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13. “ For it would be an unhecoming and shameful thing whon all men's cars aro filled with our exploits, so as to havo shut even the mouth of enry; when after the destruction of tyrants the wholo Roman world obeys us, to give up those territories which even when limited to the narrow bouudaries of the east we proserved undiminished,
14. “ But I pray theo make an end of the threats which thou utterest against me, in obedience to thy national habit, when it cannot be doubted that it is not from inactivity, but from moderation, that we have at tines endured attacks instead of being the assailants ourselves: and know that, whenover we are attucked, we defend our own with bravery and good will: being assured both by thy reading and thy personal experience that in battle it has been rare for Romans to meet with disaster; and that in the final issue of a war we have 'nover come off the worst."
15. The embassy was therefore dismissed without gain ng any of its objects; and indeed no other reply could be given to the unbridled covetousness of the king. And a few days aftorwards, Count Prosper followed, and Spectator tho tribuno and secretary; and also, by the suggestion of Musonianus, Eustathius tho philosophor, as one skilfil in persuading, bearing a letter from the emperor, and presents, with a view to induce Sapor to suspend his preparations, so that all our attention might be turned to fortifying the northern provinces in the most effectivo manner.
a man of not much activity, but a fluent talker, be, as his troops were in a high state of indignation at the invaders, gave them so terrible a defeat, that only a very few, who took to fight in their panic, escaped to carry back their tears and lamentations to their homes.
3. In this battlo Nevita, who afterwards becamo consul, was present as commander of a squadron of cavalry, and displayed great gallantry.
VII. § 1. This year also some terrible earthquakes took place in Macedonia, Asia Minor, and I'ontus, and their repeated shocks overthrew many towns, and even mountains. But the most remarkable of all the manifold disasters which they caused was the entiro ruin of Nicomedia, the metropolis of Bithynia ; which I will bero relate with truth and brevity.
2. On the 23rd of August, at day break, some heavy black clouds suddenly obscured the sky, which just before was quite fair. And tho sun was so wholly concealed that it was impossible to see what was near or even quite close, 80 completely did a thick lurid darkness sctile on the ground, preventing the least use of the eyes.
3. l'resently, as if the supreme deity were himself letting loose his fatal wrath, and stirring up the winds from their hinges, a violent raging storm descended, by the fury of which the groaning mountains were struck, and the crash of the waves on the shore was hcard to a vast distance. And then followed typhoons and whirlwinds with a horrid trembling of the earth, throwing down the whole city and its suburbs.
4. And as most of tho houses were built on the slopes of tho hills, they now fell down ono over the other, while all around rosounded with the vast crash of their fall. l.nl the mean time tho tops of tho hills ro-ochocd all sorts of noisos, as well as outories of men sccking their wives and children, and other relations.
5. At last, after two hours, or at least within three, the air became again clear and serene, and disclosed the destruction which till then was unscen. Some, overwhelmed by the enormous masses of ruins which had fallen upon them, were crushed to death. Some wero
buried up to the neck, and might have been saved if thero had been any timely help at hand, but perished for want of assistanco; others were transfixed by the points of beams projecting forth, on which they hung suspended.
6. Ilero was scen a crowd of porsons slain by one blow; thoro a promiscuous heap of corpses piled in various ways
somo were buried beneath the roofs of falling houses, which leant over so as to protect them from any actual blows, but reserved them for an agonizing death by starvation. Among whom was Aristænetus, who, with tho authority of deputy, governed Bithynia, which had been recently erected into a province; and to which Constantius had given the name of liety, in honour of his wife Eusebia, (a Greek word, equivalent to Pietas in Latin); and he perished thus by a lingering death.
7. Others who were overwhelmed by the sudden fall of vast buildings, are still lying 'entombed beneath the immovable masses. Some with their skulls fractured, or their shoulders or legs cut through, lay between life and death, imploring aid from others suffering equally with themselves; but in spite of their entreaties they were abandoned.
8. Xot but what the greater part of the temples and buildings and of the citizens also would have escaped unhurt, if a fire had not suddenly broken out, which raged with great violence for fifty days and nights, and destroyed all that remained.
9. I think this a good opportunity to enumerato a few of the conjectures which the ancients have formed about earthqnakes. For as to any accurate knowledge of their causes, not only has that never been attained by the ignorance of the common people, but they have equally eluded the long lucubrations and subtle researches of natural philosophers.
10. And on this account in all priestly coremonies, whother ritual or pontifical, caro is takon not at such times to namo ono god more than anothor, for fear of impiety, since it is quito uncortain which god causes these visitations.
11. But as the various opinions, among which Aristotle wavers and hesitates, suggest, earthquakes are engendered either in small caverns under the earth, which the Greeks
call ovplyyes, because of the waters pouring through them with a more rapid motion than usual, or, as Anaxagoras affirms, they arise from the force of the wind penetrating the lower parts of the earth, which, when they have got down to the encrusted solid mass, finding no vent-holes, shako those portions in their solid state, into which they have got entrance when in a state of solution. And this is corruborated by the observation that at such times no breezes of wind are felt by us abore ground, becanse the winds aro occupied in the lowest recesses of the earth.
12. Anaximander says that the earth when burnt up by excessive heat and drought, and also after excessive rains, opens larger fissures than usual, which the upper air penetrates with great force and in excessive quantities, and tho earth, shaken by the furions blasts which penetrato thoso fissures, is disturbed to its very foundations ; for which reason these fearful events occur either at times of great eraporation or else at those of an extravagant fall of rain from heaven. And therefore the ancient poets and theologians gave Neptune the name of Earthshaker,' as being the power of moist substance.
13. Now earthquakes take place in four manners : either they aro brasmatia,' which raise up the ground in a terrible manner, and throw vast masses up to tho surface, as in Asia, Delos aroso, and Iliera; and also Anapho and Rhodos, which has at difforent times been called Ophiusa and Pelagia, and was once watered with a shower of gold;' and Eleusis in Boeotia, and the Hellenian islands in the Tyrrhenian sca, and many other islands. Or they are climatiæ, which, with a slanting and oblique blow, level cities, edifices, and mountains. Or chasmatia,' which suddenly, by a violent motion, open huge mouths, and so swallow up portions of the earth, as in the Atlantic sea,
' 'Eroglyowv, Luolxowy, 'Evvoolgdavos, from dvbow and oeiw, to shake, and xoày and raia, the earth.
: From Bpaço, to lwil over.
• Strabo gives Opbiurn as one of the names of Rhodes, and Homer mentions thio golden shower :
kal opur Ocoriotov TAOÛTOU KATéxeve aporiww.—II. B. vi. 70. As also docs Pindar, Ol. vii. 63.
• From Kairw, to lay down.
on the coast of Europe, a large island' was swallowed up, and in the Crissæan Gulf, Helice and Bura,' and in Italy, in the Ciminian district, the town of Saccumun' was swallowed up in a deep gulf and hidden in everlasting darkness. And among these three kinds of earthquakes, myæmotia aro heard with a threatening roar, when the clements either spring apart, their joints being broken, or again rosettle in thoir former placos, when the earth also settlos back; for then it cannot be but that crashes and roars of the earth should resound with bull-like bellowings. Let us now return to our original subject.
VIII. § 1. CÆSAR, passing his winter among the Parisii, was eagerly preparing to anticipate the Allemanni, who were not yet assombled in ono body, but who, sinco the lattlo of Strasburg, were working thomsolvos up to a pitch of insnno audacity and ferocity. And he was waiting with great impatience for the month of July, when the Gallic campaigns usually begin, For indeed he could not march before the summer had banished the frost and cold, and allowed him to receive supplies from Aquitania.
2. But as diligence overcomes almost all difficulties, he, revolving many plans of all kinds in his mind, at last conceived the idea of not waiting till the crops were ripo, but falling on the barbarians before they expected him. And having resolved in that plan, he caused his men to take corn for twenty days' consumption from what they had in store, and to make it into biscuit, so that it might keep longer; and this enabled the soldiers to carry it, which they did willingly. And relying on this provision, and setting out as before, with favourable auspices, he reckoned that in the course of five or six months be might finish two urgent and indispensable expeditions.
3. And when all his preparations were made, he first 1 This is a tale told by Plato in the Timæus (which is believed to have no foundation).
* The destruction of Helico is related in Diodorus Sio. xiv. 48; cf. Ov. Met. xv. 290.
• The lake Ciminus was near Centumcelle, cf. Virg. Æn, vii. 697. The town of Snccumum is not mentioned by any other writer.
• From purcw, to roar like a bull.