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make it a permanent one; and that the Indians referred to in Indiana, Illinois, in the peninsula of Michigan, and Ohio, will find in the country designated, kindred tribes, with whom they may be readily associated. These considerations, with the greater facility with which they could be collected in that portion of the country, compared with that of collecting them west of the Mississippi, form a strong inducement to give it the preference. Should the proposition be adopted, the Indians in question might be gradually collected, as it became necessary, from time to time, to extinguish the Indian title in Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan, without incurring any additional expense, other than what is usually incidental to such extinguishment. Deducting, then, the Indians residing in the Northwestern parts of Indiana, Illinois, in Michigan, and New York, with the Ottawas in Ohio, amounting to 13,150, from 92,664, will leave but 79,514. It is proper to add, that a late treaty with the Quapaws stipulates, and provides, for their removal, and that they may also be deducted from the number, for whose re. moval provision ought to be made. They are estimated at 700, which, deducted from 79,514, will leave 78,814 to be removed west of the state of Missouri and territory of Arkansas, should the views of the Department be adopted. Of these, there are estimated to reside in the states of North Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi, 53,625, consisting of Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, and Chickasaws; and claiming about 33,573,176 acres, including the claim of the Cherokees, in North Carolina; 3,082 in Ohio, and in the Southern and middle parts of Indiana and Illinois, consisting of Wyandotts, Shawnees, Senecas, Delawares, Kaskaskias, and Miami, and Eel rivers; 5,000 in Florida, consisting of Seminoles and remnants of other tribes; and the remainder in Missouri and Arkansas, consisting of Delawares, Kickapoos, Shawnees, Weas, Ioways, Piankeshaws, Cherokees, Quapaws, and Osages. The next subject of consideration will be, to acquire a sufficient tract of country West of the state of Missouri and territory of Arkansas, in order to establish permament settlements, in that quarter, of the tribes which are proposed to be removed. The country between the Red River and the Arkansas, has already been allotted to the Choctaws, under the treaty of the 18th October, 1820. The country north of the river Arkansas, and immediately west of the state of Missouri, is held almost entirely by the Osages and the Kanzas. The principal settlement of the former being on the Osage river, not far West of the Western boundary of Missouri; and of the latter, on the Missouri river, near Cow Island. There is a band of the Osages situated on the Verdigris, a branch of the Arkansas. Governor Clark has been already instructed to take measures to remove them from the Werdigris, to join the other bands on the Osage river. To carry this object into effect, and to extinguish the title of the Osages upon the Arkansas, and in the state of Missouri; and also to extinguish the title of the Kanzas to whatever tract of country may be necessary to effect the views of the Government, will be the first object of expenditure; and would require an appropriation, it is believed, of not less than 30,000 dollars. After this is effected, the next will be, to allot a portion of the coun. try to each of the tribes, and to commence the work of removal. The former would be effected, by vesting in the President discretionary power to make the location; and the lauer, by commencing with the removal of the Cherokees, Piankeshaws, Weas, Shawnees, Kickapoos, and Delawares, who now occupy different tracts of country, lying in the Northwestern portion of the Arkansas territory, and the Southwestern portion of the state of Missouri. It is believed that the Cherokees, to whom has been allotted a country lying between the Arkansas and White rivers, will very readily agree to removing their Eastern boundary furtherWest, on the consideration,

that, for the lands thereby ceded, they may have assign. ed to them an equal quantity further West, as they have evinced a strong disposition to prevent the settlement of the whites to the West of them. It is probable, the

this arrangement could be effected by an appropriation of a few thousand dollars, say five thousand, for the ex. pense of holding the treaty. Nor is it believed that there will be any difficulty in inducing the Piankeshaws, Weas, Shawnees, Kickapoos, and Delawares, to occupy a position, that may be assigned to them West of the state of Missouri; or that the operation will be attended with any great expense. The kindred tribes, in the states of Ohio and Indiana, including the Wyandotts, the Senecas, and the Miamies and Eel rivers, in those states, and the Kaskaskias, in Illinois, it is believed, might be induced, without much difficulty, to join them, afte: those now residing in Missouri are fixed in their new po sition, West of that state. Of the sum that will be me. cessary for this purpose, it is difficult to form an es: mate. These tribes amount to 3,082. The expensed extinguishing their title to the lands occupied by them, will probably be high, in comparison with the price which has been usually given for lands in that quartet, as they, particularly the Indians in Ohio, have made some advances in civilization, and considerable improve. ments on their lands. The better course would be, to

remove them gradually, commencing with those tribes which are most disposed to leave their present settle. ments, and, if this arrangement should be adopted, an appropriation of 20,000 dollars would be sufficient to conmence with. It may, however, be proper to remark, that these tribes, together with those in New York, have indicated a disposition to join the Cherokees on the Arkansas and that a deputation of the former, with a deputation from those Cherokees, are now on their way to the sea of Government, in order to make some arrangements to carry the proposed union into effect. Should it be so complished, it would vary the arrangement which hu been suggested in relation to them, but will not, prob: bly, materially vary the expense. It only remains now to consider the removal of the Indians in Florida, and the four southern tribes residio in North Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, an Mississippi. It is believed that immediate measures need noto taken with regard to the lindians in Florida. By to Treaty of the 18th September, 1823, they ceded to whole of the Northern portion of Florida, with the to ception of a few small reservations, and have had also ted to them the southern part of the peninsula; and its probable that no inconvenience will be felt for moo years, either by the inhabitants of Florida, or the * dians, under the present arrangement. of the four southern tribes, two of them, the Chero kees and Choctaws, have already allotted to them s tract of country west of the Mississippi. That whicho been allotted to the latter, is believed to be sufficient, ample for the whole nation, should they emigrate, * if an arrangement, which is believed not to be impro cable, could be made between them and the Chick” who are their neighbors, and of similar habits and dispo. sitions, it would be sufficient for the accommodati"." both. A sufficient country should be reserved to o: west of the Cherokees on the Arkansas, as a me” . exchange with those who remain on the east. To o Creeks might be allotted a country between the Arkansas and Canadian river, which limits the northern bo. dary of the Choctaw possessions in that quarter. T o: is now pending with the Creeks a negotiation, under o: appropriation of the last session, with a prospeo that: portion of that nation which resides within the lio" Georgia, may be induced, with the consent of the o tion, to cede the country which they occupy for a ". tion of the one which it is proposed to allot for to

18th CoNGREss, 2d Session. Creek nation on the west of the Mississippi. Should the treaty prove successful, its stipulations will provide for the means of carrying it into effect, which will render any additional provision at present, unnecessary. It will be properto open new communications with the Cherokees, Choctaws, and Chickasaws, for the purpose of explaining to them the views of the Government, and inducing them to remove beyond the Mississippi, on the principles and conditions which may be proposed to the other tribes. It is known, that there are many individuals of each of the tribes, who are desirous of settling wes' of the Mississippi, and should it be thought advisable, there can be no doubt, that if, by an adequate appropriation, the means were afforded the Government of bearing their expense, they would emigrate. Should it be thought, that the encouragement of such emigration is desirable, the sum of 40,000 dollars, at least, would be required to be appropriated for this object, to be applied under the discretion of the President of the United States. The several sums which have been recommend. ed to be appropriated, if the proposed arrangements should be adopted, amount to 95,000 dollars. The appropriation may be made either general or specific, as may be considered most advisable. I cannot, however conclude, without remarking, that no arrangement ought to be made which does not regard the interest of the Indians, as well as our own, and that to protect the interest of the former, decisive measures ought to be adopted to prevent the hostility, which must almost necessarily take place if left to themselves, among tribes hastily brought together, of discordant character; and many of which are actuated by feelings far from friendly towards each other. But the preservation of peace between them will not alone be sufficient to render their condition as eligible in their new situation, as it is in their present. Almost all of the tribes proposed to be effected by the arrangement, are more or less advanced in the arts of civilized life, and there is scarcely one of them, which have not the establishment of schools in the nation, affording at once the means of moral, religious, and intellectual improvement. These schools have been established for the most part by religious societies, with the countenance and aid of the Government, and on every principle of humanity the continuance of similar advantages of education ought to be extended to them in their new residence. There is another point which appears to be indispensable to be guarded, in order to render the condition of this race less afflicting. One of the greatest evils to which they are subject, is that incessant pressure of our population, which forces them from seat to seat, without allowing time for that moral and intellectual improvement, for which they appear to be naturally eminently susceptible. To guard against this evil, so fatal to the race, there ought to be the strongest and the most solemn assurance, that the country given them should be theirs, as a permanent home for themselves and their posterity, without being disturbed by the encroachments of our citizens. To such assurance, if there should be added 2 system by which the government, without destreying their independence, would gradually unite the several tribes under a simple, but enlightened system of government and laws, formed on the principles of our own, and to which, as their own people would partake in it, they would, under the influence of the contemplated improvement, at no distant day, become prepared, the arrangettients which have been proposed would prove to the Indians and their posterity a permanent blessing. It is believed that, if they could be assured that peace and friendship would be maintained among the several tribes: that the advantages of education which they now enjoy would be extended to them; that they should have a permanent and solemn guarantee for their pos sessions, and receive the countenance and aid of the government for the gradual extension of its privileges to

Location and Improvement of Indians.

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them, there would be among all the tribes a disposition to accord with the views of the government. There are now in most of the tribes, well educated, sober, and reflecting individuals, who are afflicted at the present condition of the Indians, and despondent at their future prospects. Under the operation of existing causes, they behold the certain degradation, misery, and even the final annihilation of their race, and no doubt would gladly embrace any arrangement which would promise to elevate them in the scale of civilization, and arrest the destruction which now awaits them. It is conceived that one of the most cheap, certain, and desirable modes of effecting the object in view, would be, for Congress to establish fixed principles, such as have been suggested as the basis of the proposed arrangement, and to authorize the President to convene, at some suitable point, all of the well informed, intelligent, and influential individuals of the tribes to be affected by it, in order to explain to them the views of the government, and to pledge the faith of the nation to the arrangements that might be adopted. Should such principles be established by Congress, and the President be vested with suitable authority to convene the individuals as proposed. and suitable provision be made to meet the expense, §. confidence is felt, that a basis of a system might »e laid, which, in a few years, would entirely effect the object in view, to the mutual benefit of the government and the Indians, and which, in its operations, would effectually arrest the calamitous course of events to which they must be subject without a radical change in the present system. Should it be thought advisable to call such a convention, as one of the means of effecting the object in view, an additional appropriation of 30,000 dollars will be required; making in the whole, 125,000 dollars to be appropriated. All of which is respectfully submitted. J. C. CALHOUN. To the PREsident of the United States.

DEPARTMENT of Wan, Office of Indian Affairs, Jan. 10, 1825. SIR : I have the honor, here with, to submit, in com" pliance with your directions, a table containing a statement of the names of the Indian tribes now remaining within the limits of the different states and territories; the number of each tribe ; and the quantity of land claimed by each. There is no land assigned, as will be seen on reference to the table, to the Indians in Louisiana; yet, it is believed, the Caddoes have a claim, but to what extent is not known. So, also, have the Cherokees, (whose numbers are not known,) to a tract in the northwest corner of the state of North Carolina; which, it is believed, does not exceed 200,000 acres. In New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and perhaps in Maryland, a few Indians are remaining, but how many, or what quantity of land is owned by them, if any, there are no means of ascertaining. There are now remaining within the limits of the different states and territories, as is shewn by the table, sixty-four tribes and remnants of tribes of Indians, whose “ names” and “numbers” are given; who number, in the aggragate, 129,266 souls; and who claim 77,402,318 acres of land. It will be seen by adverting to the table, that the Indians residing north of the state of Illinois, east of the Mississippi, and west of the Lakes, are comprehended in the estimate of the number in Michigan Territory; although, in estimating the quantity of land held by Indians in that territory, the portion, only, so held in the peninsula of Michigan, is estimated. It was found impossible, from any documents in possession of this office, to distinguish the number of Chippewas and Ottawas residing in the peninsula of Michigan from those residing on the west side of Lake Michigan. It is, however

18th Congness,
2d Session.
believed, that the whole number residing in the penin-
sula, does not exceed 3,500; and these, as has been
stated, are principally of the Chippewa and Ottawa
It may be proper also to remark, that of the 6,400
Sacks and Foxes who are included in the estimate as
part of the 129,266; and who occupy lands on both
sides of the Mississippi, not more than one-third of that
number are supposed to reside on the east side ; and of
the 5,200 Osages, who, by the table, are assigned to Mis-
souri and Arkansas,it is believed, not more than one-third
of that number reside within the state of Missouri and ter-
ritory of Arkansas. If, therefore, the number assumed for
the peninsula of Michigan, be correct, and two-thirds of
the Sacs and Foxes, as is believed to be the fact, reside on
the west of the Mississippi; and two-thirds of the Osag-
es west of Missouri, and north of Arkansas, there will
remain “within the limits of the different states and
territories,”—confining the Michigan territory to the pe-
ninsula—97,384 Indians, possessing, (if the 200,000
acres which are believed to be claimed by the Chero-
kees in North Carolina, be added,) 77,602,318 acres of
In obtaining this information, resort has been had, for
the “names” and “ numbers” of the Indian tribes, to
the reports to this office, and to other sources of inform-
ation which are deemed to be the most accurate; and,
for the quantity of land claimed by them, to the files of
this office; to the General Land Office; and to compu-

Location and Improvement of Indians.

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tations carefully made from the best maps, by Colonel
Roberdeau, of the Topographical Bureau.
The 4,000,000 of acres assumed as the quantity claim.
ed by the Cherokees in Arkansas, although but an esti.
mate, is believed to be nearly correct. The precise
quantity, however, cannot be ascertained, until it is
known how much they ceded on this side the Mississip.
pi, for which, by the treaty of 1817, they are to receive
an equal number of acres on the other.
I have the honor to accompany this with a note from
Col. Roberdeau, in relation to the difference between
his estimate of last year, of the lands claimed in Geor.
gia, and his recent corrected computation of them.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully,
Your most obedient servant,
To the Hon. the Secretary of War.

Topognaphical Buhrau, Jan. 10, 1825. The quantity of land in the state of Georgia, not ced. ed to the United States by Indians, was, last year, re. ported at 10,240,000 square acres; upon a review ofthe calculations, and having more correct documents than were then referred to, the whole quantity in the state appears to be 9,537,920 acres, of which 5,292,160 are of the Cherokees, and 4,245,760 of the Creeks, as near ly as can be computed. I. ROBERDEAU, Lt. Col. Top. Engineers, Col. Tho's L. McKENNEr, Indian Department,

STATEMENT, showing the Names and Numbers of the different the limits of the several States and Territories,

maining within
claimed by them respectively.

Tribes of Indians now re. and the quantity of Land

- . . . . . Numbers|Number | Number of Names of the Tribes. | States or Territories in of each in each | acres claimed which located. Tribe. I state or by each tribe. R.E.Martra. territory. St. John's Indians, - || Maine, - - - 300 - - No informati Passamaquoddies,' - do - - - 379 - 100 ation as to their lands. Penobscots, do - - 277 - 92,160 - 956 sA. the †. in this state re. ! side on - - o-o-oMarshpee, - - || Massachusetts, - 320 - - tions, at floo Herring Pond, - do - - - .4% - - ! they are designated, the quan. Martha's Vineyard, - do - - - 340 - - tity of land occupied by them Troy, - - - do - - - 50 - - is not known, nor is there any 750 information in this office by which it can be ascertained. Narragansett, - - || Rhode Island, - - - 420 3,000 Mohvgan, - - || Connecticut, - - 300 - 4,000 Stonington, - - do - - - 50 - 300 Groton, - - - do - - - 50 400 - No information as to their lands. Senecas, - - - se: York, - - || 2,325 - Y Tuscaroras, - - o - - - 253 - These Indians o - - wn, and posses Oneidas, - - - : - - 1,096 - together, sixteen reservations: Onondagas, - - . - - - 446 - 246,675 || land, containing in the whole, Cayugas, - - - j - - - 90 - r according to the report of the i. - - . - - - § - | agent, on file in this office, about ro - - - - - - th St. Regis indians, - do - - - 300 e number of acres stated - - - - -- 5,143 Nottaways, - - || Virginia, -, - - - 47 27,000 Catawbas, - - || South Carolina, - - 450 144,000

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States and Territories in which located.

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Numbers of each Tribe.

Number in each

state or territory.

Number of acres claimed

by each Tribe.

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sThe quantity of land claimed by these tribes is contained in several reservations, secured to them respectively, by treaty. Be|. these there are a number i of other reservations, secured 4 separately, to individual Indians, containing together, 16,200 acres; making the whole quantity claimed in this state,409,501 acres, according to information obtained from the General Land UOffice. sThese tribes reside, in some degree, promiscuously, and the number stated comprehends all those inhabiting the country north of Illinois, and between Lake Michigan and Mississippi rivers, as well as those residing in , the peninsula formed by Lakes Erie and Michigan, and the northern boundary of Indiana. The quantity of land mentioned is that claimed by the Indians in the peninsula only; but in what proportion by the respective tribes, cannot be ascerUtained. s: part of these lands is claimed


by the Potawatamies and Chippewas, (who reside partly in this state and in Illinois,) but in what proportion there are no means of ascertaining. This is the whole quantity of land claimed by Indians in this state, including the Pottawatamies and Chippewas, but there | are no means of distinguishing 3 ho quantity owned by each tribe. The number of Sauks and Foxes, embraces those on both sides of the Mississippi; there being no means of ascer! taining the particular number of

Uthem in Illinois. § claimed by them separately from other tribes, not known. so quantity of land here stated is the whole quantity claimed by all these tribes within the states mentioned; of which The Creeks claim in Georgia, 4,245,760 The Cherokees in do. 5,292,160 - 9,537,920 The Creeks and Cherokees, in Alabama, - - 5,995,200 The Choctaws, do. 781,440 The Chickasaws, do. 495,536 7,272,576 The Cherokees, in Tennessee, 1,055,680 The Choctaws and Chickasaws, \in Mississippi, 15,705,000

Claim lands in both states; quan

th Congress, - - * $. o * ; Location and Improvement of Indians. [H. of R. Numbers! Number -- I - Number of Names of the Tribes. States or Territories in o ... acres claimed which located. lierritory. by each Tribe. EaleMarks. - th - - - Quantity of land computed from *...; Florida Territory, - 5,000 || 4,032,640 } the survey made by Colonel Gadsden. Billoxie, - - - || Louisiana, - - 55 - Apolashe, - - do - - - 45 - Pascagoula, - - do - - - 111 - - Addees, - - - do - - - 27 - - These Indians are all hunters, Yaltasse, - - - do - - - 36 - - and reside principally in Red Coshattees, - - do - - - 180 - - River, in this state. There is no Caddow, - - - do - - - 450 - - information as to the landsclaim. Delawares, - - do - - - 51 - - ed by them. Their numbers Choctaws, - - do - - - 178 - - are taken from the report of the Shawnees, - - do - - - 110 - - agent, on file in this office. Nachitoches, - - do - - - 25 - Quapaws, - - - do - - - 8 - - Piankeshaws, - - do - - - 27 - 1,313 - - Hold the lands they occupy to Delawares, - - W Missouri, - - || 1,800 - 21,120 &der the treaty with them, of 3d - Oct. 1818. land - - - - - - - Hold their lands under treaties Kickapoos, do 2,200 *600|};}"...o.o. These Indians emigrated, a few Shawnees, - - do - - - 1,383 - 14,086 s: ago, from the East of the Mississippi to their presentres. Udence in this state. Under the treaties of 1818 and 1820, the Weas sold out so - - - - - - - - claim to lands in Indiana, Ohio, Weas, do 327 and Illinois, and emigrated o this state. There is no informs: | tion as to the lands now owned Uor occupied by them. Ihoways, - - - do - - - , 1,100 - - No information as to the lands claimed by these Indians. ... The Osages reside partly in M* souri and in Arkansas, and the Osages, - - - Missouri and Arkan- greater portion west of both of sas Territory, - || 5,200 - 3,491,840 |& the lands stated as claimed by i them, 2,737,920 acres are in the former, and 753,920 acres into latter. Piankeshaws; - - do - - - 2C7 - - No information as to their lano The Cherokees . about the - uantity of land in this territo Cherokees, - - || Arkansas Territory, 6,000 - 4,000,000 3.der #.o of 1817 and 1819. the precise quantity not yet” certained. hese Indians have o: sold - - - - out all their claim, and are?” Quapaws, - - do - 700 - to remove beyond the lim" o the territory. - --> very few or none of this to reside in the territory; buo Choctaws, - - do - - - - - 8,858,560 |{ claim in it the quantity 18,917 stated under the treaty

October, 1820.

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