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4. That, at every port or place at which coasting ves. sels, whether registered or licensed, engaged on lakes, bays, gulfs, or rivers, as aforesaid, mayıland their cargoes, and at which the canal boats take in their lading, if there be no collector or other officer of the customs, now residing thereat, there should be such other officer appointed, to whom such compensation ought to be allowed as the Secretary of the Treasury may consider just and reasonable.
It will be perceived from an examination of the provisions of the 14th and 18th sections of the act for enrolling and licensing vessels, passed the 18th of February, 1793, coasting vessels are required to make out duplicate manifests, and obtain permits or clearances only in case of having a certain quantity of distilled spirits on board, or certain foreign goods of certain quantities, or of certain values; but according to the preceding contemplated regulations, those vessels will be required to make out duplicate manifests of their cargoes, without regard to the nature thereof, whether of domestic or of foreign goods, or of both kinds of goods, and without regard to the quantities or values of either.
By such a course, the officers of the customs will have a better opportunity of detecting frauds on the revenue, which, it is apprehended, are already carried on to some extent in the districts on the lakes, and, if not checked, might increase, from the additional facilities which the contemplated exemption in favor of canal boats will af. ford.
With great respect, I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,
JOS. ANDERSON, Comptroller.
Hon. Thomas Newton,
Of the Committee on Naval Affairs on the subject of Piracy, in House of Representatioes, January 11, 1825.
The Committee on Naval Affairs, to whom was referred a resolution of the House of Representatives, of the 9th of December, instructing them to inquire into the expediency of providing an additional naval force, and other additional means for the suppression of Piracy, respectfully report: That they have had the subjects proposed in the said resolution, under their consideration, and have made diligent inquiry into the operations of cur naval force, which, for the last two years, has been employed in the Gulf of Mexico, for the protection of our commerce and the suppression of piracy. In this investigation, they feel a satisfaction in stating, that the means employed have displayed the vigilance of the government, and the activity, zeal, and devotion, of the officers and seamen who have been assigned to that peril. ous service; perilous, not from the numbers or courage of the enemy, but from the deleterious effects of a tropical climate upon natives of a more temperate region. The vessels procured for this service were better adapted to a short expedition, than to long and tedious cruizes. They were too small to afford the room necessary to preserve the discipline and the health of the officers and seamen assigned to them; yet, they enabled the commander to scour the coast, to penetrate into the shoal waters of the creeksand inlets, to the very margin of the land; and, in effect, the pirates have literally been driven from the ocean, and confined to their fastnesses and haunts upon the land. Accordingly, their principal depredations, for the last twelve or fifteen months, have been confined to occasional sallies in boats and small craft, within one or two leagues of the shore. While these depredations,
- - - - - - - - - - - - - • 1..."' however, have been more limited in extent and in num-' on maintaining the rights and diguity of out “”
ber, they have more frequently been attended with to most desperate and sanguinary destruction of the lived the unfortunate victims. It becomes necessary for the Government to adapto: force to the existing character of the evil; and the to mittee are of opinion, that the best species of fro which can be employed in future, while the piracies: confined to small craft, are the boats and launches wh are attached to larger vessels. Sloops of war of to largest class may be well provided with launches to boats, of which several might be constantly employed ferretting out these marauders, and bringing them condign punishment. But the Committee are of opinion, that, though to addition of three or four sloops to our West India.so ron, might, by constant vigilance, afford great adło al security to our commerce and those engaged to yet they have reflected that these plunderers & transfer themselves from one island to another; when effectually hunted from one of their haunts.” are speedily found in parts where the unarmed to having no protection or means of defence, o easy prey. They have, also, recurred to several io ces, where a resolute resistance by a small crew 4: trepid seamen has repelled the assailants, even wo the disparity of force might have been expected wo duce a different issue. From which it is manifes, to these wretches, who assume the vocation of pirateas dastardly as they are cruel, and may be general pelled by a well armed crew, though not much exced ing the usual complement of the vessel. The opinion has been expressed in some of o: morials of our principal cities, that the permission o merchants to prepare a suitable armament for thoro fence, would be embraced at least to a sufficient two to deter, in many instances, the attacks of boats to the shore, or to repel the foe in case he should atto to carry by boarding. The committee believe that, considerable number of trading vessels should pro themselves for resistance, and a few instances so
ful resistance should be the consequence, the to would be highly salutary, and would greatly disco these banditti, by rendering their vocation o and fruitless They are aware that the commer” the West Indies is attended with too small a prot" warrant any considerable increase of expense to" merchants and owners of vessels; and, as the pro tion of trade is the duty of the government, as wo required for the prosperity of our revenue and go resources, they, therefore, deem it sound policy to upon this measure merely as auxiliary to the mos!" | getic efforts; and to the ample means placed at the posal of the Executive. * --The committee have not overlooked the notorico" that the local authorities of the West India Islano ticularly those of Cuba and Porto Rico, have afo shelter and protection to the pirates, and have o' character of boldness to their enterprizes, which or be impossible, wholly to repress without reso. measures which may induce those authorities to." their means in earnest in the extirpation of these f o the human race. Whatever may be the personal ings of some of the local Governors, they iny, po find it difficult to restrain the cupidity by which * o portion of the community are so completely demo in the island of Porto Rico, a species of legalize" der has been for several years tolerated, if note". ed, by the chiefs of the island, which, if not so ** nary as in other cases, has, in other respects, di o little from ordinary piracy. It belongs ratherto the of another committee to devise means suitable o an exigency so singular, and, at the same time, tle ori ing the most prompt and vigorous measures, -*no While the utmost circumspection should be to
not to violate those of other nations, it cannot be denied
"f the Committee of Foreign Relations of the House of Representatives, on Piracy and Outrages on American Commerce by Spanish Privateers.
JANUAmr 31, 1825.
The Committee of Foreign Relations, to whom was re-
olomeo of the Constitutional Governit ho Old Spain, in March, 1820, inspired the strongo: that the contest between Spain, and Spanish *al America would be soonamicably terminated, Wol. I.-7
in a manner satisfactory to the parties at war, to the commercial and civilized world, and to all the lovers of hunanity, justice, and liberty, the first movements of the of. government promised a speedy realization of this hope. The Cortes of Spain directed negotiations to be opened with Spanish America: commissioners were appointed; but the contending parties did not take the same view of the great questions between them. Old Spain would not admit the recognition of the independence of the Spanish American Governments, as the basis of negotiation; and the Spanish American Governments would not negotiate without that preliminary recognition. While these abortive attempts at negotiation were made, there was a temporary cessation of hostilities in Venezuela. The war, however, was renewed in Venezuela before the negotiations were broken off. Fortune favored the Americans; and the European Spaniards were driven from the continent. During this desperate contest, General Morales, the commander of the Spanish forces, issued his extraordinary proclamation, declaring a coast of twelve hundred miles in a state of blockade, and interdicting all foreign commerce with the Spanish Main, as inconsistent with the colonial law of Old Spain. This proclamation has been the fruitful source of most of the evils since suffered by all commercial nations in the West Indies, and in the Gulf of Mexico. Numerous pirates, and swarms of privateersmen, (subsequently degenerated into pirates,) have preyed upon all neutral commerce. Protection to that of the United States should have been, if it has not been, afforded—against pirates, by the use of all the necessary means under the control of the Executive; by a vigorous exertion of the naval power; by incessant watchfulness on the seas, and on the coasts infested by them; rigorous examination of all suspected vessels of every size; ardent pursuit of the persons found flagrante delicto, wherever they sought refuge; careful prosecution, before the competent tribunals, of all the accused, who were taken; unrelenting severity in inflicting punishment, where guilt was judicially established—against privateersmen, by appeals to the Government of Spain, requiring immediately redress for the past, and security for the future: if made in vain, application should have been made to Congress, to authorize reprisals, or to declare war, as the extent of the injury, and a due regard to the condition of the Spanish Government, should have required. A further reference, however, to the past, would not be useful. For the present, and for the future, if legislative provisions are necessary, they should be made. Piracy at present exists in the same form as in the year 1822, when a species of naval force, supposed to be particularly adapted to suppress it, was placed at the disposal of the Executive Thus force was believed to have answered the expectations entertained of it, as the President, at the opening of the last session of Congress, announced that, “it had been eminently successful in the accomplishment of its objects.” . If further experience has shown that this species of force is inadequate to the accomplishment of the object, and that another may be advantageously substituted, there can be no doubt of the propriety of the substitution. This is a point, however, that the committee do not consider it their duty to examine ; it belongs properly to another committee, the result of whose deliberations upon it has been already presented to the House. The merchants of the United States, who have, with the exception of our seamen, the deepest interest in this subject, suggest the propriety of suffering the owners of vessels to arm for their own defence. There is no law forbidding such defensive armament, nor is any law required to Justify it. It is, however, asserted, that the restraints upon the armament of merchant vessels are inconvenient and oppressive, and that they ought to be removed. The on
ly provision on this subject is, that which requires bond and security to be given te prevent an unlawful use of the armed vessel; a provision which should not be changed—an autherence to which the best interest of commerce requires. The propriety of authorizing by law the pursuit of the pirates on land, has also been a subject of consideration. The committee do not deem an act of Congress for this purpose necessary. . The rule of international law is, that fugitives from the Justice of one nation are to be considered in another as strangers entitled to protection, and having a right of residence; on the common princile, that no nation has a right to punish a person who as not offended itself, nor is it bound to assist its neighbor in the execution of its criminal laws. Pirates are criminals against all nations, punishable in every tribunal : the common enemies of mankind; the duty of all nations, and every man is, to hunt them down, that they may be delivered up to offended justice. Fresh pursuit of enemies into the territory of a common friend, is not universally admitted to be a right of war. Powerful nations never permit feeble neighbors to enter their territory for this purpose, but enter without scruple in
The Government of Spain must give to the local authority what it is said to want—sufficient strength to prevent and to punish crimes: it must perform its in: ties, or those who suffer from its neglect or w okos will be driven, by the necessity of the case, to appo the corrective. The committee would bring more distinct ly into view the only efficient remedy, and recommend a resort to it, if they believ, c sufficient ume had elas" since remonsurances were made by our Governoon, to Spain, to prove incontestibly that she wanted eith role power or the will to do aer duty, although they are aware that the conduct of any government in applying that remedy without previous concert with other nato alike interested in the question, would be liable to go conception, and excite well-founded jealousies to committee cannot doubt that the Executiv , appo all proper means to prevent, to detect, and to Po the crime of piracy, and pressing upon Spain, and to local authorities, that the honor and the inter stol So requires the best exertions for the same purpose, vil not fail to confer with the great commercial nation* the extraordinary measures to be used, if the objeo not speedily accomplished by the faithful exertion”
pursuit of their enemies, the territory of such neighbors, unless restrained by the apprehension that the mutual friend seeks a fair occasion to become an ally against them in the war. Practically, the question is one not of right, but of relative power. The pursuit of a mutual enemy into the territory of a friendly or allied power, is a right of war: it cannot be deemed a violation of the sovereignty of that power; it confers a favor, and imposes upon him an obligation of gratitude. The common enemy cannot avail himself of the protection of the territory of the third power, but by surrendering himself as a prisoner of war, and in that event, if the force of the pursuer was the cause of the surrender, the pursuer might rightfully claim the benefit of the surrender. Under this rule the pursuit and capture of pirates any where, and every where, may be justified. ‘The Executive has acted upon it. Instructions have been given to our naval commanders to pursue, and capture on Spanish territory, pirates who seek refuge or concealment there. The government of Spain has been duly warned of the existence of these orders; it knows that they will be obeyed. No remonstrance has been made by it; no objections have, as far as the committee have been informed, been urged. The acquiescence of Spain is all that should be desired. A distanction is supposed to exist between pursuit of pirates on lands uninhabited, and on those inhabited; and it is imagined that the authority of Congress is necessary to Justify pursuit in the latter case, while in the former, the power of the Executive alone is sufficient. The com. mittee do not admit the correctness of this distinction. Fresh pursuit is justifiable in either case, if necessary to the capture of the purate. There is greater danger of collision with the friendly power, when the object of pursuit flies into a settled country, and greater care is requisite to avoid giving offence; but the same principles apply to either case ; and it is just as necessary that Congress should legislate to justify the capture of pirates, as to authorize the pursuit of them into any place of refuge inhabited or unsettled. From an attentive examination of the letters of the agent who was sent to Cuba to obtain information, relative to the pirates who have long infested the coast of that island, it would seem that no fresh pursuit on land will eradicate the evil. Authority must exist to search in the suspected settlements for persons believed to be guilty of piracy, and for the evidence of their guilt, and to bring them before our tribunals for trial and punishment. This authority Congress cannot give without making war upon Spain. It cannot be used without wresting from Spain her municipal jurisdiction. The
evil lies too deep to be reached by any ordinary measures, which foreign powers can apply to it.
powers of Spain. The danger to which our commerce is exposed an! the injuries it has suffered from privateers acting uno regular or irregular commissions, are of a different * acter, and require a different remedy. The commo understand that outrages of this kind have almost to entirely ceased; for those which have been inflicted, " which may hereafter be inflicted, Spain is directly to sponsible. Reparation must be had—by negotiat." o by the exercise of such powers as may, for that Puro be vested in the Executive by Congress. To guard against future injury, the safest resort is to enforce promptly ample redress for that ** has been suffered. ihe committee have already to ferred to the injuries suffered in consequence" th: proclamation of Morales, those injuries are * * redressed. The Government of Spain has no ed to justify a proclamation declaring, with * * force insufficient to shut up the smallest port "": coast, a seacoast of twelve hundred miles in * * of blockade, nor the absurd pretension that the Poo", ty of all neutral nations, is, under the colonial law " Spain, liable to confiscation, if taken on its way to so ish America; but the property of American citizoo, tured by privateers from the islands of Porto Rio": Cuba, and from Porto Cabello, is now withheld uo. these pretensions. The Spanish Government ha'o' mally revoked the blockade, gives to the tribune". Spain an excuse for the condemnation of all prope" seized prior to that revocation—an excuse of which to do not hesitate to avail themselves. Acting uno structions from the president, of the 28th of April 18. , the Minister of the United states, at the Court of so demanded satisfaction in January, 1824, from * to vernment, for the outrages committed from Porto** lo, and the islands of Porto Rico and Cuba, up". commerce of the United States, and for the want” der of one of our gallant officers in the harboro. John's, by the officer commanding the fort at ". trance. In September of the same year, Spain wo called upon to indemnify those who had suffereof son or property under the proclamation of blockade. from the interdiction of neutral commerce to thesi" Main. In october, the just reclamations of our " ment were, for the third time, formally made to the o vernment of Spain. No satisfaction has been give": indemnity has been promised; nor has there been o' a satisfactory excuse given for the delay to answer to just demands of the Minister of the United States..., The character of the injury sustained, its or so period elapsed since it was inflicted, the formo fruitless demand for reparation for more than two months, justify reprisals. An anxious desire ***
18th Congress, & Report on the subject of Piracies. [H. of R. & Sen.
2d Session. 5
harshly to a government embarrassed by internal difficulties, and enfeebled by recent revolutions, the distance of the seat of the Spanish Government from the places in which the evils complained of originated, the death of the Minister appointed by the Spanish Government on the eve of his departure to this country, and the recent selection of another Minister, whose appointment and intended departure for the United States, has been communicated in an official letter, a translation of which is here with presented to the House, induce the committee not to propose any legislative enactment, under the firm conviction that this forbearance will give to Spain a new motive to make speedily ample reparation for the injuties sustained, and that, if it does not produce this desired effect, it will justify, in the eyes of all nations, any and every step Congress may hereafter be compelled to
DEPARTMENT of StATE,
Sin: I have the honor of enclosing, here with, a translation of the only answer yet received from the Spanish Government to Mr. Nelson's notes on the subject of piracy and outrages on our commerce. It has been received since the communications to Congress of the previous documents were made. I am, with great respect, Sir, your very humble and obed’t serv't, JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. John Fonsrtu, Esq. Chairman of the Committee of Foreign Relations, House of Representatives, U. S.
JMr. Zea Bermudez to Mr. JWelson.
So From the middle of September last, when I took Possession of the appointment which the kindness of * King, my august master, deigned to entrust to me, loodicated, by order of his Majesty, my attention to the different notes presented by you, relative to the claims one American subjects, who thought themselves en* to be indemnified by Spain for the losses which they have suffered in the seas of America. A business **plicated, in which considerable interests are in*ed, presented so much more difficulty, by how much there were intermingled with it otherinterests and other claims of Spanish subjects against the government and *jects of the United states.
* Majesty, desirous of preserving the friendship and good harmony which happily subsists between both na* and that, in faithful observance of existing treaties, both overnments should terminate, in a friendly manher, this delicate question, the legitimate rights, and o Potensions of both being mutually conciliated, has o that the most proper means for gaining this deo end, is to send immediately a Minister Plenipoten* 9 reside near the American Government, who, by ""formation, prudence, and practical knowledge of o o between both countries, may be at the same o o interpreter and the executor of the just inteno . the King. In consequence, His Majesty has wo o pleased to appoint Don Jose de Heredia, his En
..oraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary in the . States of America. He will set out for his new o as soon as possible. to o to inform you of this, that you may be pleased t o it before your Government; and i avail myself of most *on, to repeat to you the assurances of my m "stinguished' consideration. God preserve you
Your most obedient servant,
REPORT of the Committee on Foreign Relations in the Senate of the United States, on so much of the President’s Message as relates to Piracies,
JANUARY 10, 1825.
That our commerce for years has been harassed, and the lives of our citizens destroyed by pirates, issuing from the colonies of Spain in the West Indies, is a fact derived not only from the Message of the President, but is of universal notoriety. These outrages have been so long and so often repeated, and marked with such atrocious circumstances, that a detail of the particular cases would be as impracticable as unnecessary. Our Government, with a view to protect our citizens, has resorted to the means within their power, by stationing a naval force near the places where the pirates resort; a measure also pursued by other Powers. Every effort, heretofore, has been unavailing to put an end to these atrocities. These desperadoes, acquiring confidence from impunity, becoming more ferocious from habit, and multiplying by recruits from the most abandoned of other nations, threaten the most disastrous mischiefs, justly alarming to that highly valuable and most respectable portion of our fellow-citizens, whose pursuits are on the high seas. It is manifest, as well from facts derived from other sources, as from the Message of the President, that the continuance of this evil is ascribable to the asylum afforded the banditti in the colonies of Spain. The Government of the United States, cherishing the most amicable disposition towards Spain, has presented the subject with great earnestness to the Spanish Government, demanding reparation for the past, and security for the future. To these reiterated remonstrances, no answer was returned till very recently, and to this day all that has been obtained is a promise of a satisfactory answer to the applications of the Government of the United States: although Spain has been solemnly warned that if she did not promptly acquit herself of her obligations to us on this subject, our Government would be constrained, from the nature of the outrages, to become its own avenger, and, availing itself of its own resources, protect the commerce and lives of the American citizens from destruction. In the same spirit of conciliation an appeal has been made to the local authorities, accompanied with a request that if, from weakness, they were unable to exterminate the hordes of banditti who took shelter from pursuit within their territories, that permission might be given our forces to pursue them on land. This has been denied on the vain punctilio of national dignity. The posture in which Spain now stands, is that of connivance in these injuries, or incapacity to prevent them. “A Sovereign who refuses to cause reparation to be made of the damage caused by his subject, or to punish the guilty, or, in short, to deliver him up, renders himself an accomplice in the injury, and becomes responsible for it.” If the committee were of cpinion that the refusal on the part of Spain was wilful, and not the result of inability, they would, with a full view of all the consequences which the measure involves, at once recommend an appeal to the last resort of nations against Spain and all her dependencies; but believing as they do that courtesy requires that her refusal to do us justice should be placed on the ground of inability—an inability resulting from causes which the committee intentionally forbear to enumerate, they content themselves with recommending only such measures as are believed to be indispensable effectually to reach the mischief. And hence,
they beg leave to present a bill, with suitable provisions, for the end designed.
REPORT FROM THE NAVY DEPARTMENT.
Navr DEPARTMENT, January 1st, 1825,
To the President of the Senate of the U. S. SIR : In obedience to the resolution of the Senate, of the 25th of May last, I have the honor to present the following report: The paper marked A, is a report made by the Fourth Auditor of the Treasury, which shews “the amount of travelling expenses, and other allowances received by the officers of the Navy, and of the Marine Corps, over the monthly pay and rations to which they are by law entitled, in each year, for the last three years.” This amount embraces all the payments except monthly pay and rations, made to officers within the time mentioned, whether the services for which the payments were made, were rendered within that period, or previous to it. Our naval officers are frequently out o: country two or three years at a time; and, when in it, are sometimes so situated as to prevent them, without neglect of duty, from presenting their claims for adjustment with punctuality, and at definite periods. Each settlement of their accounts, therefore, embraces not only their claims for the preceding year, but for the whole period since their last settlement; and, in giving an answer to this part of the resolution, it was found impossible to separate the one from the other, without an examination of every voucher, and restatement of every item of the accounts: a labor which could not be performed since the resolution was passed; and which was supposed not to be called for by it. This amount, therefore, will be understood to embrace all the claims' and accounts, settled and allowed within the last three years, preceding the first day of January last. For the sums paid to each officer, and the objects for which they were paid, a general reference may be had to the reports annually made on the contingent expenses of the Navy. There are about fifty officers in the Marine Corps, and nearly nine hundred in the Navy. The amount stated, contains the accounts of, and allowances to, almost all of this number. None of the allowances are designed, nor do they operate, as additional pay to the officer, for his time and services in his station: for these, the monthly pay and rations are the compensation prescribed by law; but they are intended to meet the expenses to which he is exposed, and the liabilities to which he is subjected, in, discharging the duties assigned him, and without which it would often be impossible to obey the orders he receives. This will be hereafter illustrated by some of the items in the accounts. The average amount of travelling expenses in each of the three years, paid to all the officers in the Navy, appears to be $19,541, and to all the officers of the Marine Corps, appears to be $6,639. The principle by which this allowance is made, is settled and uniform. When any officer travels under the orders of the Deartment, or of his superior, on the business of the pub É. and not for his own convenience, he is allowed 15 cents per mile. This is never paid when engaged in private transactions, or changing his duties at his own request, and not for the benefit of the public. The sum allowed is the same for officers of all grades, is supposed to be about the average expense of travelling in this country, and is absolutely necessary to enable our officers to obey the orders given to them. They are appointed from all parts of the Union, and often obliged to travel great distances to join stations or vessels. Such must always be the case with those from the Western states... The duties to be performed also, frequently require them to be transferred from one place to
|bility of the recruiting officer; and as the public afford
another. The expense of their Journeys often equals the greater part, in some instances, the whole, of ther pay. And if they must themselves bear it, only those upon our seaboard, and the rich who are able and willing to labor, without compensation, can belong to the service.
It is both just to the individual, and beneficial to the public, that the allowance be made. For its safe and faithful expenditure, reliance must, in this case, as in others, be had, in the first instance, on the intelligent. and integrity of those who give the orders, and in t second, of these who settle the accounts; both of whom must pass upon them. The amount of $272,633.93, em. braces all the sums paid to officers, exclusive of monthly pay and rations, travelling expenses, and expensesin. cident to courts martial. It includes a great variety of items, and among others, the following: Premiums and expenses for recruiting; chamber money and houserent fuel and candles; commissions and clerk hire; store and office rent of navy agent, and storekeeper; postage upon letters on public businesss; toll, sick quarters; purveying and care of medical stores; extra service in surveying, &c. &c. In every system of well organized public force, in all countries, most of these items form a part of the fundamental law creating it; and do not assume the character of allowances by Executive regulation, but to ter into the estimates for its support. It is the misfo tune of the Navy of the United States, never to have re. ceived any organization by law, nor to have been favored by the Legislature with a system into which they could be engrafted. They have, therefore, been left to tem. porary expedient and regulation, created from time to time as a necessity for them was felt. Under such cit cumstances, regularity and economy have been sought and, as far as possible, effected. A few remarks on two or three of the items, will explain their character andne: cessity.
Erpense of Recruiting.
A considerable portion of the amount is formed byte item. Rendezvous for recruiting must, from the nature of that business, be opened in those thickly settled paro of our cities, to which sailors are in the habit of resort ing, and accommodations must be procured for the pur. pose; officers of prudence and skill must be appoino to superintend them, and made responsible for the moo ner in which they discharge the duty and expend the money; and if they are imposed on as to the health of capacity of the recruit, or negligently permit him." desert, they must be subjected to loss. The annexed paper B, is a copy of Regulations, lately prepared." be added to, and explain, those previously existing." the subject, and will exhibit a part of the duty and so
him no accommodations, of any description, his acto expenses are also great. Under these circumstano and to urge on the enlistments, the Commanding Offito of the Rendezvous has heretofore been allowed $4" each recruit, and the inferior officer $1 50 per day." pay his board and expenses. The bill reported at the last session proposes to reduce the allowance from $4 to $3. Chamber money and house rent are allowed when an officer is ordered to perform a duty confining him to a particular place, and there is no vessel or build. | ing where he can eat or lodge, as when attached to, and performing duty in a Navy Yard, or preparing his yes:
for sea, and it is not in a situation for him to live on board; nor is there any other vessel or house, belonging
to the public, for his accommodation. Compelo o
obtain lodging and board, and often at very extrao" prices, his pay would be consumed by them, and too.
fore he is allowed, either chamber money at S** | week, if his duty be temporary; or house reno . its
usual rate at the place, if the duty be permanent; This expense, which is not small, will be in a great degree,