The Gas-engine: A Treatise on the Internal-combustion Engine Using Gas, Gasoline, Kerosene, Alcohol, Or Other Hydrocarbon as Source of Energy

Voorkant
Wiley, 1907 - 562 pagina's
 

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Inhoudsopgave

Oxygen and Air Required for Combustion of Carbon
21
Air Required for Combustion of Hydrogen
23
Air Required for Combustion of Compounds
24
Combustion of an Analyzed Fuel Combustion Ratio
26
Calorific Power of a Fuel
30
Fuel Calorimeters Mahlers Bomb
33
The Junker Gascalorimeter
35
The Lucke Gascalorimeter
39
Calorific Power of a Compound
40
Computed Increase of Temperature Due to a Combustion
41
Dissociation
43
Natural Gas
44
Producergas
45
Watergas
50
25a Aspirating Producers
55
Coalgas or Illuminatinggas
64
Blastfurnace Gas
65
Tables of Composition and Properties of Gases
71
Liquid Fuel Petroleum
84
Pintsch Oilgas
86
Gasoline
88
Alcohol
90
Products of Combustion of a Gas
97
The Dilution of the Mixture of Gas and Air
98
Gas Analysis Elliots Gasapparatus
101
Analysis of Products of Combustion Orsats Apparatus
102
CHAPTER III
104
The Piston Motor Mean Effective Pressure
105
40a Computed Cylinder Volume Diameter and Stroke
110
Graphical Representation of the Work of a Piston Motor The PV Diagram
113
GayLussacs Law for Air
115
The Laws of Mariotte and GayLussac Combined
116
Absolute Temperature Absolute Zero
117
Total or Intrinsic Energy Available Energy
119
Efficiency Thermal Efficiency
121
47a Mechanical Efficiency
124
Combined Mechanical and Thermal Efficiency The Guarantee
126
Expansive Working of Media Compared with Nonexpansive
128
Isothermal Expansion
130
Adiabatic Expansion
131
Aiabatic Work in Terms of Pressures
132
Temperature Change in Adiabatic Expansion
133
AST PAGE 53 Other Thermal Lines Isometric Isopiestic Isobars
134
Specific Heat at Constant Pressure and at Constant Volume
136
Effective Specific Heat
141
Value of the Exponent v in the Equation for Expansion
147
The Continuous Rotative Motor Using Pressure Impulse or Reaction
151
CHAPTER IV
152
The Cycle of the Steamengine
153
The Carnot Cycle
154
The Cycle of the Internalcombustion Engine
157
The Otto Cycle with Heating at Constant Volume
158
The Brayton Cycle with Heating at Constant Pressure
162
The Diesel Cycle with Heating at Constant Temperature
163
Disadvantages of the Internalcombustion Principle
167
Variations in Cycle
170
CHAPTER V
171
The Nash Engine
175
The Korting Engine
176
The Twocycle Engine i
180
Comparison of Types
184
Other Forms of Gasengine
185
The Compound Gasengine
187
CHAPTER VI
188
The HornsbyAkroyd Engine
189
The Secor Kerosene Engine
190
AKT PAGB 81 The Mietz and Weiss Engine
191
The Diesel Engine The Hirsch Engine
193
The VerplanckLucke Kerosene Engine
195
Comparison of Types
197
CHAPTER VII
198
The Aircooled Bicycle Motor
199
The Aircooled Automobile Motor
201
Variations in the Automobile Motor
203
The Launch Engine
204
Converted Gasengines
205
CHAPTER VIII
207
The Alcoholautomobile Motor The GobronBrillie
208
The Alcohollaunch Engine
209
CHAPTER IX
211
Automatic Mixing by Suction
212
Proportioning by Adjustable Valves
213
Proportioning by Mechanically Operated Valves
214
Proportioning by Volumes of Pump Cylinders
215
Proportioning by Control of the Carbureter
216
Effect ofVariation in the Mixture
217
Carburetors for Motor Vehicles Automatic Carburetors
236
Alcohol Carburetors Martha Japy Richard Brouhot Marien felde
245
Kerosene Carburetors
247
Some Principles of Design of Carburetors
249
CHAPTER XI
250
Ignition by Internal Flame
251
Ignition by Catalysis
252
Ignition by High Temperature of Compression
255
Ignition by Electrodes and Electric Sparks The Jumpspark System
256
Ignition by Electric Arc Hammerbreak System
260
Dynamo or Magnetoelectrical Igniton General
262
CHAPTER XII
264
Governing by Missing a Charge The Hitormiss Governor
266
Governing by Impoverishing the Charge
267
Governing by Throttling the Exhaust
269
Governing by Advancing the Spark Preigniting the Mixture
272
Governing by Cutting off Admission
273
Governing in the Twocycle System
274
CHAPTER XIII
279
Cooling of Metal by Waterjacket the Steam to be Utilized or Wasted
280
Watercooling of the Piston
282
The Circulation of the Cooling Water and the Amount Required for Cooling
283
CHAPTER XIV
285
Volume of the Combustionchamber
286
Form of the Combustionchamber
292
Backpressure of Exhaustgases
293
Muffling of the Exhaust
294
CHAPTER XV
297
The Starting of the Engine
298
The Stopping of the Engine
301
Restarting after a Stop
302
The Lubrication of the Engine
307
Improper Working of the Engine the Engine Refuses to Start or Work
308
Usual Causes of Failure to Operate
313
Concluding Summary
315
CHAPTER XVI
317
The Indicator for Gasengine Testing
320
FIT PAGE 172 The Apparatus for a Test
321
Fernalds and Luckes Apparatus to Observe Exhaust Temper atures j
322
The Observation in a Test
327
The Precautions against Error in a Test
340
The Conclusions from a Test
341
Sources of Loss in Actual Engines as Compared with the Ideal
344
CHAPTER XVII
346
Changes in Value of t when Heat is Added to Air
349
Analysis of Possible Cycles in the Internalcombustion Engine Noncompression Cycles 351
375
Compression Cycle with Isopiestic Heating
389
Compression Cycle with Isothermal Heating
401
Compression Cycle with Heating Process Arbitrary
416
Cycles with Atmospheric Heating
417
Comparison of Cycles with Respect to Temperatures before Ex pansion
429
Comparison of Cycles with Respect to Temperatures after Ex pansion
432
Deduction from Comparisons of Cycles with Respect to Tem perature in the Various Cycles
436
Comparison of Cycles with Respect to Pressures after Expansion
438
Comparison of Mean Effective Pressures in the Various Cycles
440
Comparison of Cycles with Respect to Volumes after Heating and before Expansion
446
Deductions from Comparisons of Cycles with Respect to Volumes
452
Comparison of Cycles with Respect to Heat Discharged or Ab stracted Work Done Efficiencies
455
General Conclusions from the Analysis of Cycles
463
Formula for Theoretical Mean Effective Pressure Otto Cycle
469
Factors Reducing Computed Mean Effective Pressure Diagram Factor
476
Design of Cylinder Volumes
480
ART PAGE 203 Volume of the Clearance
481
Velocity through Valves Ports and Passages
483
CHAPTER XVIII
485
Lucke Apparatus for Continuous Combustion of Explosive Mixtures
486
Engines which have Operated with Constantpressure Heating
494
The Brayton Engine
497
Apparatus for Observing Increase in Volume with Constant pressure Heating
499
The Future of the Engine which Uses Constantoressure Heat ing of the Working Medium The Gasturbine
500
CHAPTER XIX
502
Clerks Explosion Experiments
504
Luckes Explosion Experiments
507
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Experiments on Explosive Mixtures
514
Grovers Experiments with Acetylene
518
Grovers Experiments on Effect of Xeutrals in Explosive Mix
523
The Rate of Propagation of Flame
525
The Propagation of an Explosive Wave
526
Concluding Comment
528
CHAPTER XX
529
The Elements of Cost
531
The Fuel Cost and Guarantee
539
CHAPTER XXI
542
Bibliography
545
Appendix Table of Hyperbolic Logarithms
549
Copyright

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