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river Abora, was betrayed by information given by some of his own men, who being alarmed at tho discovery of cortain crimes which they had committed, deserted to the Roman garrisons, and accordingly he retired again without having accomplished anything; and after that remained quiet without undertaking any further enterprise.

IV.

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§ 1. At this time also the Saracens, a race whom it is never desirable to have either for friends or enemies, ranging up and down the country, if ever they found anything, plundered it in a moment, like rapacious hawks who, if from on high they behold any prey, carry it off with rapid swoop, or, if they fail in their attempt, do not tarry

2. And although, in recounting the career of the Prince Marcus, and once or twice subsequently, I remember having discussed the manners of this people, nevertheless I will now briefly enumerate a few more particulars concerning them.

3. Among these tribes, whose primary origin is derived from the cataracts of the Nile and the borders of the Blemmym, all the men aro warriors of equal rank; half naked, Jclad in coloured cloaks down to the waist, overrunning different countries, with the aid of swift and activo horses and speedy camels, alike in times of peace and war. Nor does any member of their tribes ever take plough in hand or cultivate a tree, or seek food by the tillage of the land ; but they are perpetually wandering over various and extensive districts, having no homo, no fixed abode or laws; nor can they endure to remain long in the samo climate, no one district or country pleasing them for a continuance.

4. Their life is ono continued wandering; their wives aro lired, on special covenant, for a fixed timo; and that there may be some appearance of marriage in the business, the intended wife, under the name of a dowry, offers a spear and a tent to her husband, with a right to quit him after a fixed day, if she should choose to do so. And it is inconceivable with what eagerness the individuals of both sexes give themselves up to matrimonial pleasures.

5. But as long as they live they wander about with such extensive and perpetual migrations, that the woman is married in one place, brings forth her children in another, and rears them at a distance from either place, no opportunity of remaining quiet being ever granted to her.

6. They all live on venison, and are further supported on a great abundance of milk, and on many kinds of borbs, and on whatever birds they can catch by fowling. And we have seen a great many of them wholly ignorant of the use of either corr or wir.e.

7. So much for this most mischievous nation. Now let us return to the subject we originally proposed to our selves.

v. § 1. WHILE these events were taking place in the East, Constantius was passing the wintor at Arles; and after an exbibition of games in the theatre and in the circus, which were displayed with most sumptuous magnificence, on the tenth of October, the day which completed the thirtieth year of his reign, he began to give the reins more freely o bis insolence, believing every information which was laid before bim as proved, however doubtful or false it might bo; and among o:her acts of cruelty, he put Gerontius, a count of the party of Magnentius, to the torture, and then condemned him to banishment.

2. And as the body of a sick man is apt to be agitated by even trifling griovances, so his narrow and sensitive mind, thinking every sound that stirred something either done or planned to the injury of his safety, made his victory' moumful by tho slaughter of innocent men.

3. For if any one of his military officers, or of those who had ever received marks of honour, or if any ouo of high rank was accused, on the barest rumour, of having favoured the faction of his enemy, he was loaded with chains and dragged about like a beast. And wbether any enoiny of the accused man pressod bim or not, as if thio

I His victory over Magnentius, whom ha dofcated at Mursa, on tho Donre, in the year 351. Magnentius Aed to Aquileia, but was pursued, and again defeated tho next year, at a place called Mons Seleuci, in the neighbou hood of Gap, and threw himself on his own sword to avoid falling into the hands of Constantius.

mere fact that his name had been mentioned was suficient, cvery one who was informed against or in any way called in question, was condemned either to death, or to confiscation of his property, or to confinement in a desert island.

4. For his ferocity was excited to a still further degree when any mention was made of truason or scdition; and tho bloodthirsty insinuations of those around him, oxaggerating everything that happened, and pretending great concern at any danger which might threaten the lifo

of the emperor, on whose safety, as on a thread, they · hypocritically exclaimed the whole world depended, added. daily to his suspicions and watchful anger.

5. And therefore it is reported ho gave orders that no one who was at any time sentenced to punishment for these or similar offences should be readmitted to his presence for the purpose of offering the usual testimonies io his character, a thing which the most implacable princes have been wont to permit. And thus deadly cruelty, which in all other men at times grows cool, in him only became more violent as he advanced in years, becanise the court of Alatterers which attended on him added continual fuel to his stern obstinacy.

6. Of this court a most conspicuous member was Paulus, the secretary, a native of Spain, a màn keeping his objects hidden beneath a smooth countenance, and acute beyond all men in smelling out secret ways to bring others into danger. He, having been sont into Britain to arrest somo military officers who had dared to favour the conspiracy of Magnentius, as they could not resist, licentiously exceeded his commands, and like a flood poured with sudden violence upon the fortunes of a great number of people, making his path through manifold slanghter and destruction, loading the bodies of free-born men with chains, and crushing some with fetters, while patching up all kinds of accusations' far removed from the truth. And to this man is owing one especial atrocity which has branded the time of Constantius with indo!ible infamy.

7. Martinus, who at that time governed these provinces as deputy, being greatly concerned for thu sufferings inflicted on innocent men, and making frequent entroatien

that those who were free from all guilt might be spared, when he found that he could not provail, threatened to withdraw from the province, in the hope that this malevolent inquisitor, Pavlus, might be afraid of his doing so, and so give over exposing to open danger men who had combined only in a wish for tranquillity.

8. Paulus, thinking that this conduct of Martinus was a hindranco to his own zeal, being, as he was, a formidable artist in involving mattors, from which people gave him the nickname of * tho Chain," attacked the depnty himself while still engaged in defonding the peoplo whom ho was set to govern, and involved him in the dangers which surrounded every one else, threatening that he would carry him, with his tribunes and many other persons. as a prisoner to tho emperor's court. Martinus, alarmed at this threat, and seeing the imminont danger in which his life was, drew his sword and attacked l'aulus. But because from want of strength in his hand he was unable to give him a mortal wound, ho thon plunged his drawn sword into his own side. And by this unseemly kind of death that most just man departed from life, merely for having dared to interpose some delay to the miserahlo calamities of many citizens.

9. And when these wicked deeds had been perpetrated, Paulus, covered with blood, returned to the emperor's camp. bringing with him a crowd of prisoners almost covered with chains, in the lowest condition of squalor and misery; on whose arrival the racks were preparod, and the exocutioner began to prepare his hooks and other engines of torture. Of thoso prisonors, many of them had their property confiscated, othors wore sentoncod to banishment, some were givon over to the sword of the oxecutioner. Nor is it easy to cite the acquittal of a single person in the time of Constantius, where the slightest whisper of accusation had been brought against him.

VI. § 1. At this time Orfitus was the governor of 'the Eternal City, with the rank of profect; and he behaved with a degree of insolence beyond the proper limits of the dignity thus conferred upon him. A man of prudenoe indood, and

mere fact that his name had been mentioned was suficient, every one who was informed against or in any way called in question, was condemned either to death, or to confiscation of his property, or to confinement in a desert island.

4. For his forocity was excited to a still further degree whon any mention was made of treason or scdition; and the bloodthirsty insinuations of those around him, oxaggerating everything that happened, and pretending great concern at any danger which might threaten the lifo of the emperor, on whose safety, as on a thread, they hypocritically exclaimed the whole world depended, added. daily to his suspicions and watchful anger.

5. And therefore it is reported ho gave orders that no one who was at any time sentenced to punishment for these or similar offences should be readmitted to his presence for the purpose of offering the usual testimonies io his character, a thing which the most implacable princes have been wont to permit. And thus deadly cruelty, which in all other men at times grows cool, in him only become more violent as he advanced in years, becanise the court of flatterers which attended on him added continual fuel to his stern obstinacy.

6. Of this court a most conspicuous member was Paulus, the secretary, a native of Spain, a man keeping his objects hidden beneath a smooth countenance, and acute beyond all men in smelling out secret ways to bring others into dangor. He, having been sont into Britain to arrest somo military officers who had dared to favour the conspiracy of Magnentius, as they could not resist, licentionsly exceeded his commands, and like a flood poured with sudden violence upon the fortunes of a great number of people, making his path through manifold slaughter and destruction, loading the bodies of free-born men with chains, and crushing some with fetters, whilo patching up all kinds of accusations far removed from the truth. And to this man is owing one especial atrocity which has branded tho time of Constantius with indelible infamy.

7. Martinus, who at that time governed these provinces As deputy, being greatly concerned for thu sufferings inflicted on innocent men, and making frequent entreaties

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