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ciently regarded the dignity of human nature in speaking of the minds of the inferior animals as belonging to the same mode of existence, or being of the same essence, with the mind of man. I do not myself see how any one, who does not (with Descartes) believe animals to be mere unconscious machines, can arrive at any other conclusion. I do not, however, feel that it is necessary for me to enter further into the question, as it has been fully considered by one of much greater authority than myself; and I have only to refer to the observations on this subject contained in the first chapter of the Rev. Dr. Butler's Analogy of Religion to the Constitution and Course of Nature.
The subject of the present Volume, although replete with interest, and of much practical importance, is one as to which we have no means of obtaining such complete and definite knowledge as to admit of it being presented in the shape of a systematic treatise. Some points may be considered as established with a sufficient degree of certainty; there are others as to which opinions may reasonably differ; while there is still a greater number as to which we must be content to acknowledge that, with our limited capacities, we have no means of forming an opinion at all.
The method of dialogue seems to be especially adapted for inquiries of this description; and it is hoped that this will be considered as a sufficient apology for the form in which the following observations are submitted to the public.
Introduction. — Pursuits in Retirement. — Limits of
they could not venture to postpone for another year. Some official and professional persons still lingered in the Clubs; but the houses in the squares were deserted, and there was an end for the season of what is called, Kot S^o^v, —London Society. Meeting accidentally a friend, whom I shall distinguish by the name of Crites, I expressed my surprise at seeing him still in London. "Our Court," said he, "has been sitting later than usual; but I am now emancipated, and I am about to pay a longpromised visit to our friend Eubulus. I know that it would afford him the greatest pleasure if you would accompany me as his visitor."
Eubulus had been my intimate friend in early life. As boys, we had wandered together through our native woods; as young men we had similar pursuits and tastes: had admired the same poetry, and had speculated together on subjects beyond the reach of human wit; but afterwards, being engaged in different professions, and our roads in life lying in different directions, we had parted company, and, as we travelled onwards, had only occasional