantibus in militum animis velut faces addiderat Vaevius Peders! proximis Tigellini

. Io mobilissimum quemque ingenio de pecuniae indigum et in novas cupiditates praecipitem audio quotiens Galba apud Othonem epularetur, coborti execution agenti viritim centenos pummos divideret,

39. may mapapulárrovpar dil opsipar = 'cohorten er cubias agentem. One cohort was always on guard at the palace Cont. Tac. Ann. xii. 69,"egreditur ad cohorten puso more militiae ercpbiis adest," and see bote au capa ?

2. rdv "OOwva Tapelosyev ó Oilvios. Conf. Tac. Hist. i. 13, “Hi discordes et rebus minoribus sibi quisque tendentes circa consilium eligendi successoris in duas factiones scindebantur. Vinius pro M. Othone, Laco atque Icelus consensu non tam unum aliquem fovebant quam alium."

3-4. émi rája mis Oryaspos. Plutarch states this as a fact. Tacitus (loc. cit.)

only says "et rumoribus nihil silentio transmittentium, quia Vinio vidua filia, caelebs Otho, gener ac socer destinabantur." The daughter was Crispina, to whoin Tigellinus made an extravagant present at a banquet. See cap. 17 ad fin.

6. παίδα του Γαλβα και διάδοχον. See note on cap. 19.

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6-7. 'O 8è Társas ... hiv Sidos, K.T.A. So Galba sa Tacitus (Hist, i. 15), "nunc me deorum hominumque con ad imperium vocatum praeclara indoles tua et amor p impulit, ut principatum, bello adeptus quiescenti ofi

Augustus in domo successorem quaesivit, ego, in re po non quia propinquos (such as Dolabella) aut socios belli as Otho) non habeam : sed neque ipse imperium amk accepi," etc. Conf. also Tac. Hist. i. 13, “ credo et re licae curam subisse, frustra a Nerone translatae, si Othonem relinqueretur."

9-10. Δοκεί δε μηδ' αν επι τοις ιδίοις χρήμασι, κ.τ.λ. he would probably never have chosen Otho to be heir e his private fortunes merely.'

11. ακόλαστον ειδώς και πολυτελή. Conf. Suet. Ο “A prima adolescentia prodigus ac procax.”

11-12, πεντακισχιλίων μυριάδων όφλήμασι, ε.ε. 50 και drachmae or 200 million sesterces.

Conf. Suet. O "instigante super animi dolorem etiam magnitudine alieni. Neque enim dissimulabat, nisi principem, se non posse : nihilque referre, ab hoste in acie, an in fo creditoribus caderet," and Tac. Hist. i. 21.

12. Beßantwojévov. Conf. Plaut. Epidic. 1. 2. 16,.". istiusmodi mihi amicos furno mersos quam foro"; Liv “mergentibus sortem usuris ”; Ovid, Met. i. 380,“) per opem rebus."

12-13. åkoúgas tol Dúvlov, having listened to th gestion of Vinius.'

13. ÚTep&OETO Tv Sládegiv, 'he postponed the settlem the matter.'

14. Αποδείξας δ' αυτόν ύπατον και συνάρχοντα, Conf. Tac. Hist. i. ll, "hic fuit rerum Romanarum cum Servius Galba iterum Titus Vinius consules inch annum sibi ultimum, rei publicae prope supremum."

16. érrl8ogos hv, K.T.A., was fully expected to annou successor in the beginning of the year,

Conf. Hdt. “ πολλοί δε επίδοξοι τώυτό τούτο πείσεσθαι εισι.16. Και το στρατιωτικών, κ.τ.λ.

"And the soldier eager that Otho should be proclaimed in preference t one else.'--For Otho's intrigues with the soldiers, see th on cap. 20 ad fin., and the passages quoted there.

CHAPTER XXII.

1. Karalapßáve 8' airón éru pelovra, K.7.1. Conf. Tac. Hist. i. 12, "Paucis post kalendas Ianuarias diebus Pompei Propinqui procuratoris e Belgica literae adferuntur, superioris Gerinaniae legiones rupta sacramenti reverentia imperatorem alium fiagitare ... maturavit ea res consilium Galbae iam pridem de adoptione secum et cum proximis agitantie."

8. áraytes o oTpaTEVÓLLEVOE. See cap. 2, where Nymphidius promises in Galba's name to the legionary troops, rois éKT OS OTpaTevoudrots, 1250 denarii per man. 34. pum ároft&óvta nho ewpeáv. Conf. Suet. Galb. 16, "fremebat superioris Germaniae exercitus fraudari se praemiis,” and Dio Cass. 64. 4, " οι δε εν ταις Γερμανίαις στρατιώται • μηδεμίαν ευεργεσίαν υπό του Γάλβα ευρήμενοι.” 4. écīvou, 'those of Upper Germany.'

6-6. ápeppupupévov átluws. Conf. Tac. Hist. i. 8, "lux deerat, abducto Verginio per simulationem amicitiae ; quem non remitti atque etiain reum esse tanquam suum crimen accipiebant," and see on cap. 10.

6-7. Γαλατών τους πολεμήσαντας ... δωρεών τυγχάνοντας, Conf. Tac. Hist. i. 8, and note on cap. 18.

7-8. όσοι δε μή προσέθεντο kohatouévous. Conf. Tac. Hist. i. 8, “proximae tamen Germanicis exercitibus Galliarum civitates non eodem honore habitae, quaedam etiam finibus ademptis pari dolore commoda aliena ac suas iniurias metie. bantur," and cap. 53, “Treveri ac Lingones, quasque alias civitates atrocibus edictis aut dampo finium Galba perculerat, bibernis legionum propius miscentur; unde serlitiosa col. loquia et inter paganos corruptior miles,

et in Verginium favor cuicumque alii profuturus," and cap. 51,

nec deerat pars Galliarum, quae Rhenum accolit, easdem partes secuta ac tum acerrima instigatrix adversum Galbanios. Conf. also Suet. Galb. 12. These Gallic states were probably punished by Galba not so much for their action against. Vindex, but for their hesitation in recognising himself, and for their attitude, in common with the German legions, which were too powerful to be punished, towards Verginius. See also Tac. Hist. i. 65, "et Galba reditus Lugdunensium occasione irae in fiscum verterat ; multus contra in Viennenses honor."

8-9, και μόνο τον Γαλβαν χάριν ειδέναι, to whom alone they said Galba showed gratitude, and indeed had honoured him after his death, and adorned his tomb with public offer. ings, on the ground that he had been declared emperor of the

1

Romans by his means.' This is given by Plutarch as a rumour current among the discontented German legion was probably reported by the common authority, ti Tacitus omits all mention of the report in his account, improbable. Manifestly, if the view of Vindex as a na champion of Gallic independence is the correct one, impossible to suppose that Galba would have taken so a step. But even apart from that, Vindex had been o little use to Galba. 'He had indeed been the first to s to him the assumption of the imperial title, but Gall been too cautious at that time to accept it, and Vis death left Galba still practically a private individual. ever service Vindex may have rendered it was not of a nature as to impose on Galba the necessity of any unusual and sentimental modes of honouring him as ar described. The report may very likely have been spre the legati of the Lingones who came to the legions of Germany, and in the language of Tacitus (Hist. i. 54 squalorem maestitiamque compositi per principia pe tubernia modo suas iniurias" modo vicinaruin civi praemia et, ubi pronis militum auribus accipiebantur, exercitus pericula et contumelias conquerentes accent animos." For the acc. and inf. with 'oratio obliqı relative clauses, see Madvig, Gr. Syn. 169, a.

12-13. ^ vovunula roll mpútov uqvós. The word dates from the time when the Greeks reckoned by the month. Afterwards the word was used for the 1st day month irrespectively of the moon, and the day of th moon was νουμηνία κατά σελήνην. January had been th month of the official year only since 600 a.v.c. or 151 from which time the consuls regularly began their y office from Jan. 1. Originally March was the first mor

14-15. επί τον όρκον, δν έθος εστίν ομνύειν. Τhe 8 in all the Roman armies took the sacramentum to the er as the only imperator on his first accession (Suet. Clau Tac. Ann. xiv. 11; Hist. i. 53; Plut. Galb. 10, etc. repeated the oath on each anniversary of the accession ad Trai. 52). They also since the time of Tiberius to oath regularly on the first day of the official year. Tac i. 8, ' Addebat Messala Valerius renovandum per sacramentum in nomen Tiberii.” So Tacitus (Hist. speaks of the “sollemne kalendarum Ianuariarum saci tum." Conf. also Suet. Galb. 16.

16-17. τας μέν εικόνας του Γάλβα ... ανέτρεψαν. Tac. Hist, i. 65, “ At in superiore exercitu quarta et vicesima legiones isdem hibernis tendentes ipso kaleni

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