ciently regarded the dignity of human nature in speaking of the minds of the inferior animals as belonging to the same mode of existence, or being of the same essence, with the mind of man. I do not myself see how any one, who does not (with Descartes) believe animals to be mere unconscious machines, can arrive at any other conclusion. I do not, however, feel that it is necessary for me to enter further into the question, as it has been fully considered by one of much greater authority than myself; and I have only to refer to the observations on this subject contained in the first chapter of the Rev. Dr. Butler's Analogy of Religion to the Constitution and Course of Nature.


The subject of the present Volume, although replete with interest, and of much practical importance, is one as to which we have no means of obtaining such complete and definite knowledge as to admit of it being presented in the shape of a systematic treatise. Some points may be considered as established with a sufficient degree of certainty; there are others as to which opinions may reasonably differ; while there is still a greater number as to which we must be content to acknowledge that, with our limited capacities, we have no means of forming an opinion at all.

The method of dialogue seems to be especially adapted for inquiries of this description; and it is hoped that this will be considered as a sufficient apology for the form in which the following observations are submitted to the public.



Introduction. — Pursuits in Retirement. — Limits of
Mental Exertion. — The effort of Volition the source
of mental as it is of bodily fatigue. — The Imagination
when we are awake compared with that during Sleep.
— Dreams. — Analogy of the Poetic Genius to that
of Discovery in Science.—Sir Isaac Newton's account
of the Process of Discovery in his own mind.—Mental
Operations of which we seem to be unconscious.—
How to be explained. — Evils of an ill-regulated Ima-
gination.—Fanatics and Impostors. — Modern Credu-
lity.—Modern Education.—Influence of Mathematical
Studies.—The faculty of correct Reasoning a natural
gift rather than one acquired artificially.— Self-edu-
cation.— Sir Humphry Davy.— Sir Walter Scott.—
John Hunter. — Ferguson the Astronomer. — The
levelling influence of a high Education. — Advantages
which may be expected to arise from the improve-
ments of Education now in progress - Page 1


Mind and Matter. — Natural Theology.—Views of Sir

. Isaac Newton. — Reasons for regarding the Mental

Principle as distinct from Organization. — The In-

fluence of the one on the other not sufficiently re-

garded by Metaphysicians.—Relations of the Nervous

System to the Mental Faculties. — Speculations of

Hooke, Hartley, &c. — The Brain not a single Organ,

but a Congeries of Organs co-operating to one Pur-

they could not venture to postpone for another year. Some official and professional persons still lingered in the Clubs; but the houses in the squares were deserted, and there was an end for the season of what is called, Kot S^o^v, —London Society. Meeting accidentally a friend, whom I shall distinguish by the name of Crites, I expressed my surprise at seeing him still in London. "Our Court," said he, "has been sitting later than usual; but I am now emancipated, and I am about to pay a longpromised visit to our friend Eubulus. I know that it would afford him the greatest pleasure if you would accompany me as his visitor."

Eubulus had been my intimate friend in early life. As boys, we had wandered together through our native woods; as young men we had similar pursuits and tastes: had admired the same poetry, and had speculated together on subjects beyond the reach of human wit; but afterwards, being engaged in different professions, and our roads in life lying in different directions, we had parted company, and, as we travelled onwards, had only occasional

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