6. Nor was he mistaken: for all who came by thesoil roads were slaughtered by our men, and the whole of the booty which they were carrying off was recovered unhurt. Thoso n'Ono escaped in safety who passed by the camp of l'arbatio, who were suffered to escape in that direction becallsö Tainobaudes the tribune, and Valentinian (after wards emperor), who had been appointed to watch that £ with the squadrons of cavalry under their orders, were

orbidden by Cella (the tribune of the Scutarii, who had
been scnt as colleague to Barbatio) to occupy that road,
though they were sure that by that the Germans would
return to their own country.

7. The cowardly master of the horse, being also an
obstinate cnemy to the glory of Julian, was not contented
with this, but being conscious that he had given orders
inconsistent with # interests of IRome (for when he was
accused of it Cella confessed what he had done), he made
a false report to Constantius, and told him that these same
tribunes had, under a pretence of the business of the state,
came thither for the purpose of tampering with the
soldiers whom he commanded. And owing to this state-
ment they were deprived of their commands, and returned
home as private individuals.

8. In these days, also, the barbarians, alarmed at the approach of our armies, which had established their stations on the le k of the Rhine, employed some part

of their force in skilfully barricnding the roads, naturally
difficult of access, and full of hills, by abattis constructed


of large trees cut down; other: occupied the numerous .
island: scattered up and down the Rhone, and with horrid

howls poured forth constnut FCTFönches against the Romans
mnd the (tubar, who, being now more than ever resolved to
crush home of their amies, demanded from IBarbatio seven
of thoso boats which ho had collected, for the pulmoso of
constructing a bridgo with them, with the intention of
Cronking the river, Tut TWTOntio, (left" mino () that no an-
*INTail" Kliotill be got from him, Turnt Illum III,
0. Julian-Ithalafura, having-leanut-fi -
Ronnt) M1110
the drou
addresse -
auxiliary troops, and sont them forward with l'ainabauden,

* -

—fruiu the repult-of" whom ho had lately taken prinone!", that, when it of summer arrived, the river was fordable,

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the tribune of the Cornuti, to try and orm some gallant 11 tilev cou nd an opportunity. And they,

entering the shallow of the river, and sometimes, when

there was occasion imming, putting their shields un - reached a neighbouring island, and having landed, killed every one they found on it, men and women - - - e, like so many sheep.

Il ving found som - though they were not very safe, they crossed in them, forcing their way into many places of the same land. When they were weary of £ however, they lost through vi iver, they | ret £

10. And when this was known, the rest of the Germans,

thinking they could no longer trust the garrisons left in
the islands, removed their relations, and their magazines,
ant - T inland parts."
11. After this £
fortress known by the name of Saverne, which had a little.
time before been destroyed by a violent attack of the
enemy, but which, while it stood, mani -
the #

ifostly prevented

ermans from forcing their way into the interior of

£; and he

executed this work with greater rapidity than he expected,

and he laid up for the garrison which he intended to post he h

there sufficient magazines for a whole year's consumption, which his army collected from the crops of the

|: not without -

12. Nor indeed was he contented with this, but he also collected provisions for himself and his army sufficient for

twenty days. £ food which they had won with their own right hands,

being especially indignant because, out of all the supplies which had been recently sent them, they were not able to obtain anything, inasmuch as Barbatio, when they were passing near his camp, had with great insolence seized on a portion of them, and had collected all the rest into a heap and burnt them. Whether he acted thus out of his own vanity and insane folly, or whether others were really the authors of this wickedness, relying on the command of the emperor himself, has never been known.



13. However, as far as report w th - ly was, that Julian had been elected Caesar, not for the object of relieving the distresses of the Gauls, but rather of being himself destroyed by the formidable wars in which he was sure to be involved; being at that time, as was supposed, inexperienced in war, and not likely to endure even the sound of arms.

14. While the works of the camp were steadily rising. and while a portion of the army was being distributed among the stations in the country districts, Julian occu

|pied himself in other quarters with collecting supplies, ££ And in the mean time, a vast host of th estripping all report of their approach by the celerity of their movements, came down with a sudden attack upon Barbatio, and the army which (as Thave already mentioned) he had under his command, separated from the Gallic army of Severus only by a ramparti and having put him to flight, pursued him as far as Augst, and beyond that town too, as # as they could; and,

having made booty of the greater part of his baggage and beasts of burden, and having carried-off many of the sutlers as prisoners, they returned to their main army. 15. And Barbatio, as if he had brought his expectations to a prosperous issue, now distributed his soldiers into winter quarters, and returned to the emperor's court, to

forge new accusations against the Caesar, according to his



§ 1. WHEN this dis ful disaster had become known, £ and V estralpus, the kings of the Allemanni, and Urius and Ursicinus, with Serapion, and Suomarius, and Hortarius, havin collected all# into one body, encamp: near the city of Strasburg, thinking that the Caesar, from fear of imminent danger, had retreated at the very time that he was wholly occupied with completing a fortress to enable him to make a permanent stand.

2. Their confidence and assurance of success was increased by one of the Scutarii who deserted to them, who,

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fearing punishment for some offence which he had committed, crossed over to them after the departure of Bar. £| men remaining with him. For that was the number of troops that £ had now with him, while the ferocious barbarians w stirri attacks upon him from all sides.

3. And stantly adhered to the same story, they were excited to more haughty attempts by the confidence with which he inspired them, and sent ambassadors in an imperious tone to Caesar, demanding that he should retire from the #" # they had acquired by their own Valour in arms. , a stranger to fear, and not liable to be swayed either by anger or by disappointment, despised the arrogance of the barbarians, and detaining the ambassadors till he had comple ks of his camp - - able on his gro admirable con

nd with

4. But Kin - - bout in every direc

"5 undertake dangerous enterprises, kept Everything in continual agitation and confusion, being full of arrogance and pride, as one whose headw *d by r Success.

1 5. For he had defeated the Caesar Decentius in a pitched attle, and he had plundered and destroyed many wealthy

ities, and he had long ravaged all Gaul at his own pleasure without meeting with any resistance. And his £ |: superior to him in the number and strength of his

forces. -
6. For the Alle i. beholdi mblem ir
shields, saw that a few predatory bands of their men has
wrested those districts from those soldiers whom they had
ormerly nover engaged but with fear, and by whom they
had often been routed with much loss. And these cir-
£ because, after the
defection of Barbatio, he himself under the pressure of
absolute necessity was compelled to encounter very popu-
lous tribes, with but very few, though brave troops.

* 7. £ |# , and the infantry were led forth from the camp in

slow march, and on their flanks were arrayed the


A.D.357 ) JULIAN's SPEECH To His soldiers. 100


\lequadrons of cavalry, among which were both the cui

# the #: troops whose equipment was very formidable.

8. And since from the spot from which the Roman

to say, the least of it, compels me, and I am no prince of .

abject spirit, to exhort you, my comrades, to rely so much
on your own mature and vigorous valour, as to follow
my counsels in adopting a prudent manner of enduring or
repelling the evils which we anticipate, rather than resort
to an overhasty mode of action which must be doubtful in
its issue.
10. “For though amid dangers youth ought to be ener-
getic and bold, so also in cases of necessity it should
show itself manageable and prudent. Now what I think
best to be done, if your opinion accords with mine, and
if your just indignation will endure it, I will briefly
11. “Already noon-is-approaching-we-are-weary with
our march, and if w - a shall enter upon rugged
paths where we can hardly Qur-way. As the moon is
waning the night will not be lighted up by any stars.
The earth is burnt up with the heat, and will afford us no
supplies of water. And even if by any contrivance we
# get over these difficultics comfortably, still, when
the swarms of the enemy fall upon us, refreshed as they
will be with rest, meat, and drink, what will become
of us?"What strength will there be in our weary limbs,
exhausted as we shall be with hunger, thirst, and toil, to
encounter them ?
12. “Ther -


Therefore, since the most critical difficulties are often overcome by skilful arrangements, and since, after . good counsel has been taken in good part, divine-looking

remedies have often re-established affairs which seemed to

be tottering; I entreat you to let us here, surrounded as


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