that those who were free from all guilt might bo spared, when he found that he could not provail, threatened to withdraw from the province, in the hope that this malevolent inquisitor, Paulus, might be afraid of his doing so, and so give over exposing to open danger men who had combined only in a wish for tranquillity.

8. Paulus, thinking that this conduct of Martinus was a hindrance to his own zeal, being, as he was, a formidable artist in involving mattors, from which peoplo gave him tho nickname of “tho Chain,” attacked tho deputy himself while still engaged in defonding the peoplo whom ho was set to govern, and involved him in the dangers which surrounded every one else, threatening that he would carry 'bim, with his tribunes and many other persons. As a prisoner to tho emperor's court. Martinus, alarmed at this threat, and seeing the imminent danger in which his life was, drew his sword and attacked laulus. But because from want of strength in his hand he was unable to give him a mortal wound, he thon plunged his drawn sword into his own side. And by this unseemly kind of death that most just man departed from life, merely for having dared to interpose some delay to the miserable calamities of many citizens.

9. And when these wicked deeds had been perpetrated, Paulus, covered with blood, returned to the emperor's camp. bringing with him a crowd of prisoners almost covered with chains, in the lowest condition of squalor and misery; on whose arrival the racks wero prepared, and the exoontioner began to prepare his hooks and other ongines of torture. Of those prisonors, many of them had thoir property confiscated, othors woro sentoncod to banishment, some were givon over to the sword of the oxecutioner. Nor is it easy to cite the acquittal of a singlo person in the time of Constantius, where the slightest whisper of accusation had been brought against him.


§ 1. At this time Orfitus was the governor of the Eternal City, with the rank of prefoot; and he behaved with a degree of insolence beyond the proper limits of the dignity thus conferred upon him. A man of prudenoo indood, and

well skilled in all the forensic business of the city, but less accomplished in general literature and in the fine arts than was becoming in a nobleman. Under his administration some very formidable seditions broke out in consequence of the scarcity of wine, as the people, being exceedingly eager for an abundant use of that article, were easily excited to frequent and violent disorders.

2. And since I think it likely that foreigners who may read this account (if, indeod, any such should meot with it) are likely to wonder how it is that, when my history has reached tho point of narrating what was dono at Rome, nothing is spoken of but seditions, and shops, and cheapness, and other similarly inconsiderable matters, I will briefly touch upon the causes of this, never intentionally departing from the strict truth.

3. At the time when Rome first rose into mundane brilliancy—that Rome which was fated to last as long as mankind sball endure, and to be increased with a sublimo progress and growth --virtue and fortune, though commonly at variance, agreed upon a treaty of oternal peace, as far as sho was concerned. For if either of them had been wanting to her, she would never have reached her perfect and complete supremacy.

4. Her people, from its very earliest infancy to the latest moment of its yonth, a period which extends over about three hundred years, carried on a variety of wars with the natives around its walls. Then, when it arrived at its full-grown manhood, after many and various labours in war, it crossed the Alps and the sea, till, as youth and man, it had carriod tho trinmphs of victory into overy country in tho world.

5. And now that it is doclining into old ago, and often ower its victories to its more dame, it has come to a more tranquil time of life. Therefore the venerablo city, after having bowed down the haughty necks of fierce nations, and give laws to the world, to be the foundations and eternal anchors of liberty, like a thrifty parent, prudent and rich, intrusted to the Cæsars, as to its own children, the right of governing their ancestral inheritance.

6. And although the tribes are indolent, and the countries peaceful, and although there are no contests for vetes, but the tranquillity of the age of Numa has returned,

nevertheless, in every quartor of the world Rome is still looked up to as the mistress and the queen of tho earth, and tho name of the Roman people is respocted and venerated.

7. But this magnificent splendour of the assemblies and councils of the Roman people is defaced by the inconsiderate lovity of a few, who never recollect where they have been born, but who fall away into error and licentiousness, as if a perfect impunity were granted to vice. · For as the lyric poet Simonides teaches us, the man who would livo happily in accordance with perfect reason, ought above all things to have a glorious country.

8. Of thoso mon, somo thinking that thoy con bo handed down to immortality by means of statuos, are eagerly desirous of them, as if they would obtain a higher reward from brazon figures unendowed with sonso than from a consciousness of upright and honourablo actions ; and they even are anxious to havo them plated over with gold, a thing which is reported to have been first done in the instance of Acilius Glabrio, who by his wisdom and valour had subdued King Antiochus. But how really noblo a thing it is to dospiso all thoso inconsiderablo and trifling things, and to bond ono's attention to the long and toilsomo steps of true glory, as tho poct of Ascrea' has sung, and Cato the Censor has shown by his example. For when he was asked how it was that while many other nobles had statues he had nono, replied : “ I had rather that good men should marvel how it was that I did not earn onė, than (what would be a much heavier misfortune) inquire how it was that I had obtained one."

9. Others place the height of glory in having a coach higher than usual, or splendid apparel; and so toil and sweat undor a vast burdon of cloaks, which are fastened to their necks by many olasps, and blow about from tho excessive fineness of the material; showing a desire, by the continual wriggling of their bodios, and especially by the waving of the left hand, to make their long fringes and tunics, embroidered in multiform figures of animals with threads of various colours, more conspicuous.

10. Others, with not any one asking them, put on a 1 Hesiod. Ammianus refers to the passage in Hesiod's Op. et Dies, 280, beginning-rîs 8 dpornis 18pūra Ocol #por doorber vonoa.

feigned severity of countenance, and extol their patrimonial cstates in a boundless degroo, cxaggerating the yearly produco of their fruitful fields, which they boast of possessing in numbers from east to west, being forsooth ignorant that their ancestors, by whom the greatness of Romo was so widely extended, were not eminent for riches; but through a course of dreadful wars overpowered by their valour all who were opposed to them, though differing but little from the common soldiers either in riches, or in their mode of life, or in the costliness of their garments.

11. This is how it happened that Valerius Publicola wos buried by tho contributions of his friends, and that the destituto wifo of Regulus was, with her children, supported by the aid of the friends of her husband, and that tho daughter of Scipio had a dowry provided for her out of tho public treasury, the other nobles being ashamed to seo the beauty of this full-grown maiden, while her moneyless father was so long absent on the service of his country.

12. But now if you, as an honourablo strangor, should enter the house of any one well off, and on that account full of pride, for the purpose of saluting him, at first, indeed, you will be hospitably received, as thongh your presonce had boon desired; and after having had many questions put to you, and having been forced to tell a number of lies, you will wonder, since the man had never scen you before, that one of high rank should pay such attention to you who are but an unimportant individual; so that by reason of this as a principal source of happiness, you begin to repent of pot having come to Rome ten years ago.

13. And when relying on this affability you do the same thing the next day, you will stand waiting as ono utterly unknown and unexpected, whilo ho who yesterday oncouragod you to repcat your visit, counts upon his fingers who you can be, marvelling, for a long time, whence you come, and what you want. But when at length you are recognized and admitted to his acquaintance, if you should dovote yourself to the attention of saluating him for three years consecutively, and after this intermit your visits for an equal length of time, then if you return to repeat a similar course, you will never be questioned about your absence any more than if you had


been dead, and you will waste your whole lifo in submitting to court the humours of this blockhead.

14. But when those long and unwholesome banquets, which are indulged in at cortain intervals, begin to be prepared, or tho distribution of the usual dolo-baskets takes place, then it is discussed with anxious deliberation whether when those to whom a return is duo are to be entertained, it is proper to invite also a stranger; and if, after the matter has been thoroughly sifted, it is determined that it may be done, that person is proferred who waits all night before the houses of charioteors, or who professes a skill in dice, or pretends to be acquainted with some peculiar secrets. · 15. For such entertainers avoid all learned and rober men as unprofitable and usel-48 ; with this addition, that the nomenclators' also, who aro accustomed to make a market of these invitations and of similar favours, selling them for bribes, do for gain thrust in mean and obscuro men at theso dinners.

16. The whirlpools of banquets, and the various allurements of luxury, I omit; that I may not be too prolix, and with the object of passing on to this fact, that some people, hastening on without fear of danger, drive their horses, as if they were post-horses, with a regular licence, as the saying is, through the wide streets of the city, over the roads paved with flint, dragging behind them large bodies of slaves like bands of robbors ; not leaving at home even Sannio,' as the comic poet says.

17. And many matrons, imitating these men, gallop over every quarter of the city with their hoads covered, and in close carriages. And as skilful conductors of battles place in the van their densest and strongest battalions, then their lightarmed troops, behind them the darters, and in the extreme rear troops of reservo, ready to join in the attack if necessity should ariso; so, according to the careful arrangements of the stowards of these city households, who are conspicuous by wands fastoned to their right hands, as if a regular watchword hart boon issued from the camp, first of all, near

1 A nomenclator was a slave who attended a great noble in his walk through the city to remind him of the names of those whom he met. Soo Cicero pro Murona, c. 36.

• The name o! a slave in the Eunuch, of Terence, who says, act. iv. sc. 8-Sannio alono staya at home.

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